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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 437-447, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new coronavirus that constitutes a great challenge to human health. At this stage, there are still cases of COVID-19 infection in some countries and regions, in which ischemic stroke (IS) is a risk factor for new coronavirus pneumonia, and patients with COVID-19 infection have a dramatically elevated risk of stroke. At the same time, patients with long-term IS are vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and have more severe disease, and carotid atherosclerosis is an early lesion in IS. METHODS: This study used human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived monolayer brain cell dataset and human carotid atherosclerosis genome-wide dataset to analyze COVID-19 infection and carotid atherosclerosis patients to determine the synergistic effect of new coronavirus infection on carotid atherosclerosis patients, to clarify the common genes of both, and to identify common pathways and potential drugs for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with COVID-19 infection RESULTS: Using several advanced bioinformatics tools, we present the causes of COVID-19 infection leading to increased mortality in carotid atherosclerosis patients and the susceptibility of carotid atherosclerosis patients to COVID-19. Potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19 -infected patients with carotid atherosclerosis are also proposed. CONCLUSIONS: With COVID-19 being a relatively new disease, associations have been proposed for its connections with several ailments and conditions, including IS and carotid atherosclerosis. More patient-based data-sets and studies are needed to fully explore and understand the relationship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carotid Artery Diseases , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Computational Biology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Journal of infection and public health ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1756154

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 is a new coronavirus that constitutes a great challenge to human health. At this stage, there are still cases of COVID-19 infection in some countries and regions, in which ischemic stroke (IS) is a risk factor for new coronavirus pneumonia, and patients with COVID-19 infection have a dramatically elevated risk of stroke. At the same time, patients with long-term IS are vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and have more severe disease, and carotid atherosclerosis is an early lesion in IS. Methods This study used human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived monolayer brain cell dataset and human carotid atherosclerosis genome-wide dataset to analyze COVID-19 infection and carotid atherosclerosis patients to determine the synergistic effect of new coronavirus infection on carotid atherosclerosis patients, to clarify the common genes of both, and to identify common pathways and potential drugs for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with COVID-19 infection Results Using several advanced bioinformatics tools, we present the causes of COVID-19 infection leading to increased mortality in carotid atherosclerosis patients and the susceptibility of carotid atherosclerosis patients to COVID-19. Potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19 -infected patients with carotid atherosclerosis are also proposed. Conclusions With COVID-19 being a relatively new disease, associations have been proposed for its connections with several ailments and conditions, including IS and carotid atherosclerosis. More patient-based data-sets and studies are needed to fully explore and understand the relationship.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314409

ABSTRACT

2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is firstly found in Wuhan and has caused over 14,000 infections all over the world. We retrospectively investigated the presence of 2019-nCoV among influenza-like illness patients in Wuhan. Nine cases in January 2020 were 2019-nCoV positive, suggesting the virus has established community transmission in Wuhan, the origin and center of this epidemic.Authors Wen-Hua Kong, Yao Li, and Ming-Wei Peng contributed equally to this work.

4.
Stem Cell Res ; 50: 102125, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065586

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causing the worldwide pandemic has changed people's life in multiple aspects dramatically since it's first identified in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. While the numbers of infected patients and death toll keep vigorous increasing, curbing the progression of the pandemic is an urgent goal. Efforts have been made to search for prophylactic and therapeutic approaches including neutralizing antibodies development. By reviewing dozens of studies on anti-spike antibodies identification, we concluded that (1) promising therapeutic antibodies are being fished out by various approaches, such as screening of single B cells of convalescent patients, recombinant antibody library and B cells of immunized animals; (2) the epitopes are mainly RBD, but also some non-RBD domains, without the requisite of overlapping with ACE2 binding sites; (3) Neutralizing antibodies are convergent to a few germline genes, including IGHV3-30, IGHV3-53, IGHV3-66, with varying levels of somatic mutations. This review summarizes the progress in neutralizing antibodies development and the germline enrichment of effective antibodies, which will shed light on COVID-19 treatment and vaccine design.

5.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-370676

ABSTRACT

Combinatorial antibody libraries not only effectively reduce antibody discovery to a numbers game, but enable documentation of the history of antibody responses in an individual. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has prompted a wider application of this technology to meet the public health challenge of pandemic threats in the modern era. Herein, we used a combinatorial human antibody library constructed 20 years before the COVID-19 pandemic to discover three highly potent antibodies that selectively bind SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. Compared to neutralizing antibodies from COVID-19 patients with generally low somatic hypermutation (SHM), these antibodies contain over 13-22 SHMs, many of which are involved in specific interactions in crystal structures with SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD. The identification of these somatically mutated antibodies in a pre-pandemic library raises intriguing questions about the origin and evolution of human immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 517-522, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific), WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-860905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To provide drug ,material supp ly and emergency management reference for novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)infection in pharmacy staff in hospital. METHODS :The method of 5M1E was used to analyze the six main factors,including man ,machine,material,method,environment and measurement of drug ,material supply and emergency management. The relevant prevention and control strategies were put forward. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS :In the drug ,material supply and emergency management of epidemic prevention and control ,the man factors were involved ,such as mainly pharmacists from pharmacy departments of medical institutions. At the same time ,the management also involved machine factors such as drug storage,cleaning and disinfection ;material factors such as emergency drugs ,disinfection products ,in vitro diagnostic reagents , the guarantee of medicine materials for medical team ,investigational products ;methods factors such as relevant management measures;environmental factors such as storage environment and facilities ;measurement factors such as drug use ,drug and substance reserve. In view of the above factors ,it is suggested to strengthen the professional knowledge and communication skills training of pharmacists ,and strengthen humanistic care ,so as to improve their post competency ,communication in emergency response and psychological tolerance. Equipment and materials management shall be strengthened ,and equipment maintenance and disinfection shall be done well to ensure normal use of equipment. According to the evidence-based method ,the emergency drug list should be established. According to the disinfection protection requirements ,the disinfection products should be reasonably selected and their quality and sufficient inventory should be ensured. The qualified in vitro diagnostic reagents should be purchased in time. The investigational products should be managed reasonably according to the relevant requirements of clinical trials ,to ensure the drug and material supply of medical team members. Emergency plans and standard operating procedures shall be formulated,the principle of sympathetic drug use shall be followed ,and the management of off-label drug use and early warning of drug and material shortage shall be done well. Reasonable storage space should be reserved to strengthen environmental monitoring and disinfection. We should strengthen the monitoring and reporting of daily data ,strengthen the quality monitoring , and accept the independent audit of the third party. Above strategies are helpful to improve the ability of drug supply risk identification and response ability ,and cooperate with the medical team to timely rescue patients.

7.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-331348

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for effective preventive vaccination to reduce burden and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in humans. Intranasal vaccination is an attractive strategy to prevent COVID-19 as the nasal mucosa represents the first-line barrier to SARS-CoV-2 entry before viral spread to the lung. Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development is rapidly progressing, the current intramuscular vaccines are designed to elicit systemic immunity without conferring mucosal immunity. Here, we show that AdCOVID, an intranasal adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-vectored vaccine encoding the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, elicits a strong and focused immune response against RBD through the induction of mucosal IgA, serum neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with a Th1-like cytokine expression profile. Therefore, AdCOVID, which promotes concomitant systemic and local mucosal immunity, represents a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.

8.
CAplus; 2020.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-2036

ABSTRACT

A review on rehabilitation guidelines for home traditional Chinese medicine nursing at recovery stage of new coronavirus pneumonia.

9.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20038935

ABSTRACT

With the capability of inducing elevated expression of ACE2, the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ARBs/ACEIs) treatment may have a controversial role in both facilitating virus infection and reducing pathogenic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the correlation of ARBs/ACEIs usage with the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in a retrospective, single-center study. 126 COVID-19 patients with preexisting hypertension at Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (HPHTCM) in Wuhan from January 5 to February 22, 2020 were retrospectively allocated to ARBs/ACEIs group (n=43) and non-ARBs/ACEIs group (n=83) according to their antihypertensive medication. 125 age- and sex-matched COVID-19 patients without hypertension were randomly selected as non-hypertension controls. In addition, the medication history of 1942 hypertension patients that were admitted to HPHTCM from November 1 to December 31, 2019 before COVID-19 outbreak were also reviewed for external comparison. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected, analyzed and compared between these groups. The frequency of ARBs/ACEIs usage in hypertension patients with or without COVID-19 were comparable. Among COVID-19 patients with hypertension, those received either ARBs/ACEIs or non-ARBs/ACEIs had comparable blood pressure. However, ARBs/ACEIs group had significantly lower concentrations of CRP (p=0.049) and procalcitonin (PCT, p=0.008). Furthermore, much lower proportion of critical patients (9.3% vs 22.9%; p=0.061), and a lower death rate (4.7% vs 13.3%; p=0.216) were observed in ARBs/ACEIs group than non-ARBs/ACEIs group, although these differences failed to reach statistical significance. Our findings thus support the use of ARBs/ACEIs in COVID-19 patients with preexisting hypertension.

10.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(3): 377-380, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8535

ABSTRACT

We argue that enhanced Traffic Control Bundling (eTCB) can interrupt the community-hospital-community transmission cycle, thereby limiting COVID-19's impact. Enhanced TCB is an expansion of the traditional TCB that proved highly effective during Taiwan's 2003 SARS outbreak. TCB's success derived from ensuring that Health Care Workers (HCWs) and patients were protected from fomite, contact and droplet transmission within hospitals. Although TCB proved successful during SARS, achieving a similar level of success with the COVID-19 outbreak requires adapting TCB to the unique manifestations of this new disease. These manifestations include asymptomatic infection, a hyper-affinity to ACE2 receptors resulting in high transmissibility, false negatives, and an incubation period of up to 22 days. Enhanced TCB incorporates the necessary adaptations. In particular, eTCB includes expanding the TCB transition zone to incorporate a new sector - the quarantine ward. This ward houses patients exhibiting atypical manifestations or awaiting definitive diagnosis. A second adaptation involves enhancing the checkpoint hand disinfection and gowning up with Personal Protective Equipment deployed in traditional TCB. Under eTCB, checkpoint hand disinfection and donning of face masks are now required of all visitors who seek to enter hospitals. These enhancements ensure that transmissions by droplets, fomites and contact are disrupted both within hospitals and between hospitals and the broader community. Evidencing eTCB effectiveness is Taiwan's success to date in containing and controlling the community-hospital-community transmission cycle.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hospitals, Isolation/methods , Humans , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan
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