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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Characterization of the SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response detected by the QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 RUO assay in terms of accuracy and T-cell subsets involved compared to a homemade interferon (IFN)-γ release assay (IGRA). METHODS: We evaluated T-cell response by the standardized QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 tubes (Ag1 and Ag2) and a homemade IGRA quantifying IFN-γ response to SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides (homemade-IGRA-SPIKE test). By flow cytometry, we evaluated the T-cell subsets mediating the specific response. RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled 66 individuals: COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 subjects, and NO-COVID-19-vaccinated subjects, including healthy donors and immunocompromised subjects. The standardized kit detected 62.1% (41/66) of T-cell responders. Ag2 tube showed the higher IFN-γ quantitative and qualitative response. Ag1 tube response was mainly mediated by CD4+ T cells; Ag2 tube response was mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The homemade-IGRA-SPIKE test detected a higher number of responders (52/66, 78.8%) than QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 assay (p=0.056), and the response was found in both T-cell subsets, although a higher magnitude and response rate was observed in the CD4+ T-cell subset. CONCLUSIONS: QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 response is mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. A lower number of responders is found compared to homemade-IGRA-SPIKE test, likely due to the different peptide composition.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911152

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infectious diseases (rIDs) remain among the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and, in the era of COVID-19, they have come into major focus in the scientific world and global health approaches [...].

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 24-30, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We assessed vaccination-induced antibody and cellular responses against spike from the ancestral strain and from the delta (δ) SARS-CoV-2 variant in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) on immunosuppressive therapy in comparison with immunocompetent subjects. METHODS: We enrolled patients with IMID and immunocompetent subjects who completed the vaccination schedule within 4-6 months from the first dose. The interferon (IFN)-γ-response to spike peptides that were derived from the ancestral and the δ SARS-CoV-2 were measured by ELISA. Anti-Receptor Binding Domain IgG antibodies were also evaluated. RESULTS: We enrolled 43 patients with IMID and nine immunocompetent subjects. No significant differences were found after comparing the specific immune response (IFN-γ) between patients with IMID and immunocompetent subjects to the ancestral (p = 0.36) or δ peptide pool (p = 0.51). Nevertheless, IFN-γ-specific responses to the ancestral or to the δ pools were reduced in subjects taking CTLA4-IgG or TNF-α inhibitors compared with subjects treated with IL-6 inhibitors or Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs. Regarding the antibody response, no significant differences were observed between patients with IMID and immunocompetent individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular responses to δ SARS-CoV-2 variant remain largely intact in patients with IMID. However, the magnitude of these responses is dependent on the specific IMID immunosuppressive regimen. Serological response was also similar between the IMID and control groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335491

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). With the increase of ARDS cases during COVID-19 pandemic, the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has grown significantly in the hospital ward. However, there is a lack of evidence to support its efficacy in these patients. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study including adult ARDS COVID-19 patients admitted in a third level COVID-center in Rome, Italy (Jan-Sep 2020). The study analyzed the rate of NIV failure defined by the occurrence of orotracheal intubation and/or death within 28 days from starting NIV, its effectiveness, and its relative risk of death. The factors associated with the outcomes were identified through a logistic regression analysis. Results During the study period, a total of 942 COVID-19 patients were admitted, of which 307 (32.5%) with ARDS at hospitalization. Overall, 224 (23.8%) were treated with NIV. NIV failure occurred in 84 (37.5%) patients. Moderate and severe ARDS had an increased risk of NIV failure within 28 days from starting NIV of 5- (aOR = 5.01, 95% CI 2.08–12.09) and 20-fold (aOR = 19.95, 5.31–74.94) respectively, compared to patients with mild ARDS. A total of 128 patients (13.5%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). At 28-day from ICU admission, COVID-19 patients treated with NIV without intubation had 96% lower mortality (aOR 0.04, 0.01–0.32) in comparison with patients that underwent orotracheal intubation without prior NIV. Conclusions NIV failure was independently associated with COVID-19 ARDS severity. Starting NIV in COVID-19 patients with already mild ARDS (P/F > 200 mmHg) appears to increase NIV effectiveness and reduce the risk of orotracheal intubation and/or death. Moreover, early NIV treatment seems to reduce the risk of ICU mortality within 28 days from ICU admission.

6.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(2): e20220087, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819121

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe country-specific lockdown measures and tuberculosis indicators collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on lockdown/social restrictions (compulsory face masks and hand hygiene; international and local travel restrictions; restrictions to family visits, and school closures) were collected from 24 countries spanning five continents. The majority of the countries implemented multiple lockdowns with partial or full reopening. There was an overall decrease in active tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and latent tuberculosis cases. Although national lockdowns were effective in containing COVID-19 cases, several indicators of tuberculosis were affected during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
7.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742295

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) has been associated with tuberculosis (TB), but the true incidence is unknown. The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the PTE prevalence in TB patients hospitalized at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases L. Spallanzani during the January 2016-December 2021 period. Retrospective data collection and evaluation were conducted. Among 1801 TB patients, 29 (1.61%) exhibited PTE. Twenty (69%) had comorbidities; eleven (37.9%) had predisposing factors for PTE. Nineteen (65.5%) had extensive TB disease. The commonest respiratory symptoms were cough (37.9%), dyspnea (31%), chest pain (10.3%), and hemoptysis (6.9%). Twenty-five (86.2%) had elevated serum D-dimer levels. An increased prevalence of PTE from 0.6% in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period to 4.6% in the pandemic period was found. Acute respiratory failure and extensive TB disease increased significantly in the pandemic period. The increase in PTE could be explained by the increased severity of TB in patients in the pandemic period and by increased clinical suspicion and, consequently, increased requests for D-dimer testing, including in patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients with extensive pulmonary disease are at high risk of developing PTE. Clinicians should be aware of this potentially life-threatening complication of TB, and patients should receive a thromboembolism risk assessment.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323308

ABSTRACT

Prophylactic low molecular weight heparin (pLMWH) is currently recommended in COVID-19 to reduce the risk of coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antinflammatory effects of pLMWH could translate in lower rate of clinical progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.Patients admitted to a COVID-hospital in Rome with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild/moderate pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated. The primary endpoint was the time from hospital admission to orotracheal intubation/death (OTI/death). A total of 449 patients were included: 39% female, median age 63 (IQR, 50-77) years. The estimated probability of OTI/death for patients receiving pLMWH was: 9.5% (95%CI 3.2-26.4) by day 20 in those not receiving pLMWH vs. 10.4% (6.7-15.9) in those exposed to pLMWH;p-value=0.144. This risk associated with the use of pLMWH appeared to vary by PaO2/FiO2 ratio: aHR 1.40 (95%CI 0.51-3.79) for patients with an admission PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg and 0.27 (0.03-2.18) for those with PaO2/FiO2 >300 mmHg;p-value at interaction test 0.16. pLMWH does not seem to reduce the risk of OTI/death mild/moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, especially when respiratory function had already significantly deteriorated. Data from clinical trials comparing the effect of prophylactic vs. therapeutic dosage of LMWH at various stages of COVID-19 disease are needed.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317624

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is top infectious disease killer caused by a single organismresponsible for 1.5 million deaths in 2018. Both COVID 19 and the pandemic responseare risking to affect control measures for TB and continuity of essential services forpeople affected by this infection in western countries and even more in developingcountries. Knowledges about concomitant pulmonary TB and COVID-19 are extremelylimited. The double burden of these two diseases can have devastating effects. Herewe describe from both the clinical and the immunological point of view a case of apatient with in vitro immune cell anergy affected by bilateral cavitary pulmonary TB andsubsequent COVID-19-associated pneumonia with a worst outcome. COVID-19 can bea precipitating factor in TB respiratory failure and, during ongoing SARS COV 2 pandemic, clinicians must be aware of this possible coinfection in differential diagnosisof patients with active TB and new or worsening chest imaging

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S82-S87, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575296

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The interaction of COVID-19 and tuberculosis (TB) are still poor characterized. Here we evaluated the immune response specific for Micobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and SARS-CoV-2 using a whole-blood-based assay-platform in COVID-19 patients either with TB or latent TB infection (LTBI). METHODS: We evaluated IFN-γ level in plasma from whole-blood stimulated with Mtb antigens in the Quantiferon-Plus format or with peptides derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, Wuhan-Hu-1 isolate (CD4-S). RESULTS: We consecutively enrolled 63 COVID-19, 10 TB-COVID-19 and 11 LTBI-COVID-19 patients. IFN-γ response to Mtb-antigens was significantly associated to TB status and therefore it was higher in TB-COVID-19 and LTBI-COVID-19 patients compared to COVID-19 patients (p ≤ 0.0007). Positive responses against CD4-S were found in 35/63 COVID-19 patients, 7/11 LTBI-COVID-19 and only 2/10 TB-COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, the responders in the TB-COVID-19 group were less compared to COVID-19 and LTBI-COVID-19 groups (p = 0.037 and 0.044, respectively). Moreover, TB-COVID-19 patients showed the lowest quantitative IFN-γ response to CD4-S compared to COVID-19-patients (p = 0.0336) and LTBI-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.0178). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that COVID-19 patients either TB or LTBI have a low ability to build an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 while retaining the ability to respond to Mtb-specific antigens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tuberculosis/immunology
12.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325713

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of steroid therapy in patients within the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still a matter of debate. This study aimed to evaluate if potential steroid benefits could be predicted by the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 in mmHg) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) in COVID-19 patients at admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively collected from all adult patients admitted because of COVID-19 from 29 January to 31 July 2020. The association of steroid therapy with 28-day all-cause mortality outcome was analysed in a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall, 511 patients were analysed, of which 39.1% underwent steroid therapy. Steroid treated patients were mostly male, older, and more frequently treated with antiviral drugs and aminoquinolines; the most common comorbidities were hypertension, followed by cardiovascular disease. Overall, 51 patients died within 28-days, and overall 28-days mortality was 19.5% in the cohort of patients exposed to steroids versus 3.9% mortality in unexposed patients (p < 0.001). Steroid therapy on patients with P/F ratio of 235 mmHg or higher at admission can be considered as detrimental, with an 8% increased probability of death. CONCLUSIONS: Steroid therapy is associated with increased 28-day mortality in COVID-19 in patients with mild or no ARDS.

13.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 272, 2021 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies proposed the whole-blood based IFN-γ-release assay to study the antigen-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Since the early prediction of disease progression could help to assess the optimal treatment strategies, an integrated knowledge of T-cell and antibody response lays the foundation to develop biomarkers monitoring the COVID-19. Whole-blood-platform tests based on the immune response detection to SARS-CoV2 peptides is a new approach to discriminate COVID-19-patients from uninfected-individuals and to evaluate the immunogenicity of vaccine candidates, monitoring the immune response in vaccine trial and supporting the serological diagnostics results. Here, we aimed to identify in the whole-blood-platform the best immunogenic viral antigen and the best immune biomarker to identify COVID-19-patients. METHODS: Whole-blood was overnight-stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools of nucleoprotein-(NP) Membrane-, ORF3a- and Spike-protein. We evaluated: IL-1ß, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL- 15, IL-17A, eotaxin, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, PDGF, RANTES, TNF-α, VEGF. By a sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis we identified the most important soluble factors discriminating COVID-19- from NO-COVID-19-individuals. RESULTS: We identified a COVID-19 signature based on six immune factors: IFN-γ, IP-10 and IL-2 induced by Spike; RANTES and IP-10 induced by NP and IL-2 induced by ORF3a. We demonstrated that the test based on IP-10 induced by Spike had the highest AUC (0.85, p < 0.0001) and that the clinical characteristics of the COVID-19-patients did not affect IP-10 production. Finally, we validated the use of IP-10 as biomarker for SARS-CoV2 infection in two additional COVID-19-patients cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: We set-up a whole-blood assay identifying the best antigen to induce a T-cell response and the best biomarkers for SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluating patients with acute COVID-19 and recovered patients. We focused on IP-10, already described as a potential biomarker for other infectious disease such as tuberculosis and HCV. An additional application of this test is the evaluation of immune response in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials: the IP-10 detection may define the immunogenicity of a Spike-based vaccine, whereas the immune response to the virus may be evaluated detecting other soluble factors induced by other viral-antigens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11334, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249212

ABSTRACT

Prophylactic low molecular weight heparin (pLMWH) is currently recommended in COVID-19 to reduce the risk of coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antinflammatory effects of pLMWH could translate in lower rate of clinical progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients admitted to a COVID-hospital in Rome with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild/moderate pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated. The primary endpoint was the time from hospital admission to orotracheal intubation/death (OTI/death). A total of 449 patients were included: 39% female, median age 63 (IQR, 50-77) years. The estimated probability of OTI/death for patients receiving pLMWH was: 9.5% (95% CI 3.2-26.4) by day 20 in those not receiving pLMWH vs. 10.4% (6.7-15.9) in those exposed to pLMWH; p-value = 0.144. This risk associated with the use of pLMWH appeared to vary by PaO2/FiO2 ratio: aHR 1.40 (95% CI 0.51-3.79) for patients with an admission PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg and 0.27 (0.03-2.18) for those with PaO2/FiO2 > 300 mmHg; p-value at interaction test 0.16. pLMWH does not seem to reduce the risk of OTI/death mild/moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, especially when respiratory function had already significantly deteriorated. Data from clinical trials comparing the effect of prophylactic vs. therapeutic dosage of LMWH at various stages of COVID-19 disease are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Rome , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 338-347, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the best experimental approach to detect a SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response using a whole-blood platform. METHODS: Whole-blood from 56 COVID-19 and 23 "NO-COVID-19" individuals were stimulated overnight with different concentrations (0.1 or 1 µg/mL) of SARS-CoV-2 PepTivator® Peptide Pools, including spike (pool S), nucleocapsid (pool N), membrane (pool M), and a MegaPool (MP) of these three peptide pools. ELISA was used to analyse interferon (IFN)-γ levels. RESULTS: The IFN-γ-response to every SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared with NO-COVID-19 individuals. Pool S and MegaPool were the most potent immunogenic stimuli (median: 0.51, IQR: 0.14-2.17; and median: 1.18, IQR: 0.27-4.72, respectively) compared with pools N and M (median: 0.22, IQR: 0.032-1.26; and median: 0.22, IQR: 0.01-0.71, respectively). The whole-blood test based on pool S and MegaPool showed a good sensitivity of 77% and a high specificity of 96%. The IFN-γ-response was mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and independently detected of clinical parameters in both hospitalized and recovered patients. CONCLUSIONS: This easy-to-use assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses may be implemented in clinical laboratories as a powerful diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Middle Aged
16.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO advised that the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on TB services was estimated to be dramatic due to the disruption of TB services. METHODS: A retrospective data collection and evaluation was conducted to include all the patients hospitalized for TB at INMI from 9 March to 31 August 2020 (lockdown period and three months thereafter). For the purpose of the study, data from patients hospitalized in the same period of 2019 were also collected. RESULTS: In the period of March-August 2019, 201 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of TB, while in the same period of 2020, only 115 patients, with a case reduction of 43%. Patients with weight loss, acute respiratory failure, concurrent extrapulmonary TB, and higher Timika radiographic scores were significantly more frequently hospitalized during 2020 vs. 2019. The median patient delay was 75 days (IQR: 40-100) in 2020 compared to 30 days (IQR: 10-60) in 2019 (p < 0.01). Diagnostic delays in 2020 remain significant in the multiple logistic model (AOR = 6.93, 95%CI: 3.9-12.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests that COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on TB patient care in terms of higher diagnostic delay, reduction in hospitalization, and a greater severity of clinical presentations.

17.
J Infect ; 82(4): 58-66, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Baricitinib seems a promising therapy for COVID-19. To fully-investigate its effects, we in-vitro evaluated the impact of baricitinib on the SARS-CoV-2-specific-response using the whole-blood platform. METHODS: We evaluated baricitinib effect on the IFN-γ-release and on a panel of soluble factors by multiplex-technology after stimulating whole-blood from 39 COVID-19 patients with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) antigen was used as a positive control. RESULTS: In-vitro exogenous addition of baricitinib significantly decreased IFN-γ response to spike- (median: 0.21, IQR: 0.01-1; spike+baricitinib 1000 nM median: 0.05, IQR: 0-0.18; p < 0.0001) and to the remainder-antigens (median: 0.08 IQR: 0-0.55; remainder-antigens+baricitinib 1000 nM median: 0.03, IQR: 0-0.14; p = 0.0013). Moreover, baricitinib significantly decreased SEB-induced response (median: 12.52, IQR: 9.7-15.2; SEB+baricitinib 1000 nM median: 8, IQR: 1.44-12.16; p < 0.0001). Baricitinib did modulate other soluble factors besides IFN-γ, significantly decreasing the spike-specific-response mediated by IL-17, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-13, IL-1ra, IL-10, GM-CSF, FGF, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1ß (p ≤ 0.0156). The baricitinib-decreased SARS-CoV-2-specific-response was observed mainly in mild/moderate COVID-19 and in those with lymphocyte count ≥1 × 103/µl. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous addition of baricitinib decreases the in-vitro SARS-CoV-2-specific response in COVID-19 patients using a whole-blood platform. These results are the first to show the effects of this therapy on the immune-specific viral response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Azetidines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Purines , Pyrazoles , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides
18.
J Dermatol ; 48(5): 651-656, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096631

ABSTRACT

It is not yet entirely clear what is the relevance of skin symptoms and what clinical implications are related to their appearance in COVID-19 patients. We describe two cases of COVID-19-associated pneumonia, which presented skin manifestations in advanced stage of illness, when nasopharyngeal swabs became negative for SARS-CoV-2. The first case presented erythematous, maculopapular lesions; the second developed petechial, vesicular and blood-encrusted lesions on the limbs. Histopathology documented perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates, with prevalent CD4+ T-cells in both patients. The research of SARS-CoV-2 in tissues with real time RT-PCR was negative. Basal keratinocytes displayed C4d deposits in one case, who developed laboratory signs indicative of a procoagulative condition at the same time as the skin rash. Skin manifestations during SARS-CoV-2 infection seem to be clinically relevant and further studies are necessary to assess if they are linked to systemic complications, lack of viral clearance or cascades of immune responses induced by the virus, even in patients affected by mild pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , COVID-19 Testing , Erythema , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Infection ; 49(5): 1061-1064, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033792

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is top infectious disease killer caused by a single organism responsible for 1.5 million deaths in 2018. Both COVID-19 and the pandemic response are risking to affect control measures for TB and continuity of essential services for people affected by this infection in western countries and even more in developing countries. Knowledge about concomitant pulmonary TB and COVID-19 is extremely limited. The double burden of these two diseases can have devastating effects. Here, we describe from both the clinical and the immunological point of view a case of a patient with in vitro immune cell anergy affected by bilateral cavitary pulmonary TB and subsequent COVID-19-associated pneumonia with a worst outcome. COVID-19 can be a precipitating factor in TB respiratory failure and, during ongoing SARS-COV-2 pandemic, clinicians must be aware of this possible co-infection in differential diagnosis of patients with active TB and new or worsening chest imaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
20.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(2): 286.e7-286.e13, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether specific T-cell-responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides can be detected in COVID-19 using a whole-blood experimental setting, which may be further explored as a potential diagnostic tool. METHODS: We evaluated interferon (IFN)-γ levels after stimulating whole-blood with spike and remainder-antigens peptides megapools (MP) derived from SARS-CoV-2 sequences; interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IFN-γ, Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1ß, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also evaluated. RESULTS: IFN-γ-response to spike and remainder-antigens MPs was significantly increased in 35 COVID-19 patients compared with 29 'no COVID-19' individuals (medians spike-MP: 0.26 vs 0, p = 0.0002; medians remainder-antigens-MP: 0.07 vs 0.02; p = 0.02). This response was detected independently of patients' clinical parameters. IFN-γ-response to SARS-CoV-2-unrelated antigens cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) was similar in COVID-19 compared with 'no COVID-19' individuals (median CMV: 3.46 vs 5.28, p = 0.16; median SEB: 12.68 vs 15.05; p = 0.1). In response to spike-MPs in COVID-19- compared with 'no COVID-19' -individuals, we found significant higher median of IL-2 (50.08 vs 0, p = 0.0018), IFN-γ (90.16 vs 0, p = 0.01), IL-4 (0.52 vs 0, p = 0.03), IL-13 (0.84 vs 0, p = 0.007) and MCP-1 (4602 vs 359.2, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides in a whole-blood assay is associated with COVID-19 and it is characterized by both Th1 and Th2 profile. This experimental approach may be useful for developing new T-cell based diagnostic tests for disease and vaccine settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology
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