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1.
European heart journal. Case reports ; 5(12), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601860

ABSTRACT

Background Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare life-threatening clinical condition that can develop in patients younger than 21 years of age with a history of infection/exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The cardiovascular system is a main target of the inflammatory process that frequently causes myocardial dysfunction, myopericarditis, coronary artery dilation, hypotension, and shock. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children-associated myocarditis is usually characterized by fever, tachycardia, non-specific electrocardiogram abnormalities, and left ventricular dysfunction, but serious tachyarrhythmias may also occur. We report two cases of patients with MIS-C-associated myocarditis who developed severe bradycardia. Case summary Two female adolescents with recent history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were initially hospitalized for long-lasting high-grade fever and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Both patients were diagnosed with MIS-C-associated myocarditis for elevation of markers of myocardial injury (mean highly-sensitive cardiac troponin 2663 pg/mL, mean N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide 5097 pg/mL) and left ventricular dysfunction, which was subsequently confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Both patients developed a severe sinus bradycardia (lowest heart rate 36 and 42, respectively), which appeared refractory to the treatment with intravenous Methylprednisolone and Immunoglobulins, despite a clinical and biochemical improvement. The use of Anakinra (a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), was associated with a rapid improvement of cardiac rhythm and excellent clinical outcome at 6 months of follow-up. Discussion In patients with MIS-C-associated myocarditis, a continuous cardiac monitoring is mandatory to promptly identify potential conduction abnormalities. Adolescents may present bradycardia as a rhythm complication. We experienced a rapid recovery after treatment with Anakinra, to be considered as add-on therapy in cases refractory to standard anti-inflammatory treatment.

2.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(12): ytab405, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592408

ABSTRACT

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare life-threatening clinical condition that can develop in patients younger than 21 years of age with a history of infection/exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The cardiovascular system is a main target of the inflammatory process that frequently causes myocardial dysfunction, myopericarditis, coronary artery dilation, hypotension, and shock. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children-associated myocarditis is usually characterized by fever, tachycardia, non-specific electrocardiogram abnormalities, and left ventricular dysfunction, but serious tachyarrhythmias may also occur. We report two cases of patients with MIS-C-associated myocarditis who developed severe bradycardia. Case summary: Two female adolescents with recent history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were initially hospitalized for long-lasting high-grade fever and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Both patients were diagnosed with MIS-C-associated myocarditis for elevation of markers of myocardial injury (mean highly-sensitive cardiac troponin 2663 pg/mL, mean N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide 5097 pg/mL) and left ventricular dysfunction, which was subsequently confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Both patients developed a severe sinus bradycardia (lowest heart rate 36 and 42, respectively), which appeared refractory to the treatment with intravenous Methylprednisolone and Immunoglobulins, despite a clinical and biochemical improvement. The use of Anakinra (a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), was associated with a rapid improvement of cardiac rhythm and excellent clinical outcome at 6 months of follow-up. Discussion: In patients with MIS-C-associated myocarditis, a continuous cardiac monitoring is mandatory to promptly identify potential conduction abnormalities. Adolescents may present bradycardia as a rhythm complication. We experienced a rapid recovery after treatment with Anakinra, to be considered as add-on therapy in cases refractory to standard anti-inflammatory treatment.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139974, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589283

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been sporadically reported in children with COVID-19; however, their frequency and clinical outcome are unknown. Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic characteristics of children with COVID-19 presenting with severe GI manifestations to identify factors associated with a severe outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study (February 25, 2020, to January 20, 2021) enrolled inpatient and outpatient children (aged <18 years) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or fulfilling the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The study was conducted by pediatricians working in primary care or hospitals in Italy participating in the COVID-19 Registry of the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The occurrence of severe GI manifestations, defined by a medical and/or radiological diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis (complicated or not by perforation and/or peritonitis), intussusception, pancreatitis, abdominal fluid collection, and diffuse adenomesenteritis requiring surgical consultation, occurring during or within 4 to 6 weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of factors potentially associated with severe outcomes. Results: Overall, 685 children (386 boys [56.4%]; median age, 7.3 [IQR, 1.6-12.4] years) were included. Of these children, 628 (91.7%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 57 (8.3%) with MIS-C. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospitalization (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.89-3.69) and intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.98-7.68). Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed severe GI involvement, including disseminated adenomesenteritis (39.6%), appendicitis (33.5%), abdominal fluid collection (21.3%), pancreatitis (6.9%), or intussusception (4.6%). Twenty-seven of these 65 children (41.5%) underwent surgery. Severe GI manifestations were associated with the child's age (5-10 years: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.62-26.5; >10 years: OR, 6.37; 95% CI, 2.12-19.1, compared with preschool-age), abdominal pain (adjusted OR [aOR], 34.5; 95% CI, 10.1-118), lymphopenia (aOR, 8.93; 95% CI, 3.03-26.3), or MIS-C (aOR, 6.28; 95% CI, 1.92-20.5). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adenomesenteritis (aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.08-9.12) or abdominal fluid collection (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.03-10.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study of Italian children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C, 9.5% of the children had severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. These findings suggest that prompt identification may improve the management of serious complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21725, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504567

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters the intestine by the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in enterocyte apical membranes, leading to diarrhea in some patients. Early treatment of COVID-19-associated diarrhea could relieve symptoms and limit viral spread within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diosmectite, an aluminomagnesium silicate adsorbent clay with antidiarrheal effects, is recommended in some COVID-19 management protocols. In rotavirus models, diosmectite prevents pathogenic effects by binding the virus and its enterotoxin. We tested the trapping and anti-inflammatory properties of diosmectite in a SARS-CoV-2 model. Trapping effects were tested in Caco-2 cells using spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 preparations. Trapping was assessed by immunofluorescence, alone or in the presence of cells. The effect of diosmectite on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and CXCL10 secretion induced by the spike protein RBD and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Diosmectite bound the spike protein RBD and SARS-CoV-2 preparation, and inhibited interaction of the spike protein RBD with ACE2 receptors on the Caco-2 cell surface. Diosmectite exposure also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and CXCL10 secretion. These data provide direct evidence that diosmectite can bind SARS-CoV-2 components and inhibit downstream inflammation, supporting a mechanistic rationale for consideration of diosmectite as a management option for COVID-19-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicates/chemistry , Adsorption , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Binding Sites , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, Liquid , Clay , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gastroenterology , Humans , Magnesium Compounds/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , Rotavirus , Silicates/metabolism
5.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 720084, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367756

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The transmission rates severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from children to adults are unclear due to a lack of controlled conditions. Materials and Methods: We investigated the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among 12 discordant child-parent pairs in our ward. In each hospital isolation room, caregivers and children lived in close contact during the entire hospitalization period. Results: A total of 136 swab-positive children (mean age, 3.6 ± 4.9 median age, 1; IQR 0-6.2, range 0.1-17) attended by their caregivers were hospitalized. Of those, 12/136 (8.8%, mean age, 6.1 ± 5.3 median age, 4.5) were attended by caregivers who were swab and serology negative at admission despite previous close contact with positive children at home. Three children were completely dependent on their mothers, one of whom was being breastfed. The mean duration of overall exposure to the index case was 20.5 ± 8.2 days. Conclusion: None of the infected children transmitted SARS-CoV-2 infection to their caregivers, raising the hypothesis of a cluster of resistant mothers or of limited transmission from children to adults despite prolonged exposure and close contact. These data might provide reassurance regarding school openings and offer the chance of investigating SARS-CoV-2 variants in the future under the same quasi-experimental conditions.

6.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Changes of routine disease management associated with COVID-19 lockdown might have potentially affected the clinical course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Aim of our study was to assess the rate of disease flare before and during COVID-19 lockdown to investigate its impact on disease course in JIA children. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study was conducted, including patients presenting inactive JIA between September 1st , 2018 and March 9th , 2019 (group A) and between September 1st , 2019 and March 9th , 2020 (group B). For each patient, demographic and clinical data were collected. The rate of JIA flare from March 10th , 2019 to June 30th , 2019 for group A and from March 10th , 2020 to June 30th , 2020 for group B was compared. RESULTS: Group A included 126 patients and group B 124 patients. Statistical analysis did not show significant differences among the two cohorts with respect to age, sex, age of JIA onset, JIA subtype, co-occurrence of uveitis, ANA positivity and past or ongoing medications. The rate of disease flare during lockdown at time of first COVID-19 pandemic wave, was significantly higher in comparison to the previous year (16.9% vs 6.3%, p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that COVID-19 lockdown was associated with a higher rate of joint inflammation in JIA children. This finding has a considerable clinical implication, since restrictive measures may be necessary in order to contain pandemics. Our data highlight the need for rearrangement in the home and healthcare management of JIA children during lockdowns.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111369, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263036

ABSTRACT

Importance: Chilblain-like lesions have been one of the most frequently described cutaneous manifestations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their etiopathogenesis, including the role of SARS-CoV-2, remains elusive. Objective: To examine the association of chilblain-like lesions with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective case series enrolled 17 adolescents who presented with chilblain-like lesions from April 1 to June 30, 2020, at a tertiary referral academic hospital in Italy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Macroscopic (clinical and dermoscopic) and microscopic (histopathologic) analysis contributed to a thorough understanding of the lesions. Nasopharyngeal swab, serologic testing, and in situ hybridization of the skin biopsy specimens were performed to test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Laboratory tests explored signs of systemic inflammation or thrombophilia. Structural changes in peripheral microcirculation were investigated by capillaroscopy. Results: Of the 17 adolescents (9 [52.9%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 13.2 [12.5-14.3] years) enrolled during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 16 (94.1%) had bilaterally localized distal erythematous or cyanotic lesions. A triad of red dots (16 [100%]), white rosettes (11 [68.8%]), and white streaks (10 [62.5%]) characterized the dermoscopic picture. Histologic analysis revealed a remodeling of the dermal blood vessels with a lobular arrangement, wall thickening, and a mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. SARS-CoV-2 infection was excluded by molecular and serologic testing. In situ hybridization did not highlight the viral genome in the lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: This study delineated the clinical, histologic, and laboratory features of chilblain-like lesions that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic, and its findings do not support their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The lesions occurred in otherwise healthy adolescents, had a long but benign course to self-resolution, and were characterized by a microvascular remodeling with perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate but no other signs of vasculitis. These results suggest that chilblain-like lesions do not imply a concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ongoing studies will help clarify the etiopathogenic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin/pathology , Toes/pathology , Vascular Remodeling , Adolescent , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/pathology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Toes/blood supply
9.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(3): e42-e47, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The paucity of symptoms and the difficulties in wearing personal protective equipment make children a potential source of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection for health care workers (HCWs). Previous experience in pediatric settings reported high rate of intrahospital SARS-CoV-2 transmission in HCWs caring for children. We aimed at investigating the rate and determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs working in a regional reference center in the Southern Italy. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted to monitor the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among HCWs and investigate the relation between the infection rate and hours of exposure or number and characteristics of procedures, including nasopharyngeal swab, high-flow oxygen delivery, suctioning of airway secretions, sputum induction, and nebulizer administration. RESULTS: After 5 months of monitoring, 425.6 hours of SARS-CoV-2 exposure (18.5 hours per person), and 920 hospital procedures, no case of nosocomial transmission was reported among the 23 HCWs enrolled in the study. CONCLUSIONS: The application of stringent preventive measures, also outside the area dedicated to patients' care, can effectively control infection spreading also in pediatric settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hospital Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 170, 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In comparison with adults, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children has a milder course. The management of children with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) needs to be appropriately targeted. METHODS: We designed a hub-and-spoke system to provide healthcare indications based on the use of telemedicine and stringent admission criteria, coordinate local stakeholders and disseminate information. RESULT: Between March 24th and September 24th 2020, the Hub Centre managed a total of 208 children (52% males, median age, 5.2, IQR 2-9.6 years) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Among them, 174 were managed in cooperation with family pediatricians and 34 with hospital-based physicians. One hundred-four (50%) received a final diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Application of stringent criteria for hospital admission based on clinical conditions, risk factors and respect of biocontainment measures, allowed to manage the majority of cases (74, 71.1%) through telemedicine. Thirty children (28%) were hospitalized (median length 10 days, IQR 5-19 days), mainly due to the presence of persistent fever, mild respiratory distress or co-infection occurring in infant or children with underlying conditions. However, the reasons for admission slightly changed over time. CONCLUSION: An hub-and-spoke system is effective in coordinate territorial health-care structures involved in management paediatric COVID-19 cases through telemedicine and the definition of stringent hospital admission criteria. The management of children with COVID-19 should be based on clinical conditions, assessed on a case-by-case critical evaluation, as well as on isolation measures, but may vary according to local epidemiological changes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Disease Management , Health Status , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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