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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319969

ABSTRACT

Background: Until July 14, 2020, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 130 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared to those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Children with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia admitted to 20 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective multi-center cohort study. A total of 64 children with COVID-19 were defined as the COVID-19 cohort, of which 40 children who developed pneumonia were defined as the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort. Another 284 children with pneumonia caused by other viruses were defined as the viral pneumonia cohort. Results: Compared to the viral pneumonia cohort, children in the COVID-19 cohort were mostly exposed to family members confirmed to have COVID-19 (53/64 vs. 23/284), were of older median age (6.3 vs. 3.2 years), and had a higher proportion of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (18/40 vs. 0/38) (all P <0.001). Children in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort had a lower proportion of severe cases (1/40 vs. 38/284, P =0.048), and lower cases with high fever (3/40 vs 167/284, P <0.001), requiring intensive care (1/40 vs 32/284, P <0.047) and with shorter symptomatic duration (median 5 vs 8 days, P <0.001). The proportion of cases with evaluated inflammatory indicators, biochemical indicators related to organ or tissue damage, D-dimer and secondary bacterial infection were lower in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort than in the viral pneumonia cohort (all P <0.05). No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared to duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 days, P =0.885]. Conclusion: The symptoms and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in children were no more severe than those in children with other viral pneumonias. Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19. During the COVID-19 outbreak, attention also must be given to children with infection by other pathogens infection.

2.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(8): 284, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397013

ABSTRACT

An aptasensor for electrochemical detection of carbendazim is reported with mulberry fruit-like gold nanocrystal (MF-Au)/multiple graphene aerogel (MGA) and DNA cycle amplification. HAuCl4 was reduced by ascorbic acid in a CTAC solution containing KBr and KI and formed trioctahedron gold nanocrystal. The gold nanocrystal underwent structural evolution under enantioselective direction of L-cysteine. The resulting MF-Au shows a mulberry fruit-like nanostructure composed of gold nanocrystals of about 200 nm as the core and many irregular gold nanoparticles of about 30 nm as the shell. The exposure of high-index facets improves the catalytic activity of MF-Au. MF-Au/MGA was used for the construction of an aptasensor for electrochemical detection of carbendazim. The aptamer hybridizes with assistant strand DNA to form duplex DNA. Carbendazim binds with the formed duplex DNA to release assistant strand DNA, triggering one three-cascade DNA cycle. The utilization of a DNA cycle allows one carbendazim molecule to bring many methylene blue-labeled DNA fragments to the electrode surface. This promotes significant signal amplification due to the redox reaction of methylene blue. The detection signal is further enhanced by the catalysis of MF-Au and MGA towards the redox of methylene blue. A differential pulse voltammetric signal, best measured at - 0.32 V vs. Ag/AgCl, increases linearly with the carbendazim concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10-16 to 1.0 × 10-11 M with a detection limit of 4.4 × 10-17 M. The method provides ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity and was successfully applied to the electrochemical detection of carbendazim in cucumber. This study reports on an ultrasensitive aptasensor for electrochemical detection of carbendazim in cucumber based on mulberry fruit-like gold nanocrystal-multiple graphene aerogel and DNA cycle double amplification.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Benzimidazoles/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Carbamates/analysis , DNA/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Benzimidazoles/chemistry , Carbamates/chemistry , Cysteine/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Gels/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Immobilized Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Methylene Blue/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction
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