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1.
11th Simulation Workshop, SW 2023 ; : 63-74, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20236294

ABSTRACT

Rural hospitality and tourism (RHT) play a key role in rural revitalization, especially due to the impact of COVID-19, with more citizens choosing to travel to the countryside for a staycation. Local SMEs, especially family-owned enterprises, make up the majority of the RHT sector, not only providing services and products to satisfy tourists, but also helping with local employment. However, entrepreneurs operating in rural areas face many challenges in terms of capital, skills and education. Hence, it is important to explore the entrepreneurial intention (EI) of local people and how policies can support or change their behaviours. Current research on the RHT industry, rarely study the EI of local people, and the literature on rural entrepreneurship concentrates on developed countries. This study therefore uses agent-based modelling to explore how locals' EI in Chongming island (China) respond to the current impact of COVID-19, and whether policies will bring about changes on the supply side of RHT sector. © SW 2023.All rights reserved

2.
Earth's Future ; 11(5), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20236293

ABSTRACT

The socioeconomic disruption of COVID-19 has strong implications for water management. However, it remains unclear how water use related to urban and rural household consumption responded to the outbreak. Taking 15 provincial regions in China for a case study, we quantified the variations of consumption-based household water footprint induced by the first outbreak of the pandemic and tracked the responsive changes of interregional virtual water flows and control relationships. We found in many regions, the most drastic change occurred only a quarter after the major outbreak, when the average water footprint of urban and rural households decreased by 13% and 9%, respectively. This indicates the presence of a hysteretic effect of disruption to household expenditures. With the subsequent recovery of household consumption, the water footprints in many regions rebounded and even surpassed the historical values. Guangdong had a fast rebound in its net virtual water inflow related to urban households because of the fast recovery of its manufacturing and services activities. The pandemic-related water footprint dynamics suggest not only the necessity of timely managing supply chains to prevent shortage of water and water-intensive products, but also the importance of fostering consumption adjustments for conserving water in a post-pandemic era. © 2023 The Authors. Earth's Future published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Geophysical Union.

3.
Journal of Organizational and End User Computing ; 34(6), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2316798

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, the governments of different countries adopted restrictions, such as locking down cities and restricting travel and social contact. Online health communities (OHCs) with specialized physicians have become an important way for the elderly to access health information and social support, which has expanded their use since the outbreak. This paper examines the factors influencing elderly people's behavior in terms of the continuous use of OHCs from a social support perspective to understand the impact of public health emergencies. Research collected data from March to April 2019, February 2020, and August 2021 in China. A total of 189 samples were collected and analyzed by using SmartPLS. The results show that (1) social support to the elderly during different stages has different influences on their sense of community and (2) the influence of the sense of community on the intention to continuously use OHCs also seems to change over time. The results of this study provide important implications for research and practice related to both OHCs and COVID-19. © 2022 IGI Global. All rights reserved.

4.
Planta Medica ; 88(15):1403-1403, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2310506
5.
Chinese Political Science Review ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2295864

ABSTRACT

The Global Justice Index is a multiyear research project based at Fudan Institute for Advanced Study in Social Sciences that assesses the contributions made by each country to achieving greater global justice. We have published results from 2010 to 2019 in Global Justice Index Report, Global Justice Index Report 2020, Global Justice Index Report 2021, and we are now presenting our fourth-year results for 2020 in Global Justice Index Report 2022, which is an updated version of previous years' reports. This year, we take into account changes to global justice influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. The report consists of four sections: introduction, findings, main results, and conclusion. In the introduction, we discuss the development of the conceptual framework and evaluative principles to justify our selection of the dimensions and indicators for measurement. Next, in the findings section, we report the data, indicators, and our results for each country for each of the 10 issues we identify, and provide regional comparisons for Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America, Africa, and Oceania. In the following section, we present the main results for the global justice indices, and report the ranking of each country's contribution to achieving greater global justice. In the final section, we discuss the applications and limitations of the index and potential further research trajectories. © 2023, The Author(s).

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2268627

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are phospholipid bilayer vesicles actively secreted by cells, that contain a variety of functional nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, and are important mediums of intercellular communication. Based on their natural properties, EVs can not only retain the pharmacological effects of their source cells but also serve as natural delivery carriers. Among them, plant-derived nanovesicles (PNVs) are characterized as natural disease therapeutics with many advantages such as simplicity, safety, eco-friendliness, low cost, and low toxicity due to their abundant resources, large yield, and low risk of immunogenicity in vivo. This review systematically introduces the biogenesis, isolation methods, physical characterization, and components of PNVs, and describes their administration and cellular uptake as therapeutic agents. We highlight the therapeutic potential of PNVs as therapeutic agents and drug delivery carriers, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, wound healing, regeneration, and antiaging properties as well as their potential use in the treatment of liver disease and COVID-19. Finally, the toxicity and immunogenicity, the current clinical application, and the possible challenges in the future development of PNVs were analyzed. We expect the functions of PNVs to be further explored to promote clinical translation, thereby facilitating the development of a new framework for the treatment of human diseases.Copyright © 2023 Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

8.
Journal of International Financial Management and Accounting ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2262967

ABSTRACT

This article examines the relationship between modern health pandemic crises and financial stability. Specifically, it collects data on 250,223 firms in 43 countries (or regions) during five modern pandemic crises, SARS (2003), H1N1 (2009), MERS (2012), Ebola (2014), and Zika (2016), and finds that pandemic crises significantly increase the default risk of enterprises. Further analysis shows that formal and informal institutions acted as a "cushion” against the pandemic crisis. The earlier a country adopts IFRS, the more unimpeded access to information, and the more stable religious and ethnic relations within the country can reduce the negative impact of a pandemic on financial stability. This article addresses the hitherto inadequacy of COVID-related data. In addition, this article argues that governments should build sound state institutions to withstand macroeconomic shocks and highlights the heterogeneity of default risk for enterprises operating in countries with different institutions. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

12.
World Development Perspectives ; 30, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2250765

ABSTRACT

This paper compares the early experience of Uzbekistan with transitioning its banking system to market principles with the experience of former transition economies. To that effect, it uses novel data on Uzbekistan's banking sector, data on former transition economies, and evidence from the literature. We find that the 2017 financial liberalization triggered a larger credit boom than former transition countries experienced. The Covid-19 pandemic helped tame the boom and secure a soft landing. Good capitalization of the largest state banks serves as a backstop against a systemic banking crisis. However, structural reform gaps need to be closed for financial deepening to continue sustainably. The state banks enjoy privileged access to longer-term financing, larger economies of scale, and bailout capital injections that inhibit banking competition. The human capital in banking appears lower than what the former transition countries started with and could deter FDI into banking. The small private sector, lacking commercialization, and slow privatization of state enterprises—as well as the state enterprise-state bank nexus—are other factors inhibiting fair banking competition. Financial sector institutions such as risk-based supervision, accounting and auditing, bank resolution, and deposit insurance still fall behind good international practices. The broader governance of state banks is one political economy factor hindering faster transformation of the banking sector in Uzbekistan. © 2023

13.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 35(2):118-124, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2261414

ABSTRACT

2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a highly pathogenic human CoV that first emerged in Wuhan in 2019. 2019-nCoV has a zoonotic origin and poses a major threat to public health. However, little is known about the viral factors contributing to the high virulence of 2019-nCoV. Many animal viruses, including CoVs, encode proteins that interfere with host gene expression, including those involved in antiviral immune responses, and these viral proteins are often major virulence factors. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory infection. In the past 17 years, the onset of 2019-nCoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have thrust HCoVs into spotlight of the research community due to their high pathogenicity in humans. The recent study of HCoVs-host interactions has contributed extensively to our understanding of infection pathogenesis of 2019-nCoV. This review discuss various host physiopathologic mechanism, such as apoptosis, innate immunity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathway that may be modulated by HCoVs and provides evidence for the intensive investigate of 2019-nCoV infection.Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

14.
Chinese Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2260320

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the common symptoms after Covid-19 infection, characteristics of adverse events after vaccination, changes in clinical manifestations related to Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), as well as the current vaccination status and factors related to vaccine hesitation among NF1 patients, in order to provide a basis for scientific protection and vaccine acceptance in NF1 individuals in the new phase of pandemic management. Method(s): From December 29, 2022, to January 10, 2023, we conducted a self-assessment questionnaire survey among diagnosed NF1 patients. General data were provided including sex, age, main clinical presentations, and current treatment. This study mainly focused on the infection and vaccination status of Covid-19 among these patients with NF1. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS26.0 software. Result(s): Of the 250 questionnaires distributed, 226 were valid. Among the 164 patients (72.6%) with Covid-19 infection, the most common infection symptoms and incidence of patients were not significantly different from those in the normal population (P>0.05), but the incidence of symptoms such as nasal congestion, headache, myalgia, sore throat, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eye discomfort was higher than that in the normal population (P<0.05), and no severe infection was observed;186 patients (82.3%) had completed the Covid-19 vaccination, and more than half of those who were not vaccinated had no plans for vaccination. Among the vaccinated patients, there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events, such as fever, pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site after vaccination, compared to the normal population (P>0.05), but the incidence of fatigue and headache was higher in NF1 patients (P<0.001). Most patients with NF1 believe that there is no significant progressive change in NF1-related clinical manifestations after Covid-19 infection and vaccination. Conclusion(s): Currently, some NF1 patients appear to be worried about the evolution of their disease after Covid-19 infection in the face of large fluctuations in the pandemic situation, and some patients hesitate to receive the vaccine due to their special disease condition. Thus, clinical trials should be conducted to develop a refined pandemic response and vaccination program for this special group.Copyright © 2023 China Medical Cosmetology Press Co. Ltd.

15.
International Journal of Digital Accounting Research ; 22:193-226, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2229187

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic increased uncertainty about the financial future of many organizations, and regulators alerted auditors to be increasingly skeptical in assessing an entity's ability to continue as a going concern. An auditor's assessment of an entity's ability to continue as a going concern is a matter of significant judgment. This paper proposes to use machine learning to construct a Decision Tree Automated Tool, based on both quantitative financial indicators (e.g., Z-scores) and qualitative factors (e.g., partners' judgment and assessment of industry risk given the pandemic). Considering both quantitative and qualitative factors results in a model that provides additional audit evidence for auditors in their going-concern assessment. An auditing firm in Spain used the model as a supplemental guide, and the model's suggested results were compared to auditors' reports to evaluate its effectiveness and accuracy. The model's predictions were significantly similar to the auditors' assessments, indicating a high level of accuracy, and differences between the model's proposed outcomes and auditors' final conclusions were investigated. This paper also provides insights for regulators on both the use of machine-learning predictive models and additional factors to be considered in future going-concern assessment research. © 2022, Universidad de Huelva. All rights reserved.

16.
International Journal of Digital Accounting Research ; 22:193-226, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2226006

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic increased uncertainty about the financial future of many organizations, and regulators alerted auditors to be increasingly skeptical in assessing an entity's ability to continue as a going concern. An auditor's assessment of an entity's ability to continue as a going concern is a matter of significant judgment. This paper proposes to use machine learning to construct a Decision Tree Automated Tool, based on both quantitative financial indicators (e.g., Z-scores) and qualitative factors (e.g., partners' judgment and assessment of industry risk given the pandemic). Considering both quantitative and qualitative factors results in a model that provides additional audit evidence for auditors in their going-concern assessment. An auditing firm in Spain used the model as a supplemental guide, and the model's suggested results were compared to auditors' reports to evaluate its effectiveness and accuracy. The model's predictions were significantly similar to the auditors' assessments, indicating a high level of accuracy, and differences between the model's proposed outcomes and auditors' final conclusions were investigated. This paper also provides insights for regulators on both the use of machine-learning predictive models and additional factors to be considered in future going-concern assessment research. © 2022, Universidad de Huelva. All rights reserved.

17.
Bioengineering and Translational Medicine. ; 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2208911

ABSTRACT

Despite being a convenient clinical substrate for biomonitoring, saliva's widespread utilization has not yet been realized. The non-Newtonian, heterogenous, and highly viscous nature of saliva complicate the development of automated fluid handling processes that are vital for accurate diagnoses. Furthermore, conventional saliva processing methods are resource and/or time intensive precluding certain testing capabilities, with these challenges aggravated during a pandemic. The conventional approaches may also alter analyte structure, reducing application opportunities in point-of-care diagnostics. To overcome these challenges, we introduce the SHEAR saliva collection device that mechanically processes saliva, in a rapid and resource-efficient way. We demonstrate the device's impact on reducing saliva's viscosity, improving sample's uniformity, and increasing diagnostic performance of a COVID-19 rapid antigen test. Additionally, a formal user experience study revealed generally positive comments. SHEAR saliva collection device may support realization of the saliva's potential, particularly in large-scale and/or resource-limited settings for global and community diagnostics. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Bioengineering & Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(24), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2200823

ABSTRACT

The sustainable development of human society and economy needs the support of senior talents. Postgraduate teaching is one of the crucial components of higher education, and the priority method to cultivate senior talents. The 7th United Nations STI Forum in 2022 will focus on open science and postgraduate teaching;the theme of the forum is "While comprehensively implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, strengthen science, technology, and innovation, and promote the world's recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic". Therefore, the analysis of the field of postgraduate teaching is of great theoretical and practical significance to the cultivation of postgraduate students, the research of researchers, and the management of postgraduate teaching by the education sector. This research has carried out a bibliometric analysis to better obtain the knowledge structure in the field of postgraduate teaching and research, and help other researchers obtain the characteristics of the field of postgraduate teaching and research. VOSviewer and CiteSpace are used to analyze 4816 scientific core collection articles related to postgraduate teaching. These publications are from the Web of Science database. The dates of the articles range from 1995-2022. This research intuitively introduces a systematic overview of postgraduate teaching literature research, covering a number of publications, major categories, the most significant nations, groups, publications, writers, significant literature, and academic trends. The goal of this article is to create a map of the postgraduate teaching knowledge structure, while also examining the research collaboration across organizations, authors, nations, and areas. For scholars and practitioners in the field of graduate education, objective advice and helpful ideas are given through the analysis and discussion of the data acquired.

19.
Physics of Fluids ; 34(11), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2133926

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is more highly transmissible and causes a higher mortality rate compared to the other eleven variants despite the high vaccination rate. The Omicron variant also establishes a local infection at the extrathoracic airway level. For better health risk assessment of the infected patients, it is essential to understand the transport behavior and the toxicity of the Omicron variant droplet deposition in the extrathoracic airways, which is missing in the literature. Therefore, this study aims to develop a numerical model for the Omicron droplet transport to the extrathoracic airways and to analyze that transport behavior. The finite volume method and ANSYS Fluent 2020 R2 solver were used for the numerical simulation. The Lagrangian approach, the discrete phase model, and the species transport model were employed to simulate the Omicron droplet transport and deposition. Different breathing rates, the mouth and nose inhalation methods were employed to analyze the viral toxicity at the airway wall. The results from this study indicated that there was a 33% of pressure drop for a flow rate at 30 l/min, while there was only a 3.5% of pressure drop for a 7.5 l/min. The nose inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron droplets is significantly more harmful than through the mouth due to a high deposition rate at the extrathoracic airways and high toxicity in the nasal cavities. The findings of this study would potentially improve knowledge of the health risk assessment of Omicron-infected patients. Published under a nonexclusive license by AIP Publishing.

20.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1163-1167, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099938

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the management and short-term outcomes of neonates delivered by mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 158 neonates born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant admitted to the isolation ward of Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 15th, 2022 to May 30th, 2022. The postnatal infection control measures for these neonates, and their clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes were analyzed. They were divided into maternal symptomatic group and maternal asymptomatic group according to whether their mothers had SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. The clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using Rank sum test and Chi-square test. Results: All neonates were under strict infection control measures at birth and after birth. Of the 158 neonates, 75 (47.5%) were male. The gestational age was (38+3±1+3) weeks and the birth weight was (3 201±463)g. Of the neonates included, ten were preterm (6.3%) and the minimum gestational age was 30+1 weeks. Six neonates (3.8%) had respiratory difficulty and 4 of them were premature and required mechanical ventilation. All 158 neonates were tested negative for SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid by daily nasal swabs for the first 7 days. A total of 156 mothers (2 cases of twin pregnancy) infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, the time from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery was 7 (3, 12) days. Among them, 88 cases (56.4%) showed clinical symptoms, but none needed intensive care treatment. The peripheral white blood cell count of the neonates in maternal symptomatic group was significantly higher than that in maternal symptomatic group (23.0 (18.7, 28.0) × 109 vs. 19.6 (15.4, 36.6) × 109/L, Z=2.44, P<0.05). Conclusions: Neonates of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant during third trimester have benign short-term outcomes, without intrauterine infection through vertical transmission. Strict infection control measures at birth and after birth can effectively protect these neonates from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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