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1.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(3): nwac054, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784379
2.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 58: 32-38, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783181

ABSTRACT

As with the rapid increase of the number of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 globally, there needs to be a major shift of the focus from rapid pathogen detection, treatment and prevention to the promotion of better recovery. Notwithstanding the scarcity of our understandings, recent studies have unraveled a plethora of pulmonary and systemic consequences which require medical attention. These consequences remained as of the end of follow-up which ranged from 1 month to 1 year. Here, we review the consequences of COVID-19 in terms of the residual symptoms, radiological and functional manifestations, and identify the potential risk factors that contribute to a prolonged recovery. We also summarize the benefits of clinical interventions (particularly the pulmonary rehabilitation program), and address several undetermined concerns and key future research directions.


Como consecuencia del rápido aumento del número de pacientes que se han recuperado de la COVID-19 en todo el mundo, es necesario cambiar el enfoque de la detección rápida del patógeno, el tratamiento y la prevención para promover una mejor recuperación. A pesar de la escasez de nuestros conocimientos, estudios recientes han desvelado una plétora de consecuencias pulmonares y sistémicas que requieren atención médica. Estas consecuencias se mantienen al final del seguimiento, que oscila entre 1 mes y 1 año. Aquí se hace una revisión de las consecuencias de la COVID-19 en términos de síntomas residuales y manifestaciones radiológicas y funcionales y se identifican los posibles factores de riesgo que contribuyen a una recuperación demorada. También se resumen los beneficios de las intervenciones clínicas (en particular el programa de rehabilitación pulmonar) y se abordan varias preocupaciones no resueltas y direcciones clave de investigación futura.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Forecasting , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors
3.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 322(5): L712-L721, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759484

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence has confirmed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for development of severe pathological changes in the peripheral lungs of patients with COVID-19. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Because bronchiolar club cells are crucial for maintaining small airway homeostasis, we sought to explore whether the altered susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection of the club cells might have contributed to the severe COVID-19 pneumonia in COPD patients. Our investigation on the quantity and distribution patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in airway epithelium via immunofluorescence staining revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity of the ACE2-positive epithelial cells was significantly higher in club cells than those in other epithelial cells (including ciliated cells, basal cells, goblet cells, neuroendocrine cells, and alveolar type 2 cells). Compared with nonsmokers, the median percentage of club cells in bronchiolar epithelium and ACE2-positive club cells was significantly higher in COPD patients. In vitro, SARS-CoV-2 infection (at a multiplicity of infection of 1.0) of primary small airway epithelial cells, cultured on air-liquid interface, confirmed a higher percentage of infected ACE2-positive club cells in COPD patients than in nonsmokers. Our findings have indicated the role of club cells in modulating the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-related severe pneumonia and the poor clinical outcomes, which may help physicians to formulate a novel therapeutic strategy for COVID-19 patients with coexisting COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(1): 58-65, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605425

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Both genetic variants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute to the risk of incident severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Whether genetic risk of incident severe COVID-19 is the same regardless of preexisting COPD is unknown. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential interaction between genetic risk and COPD in relation to severe COVID-19. Methods: We constructed a polygenic risk score for severe COVID-19 by using 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 430,582 participants from the UK Biobank study. We examined the associations of genetic risk and COPD with severe COVID-19 by using logistic regression models. Results: Of 430,582 participants, 712 developed severe COVID-19 as of February 22, 2021, of whom 19.8% had preexisting COPD. Compared with participants at low genetic risk, those at intermediate genetic risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.66) and high genetic risk (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) had higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P for trend = 0.001), and the association was independent of COPD (P for interaction = 0.76). COPD was associated with a higher risk of incident severe COVID-19 (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67; P = 0.002). Participants at high genetic risk and with COPD had a higher risk of severe COVID-19 (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.35-3.04; P < 0.001) than those at low genetic risk and without COPD. Conclusions: The polygenic risk score, which combines multiple risk alleles, can be effectively used in screening for high-risk populations of severe COVID-19. High genetic risk correlates with a higher risk of severe COVID-19, regardless of preexisting COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1751-1759, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393119

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against the Delta variant, which has been associated with greater transmissibility and virulence, remains unclear. We conducted a test-negative case-control study to explore the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in real-world settings. We recruited participants aged 18-59 years who consisted of SARS-CoV-2 test-positive cases (n = 74) and test-negative controls (n = 292) during the outbreak of the Delta variant in May 2021 in Guangzhou city, China. Vaccination status was compared to estimate The VE of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccines. A single dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine yielded the VE of only 13.8%. After adjusting for age and sex, the overall VE for two-dose vaccination was 59.0% (95% confidence interval: 16.0% to 81.6%) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 70.2% (95% confidence interval: 29.6-89.3%) against moderate COVID-19 and 100% against severe COVID-19 which might be overestimated due to the small sample size. The VE of two-dose vaccination against COVID-19 reached 72.5% among participants aged 40-59 years, and was higher in females than in males against COVID-19 and moderate diseases. While single dose vaccination was not sufficiently protective, the two-dose dosing scheme of the inactivated vaccines was effective against the Delta variant infection in real-world settings, with the estimated efficacy exceeding the World Health Organization minimal threshold of 50%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , China , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/standards , Young Adult
11.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(11): 941, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients by stratifying by the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis status is still uncertain. METHODS: We included 1,590 hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay or high-throughput sequencing of pharyngeal and nasal swab specimens from 575 hospitals across China between 11 December 2019 and 31 January 2020. Times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were described and turned into binary variables by the maximally selected rank statistics method. Then, survival analysis, including a log-rank test, Cox regression, and conditional inference tree (CTREE) was conducted, regarding whether patients progressed to a severe disease level during the observational period (assessed as severe pneumonia according to the Chinese Expert Consensus on Clinical Practice for Emergency Severe Pneumonia, admission to an intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, or death) as the prognosis outcome, the dependent variable. Independent factors included whether the time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was longer than 5 days (the exposure) and other demographic and clinical factors as multivariate adjustments. The clinical characteristics of the patients with different times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis were also compared. RESULTS: The medians of the times from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, from symptom onset to first medical visit, and from first medical visit to confirmed diagnosis were 6, 3, and 2 days. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and comorbidity status, age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04], comorbidity (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.23-2.73), and a duration from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis of >5 days (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10-2.60) were independent predictors of COVID-19 prognosis, which echoed the CTREE models, with significant nodes such as time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis, age, and comorbidities. Males, older patients with symptoms such as dry cough/productive cough/shortness of breath, and prior COPD were observed more often in the patients who procrastinated before initiating the first medical consultation. CONCLUSIONS: A longer time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis yielded a worse COVID-19 prognosis.

12.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255901

ABSTRACT

This editorial reviews the evidence supporting benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in #COVID19 patients, as well as some unanswered research questions https://bit.ly/39JY3SU.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045317, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain the trends of injury mortality during the COVID-19 period in southern China. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective analysis to compare the mortality changes of all-cause injury and transport injuries, poisoning, falls, fire/heat/hot substances, drowning, self-harm and interpersonal violence, which were further stratified by sex and age. Comparisons were made between the COVID-19 period (between January 2020 and June 2020) and control period (between January 2019 and June 2019) in Guangdong province. We used the negative binomial models to explore the associations of deaths during the COVID-19 period, according to the different sex and age strata. RESULTS: The all-cause injury mortality in Guangdong province decreased significantly from 28.65 per 100 000 population during the control period to 23.24 per 100 000 population during COVID-19 pandemic period. Similar results were found in specific injury categories. Mortality of self-harm increased by 139.26% in the 10-14 year group during the COVID-19 period as compared with the control period. Although mortality changes in some groups were not statistically significant, some increases were noteworthy during the COVID-19 period (ie, self-harm, transport injury and falls) in the 70-79 year group. The corresponding increase in mortality rate was 16.83%, 3.32% and 4.92%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The mortality of all-cause injury, transport injury and drowning during the COVID-19 pandemic was consistently decreased. However, the increase in mortality associated with falls, fire/heat/hot substance injury and self-harm in specific age populations warrant the targeted control and prevention measures for the population at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Wounds and Injuries , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 58(1): 5-7, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242878
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(7): 2645-2655.e14, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) are common among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the association between CRD (including disease overlap) and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: Data of diagnoses, comorbidities, medications, laboratory results, and clinical outcomes were extracted from the national COVID-19 reporting system. CRD was diagnosed based on International Classification of Diseases-10 codes. The primary endpoint was the composite outcome of needing invasive ventilation, admission to intensive care unit, or death within 30 days after hospitalization. The secondary endpoint was death within 30 days after hospitalization. RESULTS: We included 39,420 laboratory-confirmed patients from the electronic medical records as of May 6, 2020. Any CRD and CRD overlap was present in 2.8% and 0.2% of patients, respectively. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was most common (56.6%), followed by bronchiectasis (27.9%) and asthma (21.7%). COPD-bronchiectasis overlap was the most common combination (50.7%), followed by COPD-asthma (36.2%) and asthma-bronchiectasis overlap (15.9%). After adjustment for age, sex, and other systemic comorbidities, patients with COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-2.03) and asthma (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.05-1.98), but not bronchiectasis, were more likely to reach to the composite endpoint compared with those without at day 30 after hospitalization. Patients with CRD were not associated with a greater likelihood of dying from COVID-19 compared with those without. Patients with CRD overlap did not have a greater risk of reaching the composite endpoint compared with those without. CONCLUSION: CRD was associated with the risk of reaching the composite endpoint, but not death, of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Asthma/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Respirology ; 25(6): 657-658, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887934
17.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 6: 100073, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970260
18.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 6132-6135, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934702
19.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1076-1084, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866678

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-the third in a series of coronavirus infections-has caused a global public health event in the 21st century, resulting in substantial global morbidity and mortality. Building on its legacy of managing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), China has played a key role in the scientific community by revealing the viral transmission routes and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and developing novel therapeutic interventions and vaccines. Despite these rapid scientific and technological advances, uncertainties remain in tracing the original sources of infection, determining the routes of transmission and pathogenesis, and addressing the lack of targeted clinical management of COVID-19. Here, we summarize the major COVID-19 research advances in China in order to provide useful information for global pandemic control.

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