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1.
Heliyon ; 8(8): e10246, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086249

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: The pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2-associated diarrhea is unknown. Using an experimental model validated for rotavirus-induced diarrhea, we investigated the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on transepithelial ion fluxes and epithelial integrity of human intestinal cells. The effect of the antidiarrheal agent diosmectite on secretion was also evaluated following its inclusion in COVID-19 management protocols. Methods: We evaluated electrical parameters (intensity of short-circuit current [Isc] and transepithelial electrical resistance [TEER]) in polarized Caco-2 cells and in colonic specimens mounted in Ussing chambers after exposure to heat-inactivated (hi) SARS-CoV-2 and spike protein. Spectrofluorometry was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS), a marker of oxidative stress. Experiments were repeated after pretreatment with diosmectite, an antidiarrheal drug used in COVID-19 patients. Results: hiSARS-CoV-2 induced an increase in Isc when added to the mucosal (but not serosal) side of Caco-2 cells. The effect was inhibited in the absence of chloride and calcium and by the mucosal addition of the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel inhibitor A01, suggesting calcium-dependent chloride secretion. Spike protein had a lower, but similar, effect on Isc. The findings were consistent when repeated in human colonic mucosa specimens. Neither hiSARS-CoV-2 nor spike protein affected TEER, indicating epithelial integrity; both increased ROS production. Pretreatment with diosmectite inhibited the secretory effect and significantly reduced ROS of both hiSARS-CoV-2 and spike protein. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 induces calcium-dependent chloride secretion and oxidative stress without damaging intestinal epithelial structure. The effects are largely induced by the spike protein and are significantly reduced by diosmectite. SARS-CoV-2 should be added to the list of human enteric pathogens.

2.
Frontiers in molecular biosciences ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2057951

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which, since 2019 in China, has rapidly become a worldwide pandemic. The aggressiveness and global spread were enhanced by the many SARS-CoV-2 variants that have been isolated up to now. These mutations affect mostly the viral glycoprotein Spike (S), the capsid protein mainly involved in the early stages of viral entry processes, through the recognition of specific receptors on the host cell surface. In particular, the subunit S1 of the Spike glycoprotein contains the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and it is responsible for the interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Although ACE2 is the primary Spike host receptor currently studied, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is also able to infect cells expressing low levels of ACE2, indicating that the virus may have alternative receptors on the host cells. The identification of the alternative receptors can better elucidate the pathogenicity and the tropism of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we investigated the Spike S1 interactomes, starting from host membrane proteins of non-pulmonary cell lines, such as human kidney (HK-2), normal colon (NCM460D), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2). We employed an affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to pull down, from the membrane protein extracts of all cell lines, the protein partners of the recombinant form of the Spike S1 domain. The purified interactors were identified by a shotgun proteomics approach. The lists of S1 potential interacting proteins were then clusterized according to cellular localization, biological processes, and pathways, highlighting new possible S1 intracellular functions, crucial not only for the entrance mechanisms but also for viral replication and propagation processes.

3.
Heliyon ; 8(8):e10246-e10246, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999283

ABSTRACT

Background and aims The pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2-associated diarrhea is unknown. Using an experimental model validated for rotavirus-induced diarrhea, we investigated the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on transepithelial ion fluxes and epithelial integrity of human intestinal cells. The effect of the antidiarrheal agent diosmectite on secretion was also evaluated following its inclusion in COVID-19 management protocols. Methods We evaluated electrical parameters (intensity of short-circuit current [Isc] and transepithelial electrical resistance [TEER]) in polarized Caco-2 cells and in colonic specimens mounted in Ussing chambers after exposure to heat-inactivated (hi) SARS-CoV-2 and spike protein. Spectrofluorometry was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS), a marker of oxidative stress. Experiments were repeated after pretreatment with diosmectite, an antidiarrheal drug used in COVID-19 patients. Results hiSARS-CoV-2 induced an increase in Isc when added to the mucosal (but not serosal) side of Caco-2 cells. The effect was inhibited in the absence of chloride and calcium and by the mucosal addition of the Ca2+-activated Cl– channel inhibitor A01, suggesting calcium-dependent chloride secretion. Spike protein had a lower, but similar, effect on Isc. The findings were consistent when repeated in human colonic mucosa specimens. Neither hiSARS-CoV-2 nor spike protein affected TEER, indicating epithelial integrity;both increased ROS production. Pretreatment with diosmectite inhibited the secretory effect and significantly reduced ROS of both hiSARS-CoV-2 and spike protein. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 induces calcium-dependent chloride secretion and oxidative stress without damaging intestinal epithelial structure. The effects are largely induced by the spike protein and are significantly reduced by diosmectite. SARS-CoV-2 should be added to the list of human enteric pathogens. COVID-19;Gastroenteritis;Oxidative stress;Diosmectite

4.
JCI Insight ; 7(16)2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950563

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation may play a role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19; however, its role in the pediatric manifestations of this disease, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and chilblain-like lesions (CLLs), otherwise known as "COVID toes," remains unclear. Studying multinational cohorts, we found that, in CLLs, NETs were significantly increased in serum and skin. There was geographic variability in the prevalence of increased NETs in MIS-C, in association with disease severity. MIS-C and CLL serum samples displayed decreased NET degradation ability, in association with C1q and G-actin or anti-NET antibodies, respectively, but not with genetic variants of DNases. In adult COVID-19, persistent elevations in NETs after disease diagnosis were detected but did not occur in asymptomatic infection. COVID-19-affected adults displayed significant prevalence of impaired NET degradation, in association with anti-DNase1L3, G-actin, and specific disease manifestations, but not with genetic variants of DNases. NETs were detected in many organs of adult patients who died from COVID-19 complications. Infection with the Omicron variant was associated with decreased NET levels when compared with other SARS-CoV-2 strains. These data support a role for NETs in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 in pediatric and adult patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Actins/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Deoxyribonuclease I , Humans , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 841126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775675

ABSTRACT

The antibody profile against autoantigens previously associated with autoimmune diseases and other human proteins in patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains poorly defined. Here we show that 30% of adults with COVID-19 had autoantibodies against the lung antigen KCNRG, and 34% had antibodies to the SLE-associated Smith-D3 protein. Children with COVID-19 rarely had autoantibodies; one of 59 children had GAD65 autoantibodies associated with acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. While autoantibodies associated with SLE/Sjögren's syndrome (Ro52, Ro60, and La) and/or autoimmune gastritis (gastric ATPase) were detected in 74% (40/54) of MIS-C patients, further analysis of these patients and of children with Kawasaki disease (KD), showed that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was largely responsible for detection of these autoantibodies in both groups of patients. Monitoring in vivo decay of the autoantibodies in MIS-C children showed that the IVIG-derived Ro52, Ro60, and La autoantibodies declined to undetectable levels by 45-60 days, but gastric ATPase autoantibodies declined more slowly requiring >100 days until undetectable. Further testing of IgG and/or IgA antibodies against a subset of potential targets identified by published autoantigen array studies of MIS-C failed to detect autoantibodies against most (16/18) of these proteins in patients with MIS-C who had not received IVIG. However, Troponin C2 and KLHL12 autoantibodies were detected in 2 of 20 and 1 of 20 patients with MIS-C, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that IVIG therapy may be a confounding factor in autoantibody measurements in MIS-C and that antibodies against antigens associated with autoimmune diseases or other human proteins are uncommon in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Adult , Autoantibodies , Autoantigens , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Ribonucleoproteins , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 42, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two sequelae of pediatric COVID-19 have been identified, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and the long COVID. Long COVID is much less precisely defined and includes all the persistent or new clinical manifestations evidenced in subjects previously infected by SARS-CoV-2 beyond the period of the acute infection and that cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. In this Intersociety Consensus, present knowledge on pediatric long COVID as well as how to identify and manage children with long COVID are discussed. MAIN FINDINGS: Although the true prevalence of long COVID in pediatrics is not exactly determined, it seems appropriate to recommend evaluating the presence of symptoms suggestive of long COVID near the end of the acute phase of the disease, between 4 and 12 weeks from this. Long COVID in children and adolescents should be suspected in presence of persistent headache and fatigue, sleep disturbance, difficulty in concentrating, abdominal pain, myalgia or arthralgia. Persistent chest pain, stomach pain, diarrhea, heart palpitations, and skin lesions should be considered as possible symptoms of long COVID. It is recommended that the primary care pediatrician visits all subjects with a suspected or a proven diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection after 4 weeks to check for the presence of symptoms of previously unknown disease. In any case, a further check-up by the primary care pediatrician should be scheduled 3 months after the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to confirm normality or to address emerging problems. The subjects who present symptoms of any organic problem must undergo a thorough evaluation of the same, with a possible request for clinical, laboratory and / or radiological in-depth analysis in case of need. Children and adolescents with clear symptoms of mental stress will need to be followed up by existing local services for problems of this type. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric long COVID is a relevant problem that involve a considerable proportion of children and adolescents. Prognosis of these cases is generally good as in most of them symptoms disappear spontaneously. The few children with significant medical problems should be early identified after the acute phase of the infection and adequately managed to assure complete resolution. A relevant psychological support for all the children during COVID-19 pandemic must be organized by health authorities and government that have to treat this as a public health issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Consensus , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
8.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1050-1062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701612

ABSTRACT

Pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (pCOVID-19) is rarely severe; however, a minority of children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with substantial morbidity. In this longitudinal multi-institutional study, we applied multi-omics (analysis of soluble biomarkers, proteomics, single-cell gene expression and immune repertoire analysis) to profile children with COVID-19 (n = 110) and MIS-C (n = 76), along with pediatric healthy controls (pHCs; n = 76). pCOVID-19 was characterized by robust type I interferon (IFN) responses, whereas prominent type II IFN-dependent and NF-κB-dependent signatures, matrisome activation and increased levels of circulating spike protein were detected in MIS-C, with no correlation with SARS-CoV-2 PCR status around the time of admission. Transient expansion of TRBV11-2 T cell clonotypes in MIS-C was associated with signatures of inflammation and T cell activation. The association of MIS-C with the combination of HLA A*02, B*35 and C*04 alleles suggests genetic susceptibility. MIS-C B cells showed higher mutation load than pCOVID-19 and pHC. These results identify distinct immunopathological signatures in pCOVID-19 and MIS-C that might help better define the pathophysiology of these disorders and guide therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , T-Lymphocytes
9.
European heart journal. Case reports ; 5(12), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601860

ABSTRACT

Background Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare life-threatening clinical condition that can develop in patients younger than 21 years of age with a history of infection/exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The cardiovascular system is a main target of the inflammatory process that frequently causes myocardial dysfunction, myopericarditis, coronary artery dilation, hypotension, and shock. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children-associated myocarditis is usually characterized by fever, tachycardia, non-specific electrocardiogram abnormalities, and left ventricular dysfunction, but serious tachyarrhythmias may also occur. We report two cases of patients with MIS-C-associated myocarditis who developed severe bradycardia. Case summary Two female adolescents with recent history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were initially hospitalized for long-lasting high-grade fever and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Both patients were diagnosed with MIS-C-associated myocarditis for elevation of markers of myocardial injury (mean highly-sensitive cardiac troponin 2663 pg/mL, mean N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide 5097 pg/mL) and left ventricular dysfunction, which was subsequently confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Both patients developed a severe sinus bradycardia (lowest heart rate 36 and 42, respectively), which appeared refractory to the treatment with intravenous Methylprednisolone and Immunoglobulins, despite a clinical and biochemical improvement. The use of Anakinra (a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), was associated with a rapid improvement of cardiac rhythm and excellent clinical outcome at 6 months of follow-up. Discussion In patients with MIS-C-associated myocarditis, a continuous cardiac monitoring is mandatory to promptly identify potential conduction abnormalities. Adolescents may present bradycardia as a rhythm complication. We experienced a rapid recovery after treatment with Anakinra, to be considered as add-on therapy in cases refractory to standard anti-inflammatory treatment.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139974, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589283

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been sporadically reported in children with COVID-19; however, their frequency and clinical outcome are unknown. Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic characteristics of children with COVID-19 presenting with severe GI manifestations to identify factors associated with a severe outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study (February 25, 2020, to January 20, 2021) enrolled inpatient and outpatient children (aged <18 years) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or fulfilling the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The study was conducted by pediatricians working in primary care or hospitals in Italy participating in the COVID-19 Registry of the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The occurrence of severe GI manifestations, defined by a medical and/or radiological diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis (complicated or not by perforation and/or peritonitis), intussusception, pancreatitis, abdominal fluid collection, and diffuse adenomesenteritis requiring surgical consultation, occurring during or within 4 to 6 weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of factors potentially associated with severe outcomes. Results: Overall, 685 children (386 boys [56.4%]; median age, 7.3 [IQR, 1.6-12.4] years) were included. Of these children, 628 (91.7%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 57 (8.3%) with MIS-C. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospitalization (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.89-3.69) and intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.98-7.68). Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed severe GI involvement, including disseminated adenomesenteritis (39.6%), appendicitis (33.5%), abdominal fluid collection (21.3%), pancreatitis (6.9%), or intussusception (4.6%). Twenty-seven of these 65 children (41.5%) underwent surgery. Severe GI manifestations were associated with the child's age (5-10 years: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.62-26.5; >10 years: OR, 6.37; 95% CI, 2.12-19.1, compared with preschool-age), abdominal pain (adjusted OR [aOR], 34.5; 95% CI, 10.1-118), lymphopenia (aOR, 8.93; 95% CI, 3.03-26.3), or MIS-C (aOR, 6.28; 95% CI, 1.92-20.5). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adenomesenteritis (aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.08-9.12) or abdominal fluid collection (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.03-10.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study of Italian children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C, 9.5% of the children had severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. These findings suggest that prompt identification may improve the management of serious complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21725, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504567

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters the intestine by the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in enterocyte apical membranes, leading to diarrhea in some patients. Early treatment of COVID-19-associated diarrhea could relieve symptoms and limit viral spread within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diosmectite, an aluminomagnesium silicate adsorbent clay with antidiarrheal effects, is recommended in some COVID-19 management protocols. In rotavirus models, diosmectite prevents pathogenic effects by binding the virus and its enterotoxin. We tested the trapping and anti-inflammatory properties of diosmectite in a SARS-CoV-2 model. Trapping effects were tested in Caco-2 cells using spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 preparations. Trapping was assessed by immunofluorescence, alone or in the presence of cells. The effect of diosmectite on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and CXCL10 secretion induced by the spike protein RBD and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Diosmectite bound the spike protein RBD and SARS-CoV-2 preparation, and inhibited interaction of the spike protein RBD with ACE2 receptors on the Caco-2 cell surface. Diosmectite exposure also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and CXCL10 secretion. These data provide direct evidence that diosmectite can bind SARS-CoV-2 components and inhibit downstream inflammation, supporting a mechanistic rationale for consideration of diosmectite as a management option for COVID-19-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicates/chemistry , Adsorption , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Binding Sites , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, Liquid , Clay , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gastroenterology , Humans , Magnesium Compounds/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , Rotavirus , Silicates/metabolism
12.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 720084, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367756

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The transmission rates severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from children to adults are unclear due to a lack of controlled conditions. Materials and Methods: We investigated the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among 12 discordant child-parent pairs in our ward. In each hospital isolation room, caregivers and children lived in close contact during the entire hospitalization period. Results: A total of 136 swab-positive children (mean age, 3.6 ± 4.9 median age, 1; IQR 0-6.2, range 0.1-17) attended by their caregivers were hospitalized. Of those, 12/136 (8.8%, mean age, 6.1 ± 5.3 median age, 4.5) were attended by caregivers who were swab and serology negative at admission despite previous close contact with positive children at home. Three children were completely dependent on their mothers, one of whom was being breastfed. The mean duration of overall exposure to the index case was 20.5 ± 8.2 days. Conclusion: None of the infected children transmitted SARS-CoV-2 infection to their caregivers, raising the hypothesis of a cluster of resistant mothers or of limited transmission from children to adults despite prolonged exposure and close contact. These data might provide reassurance regarding school openings and offer the chance of investigating SARS-CoV-2 variants in the future under the same quasi-experimental conditions.

13.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Changes of routine disease management associated with COVID-19 lockdown might have potentially affected the clinical course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Aim of our study was to assess the rate of disease flare before and during COVID-19 lockdown to investigate its impact on disease course in JIA children. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study was conducted, including patients presenting inactive JIA between September 1st , 2018 and March 9th , 2019 (group A) and between September 1st , 2019 and March 9th , 2020 (group B). For each patient, demographic and clinical data were collected. The rate of JIA flare from March 10th , 2019 to June 30th , 2019 for group A and from March 10th , 2020 to June 30th , 2020 for group B was compared. RESULTS: Group A included 126 patients and group B 124 patients. Statistical analysis did not show significant differences among the two cohorts with respect to age, sex, age of JIA onset, JIA subtype, co-occurrence of uveitis, ANA positivity and past or ongoing medications. The rate of disease flare during lockdown at time of first COVID-19 pandemic wave, was significantly higher in comparison to the previous year (16.9% vs 6.3%, p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that COVID-19 lockdown was associated with a higher rate of joint inflammation in JIA children. This finding has a considerable clinical implication, since restrictive measures may be necessary in order to contain pandemics. Our data highlight the need for rearrangement in the home and healthcare management of JIA children during lockdowns.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111369, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263036

ABSTRACT

Importance: Chilblain-like lesions have been one of the most frequently described cutaneous manifestations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their etiopathogenesis, including the role of SARS-CoV-2, remains elusive. Objective: To examine the association of chilblain-like lesions with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective case series enrolled 17 adolescents who presented with chilblain-like lesions from April 1 to June 30, 2020, at a tertiary referral academic hospital in Italy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Macroscopic (clinical and dermoscopic) and microscopic (histopathologic) analysis contributed to a thorough understanding of the lesions. Nasopharyngeal swab, serologic testing, and in situ hybridization of the skin biopsy specimens were performed to test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Laboratory tests explored signs of systemic inflammation or thrombophilia. Structural changes in peripheral microcirculation were investigated by capillaroscopy. Results: Of the 17 adolescents (9 [52.9%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 13.2 [12.5-14.3] years) enrolled during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 16 (94.1%) had bilaterally localized distal erythematous or cyanotic lesions. A triad of red dots (16 [100%]), white rosettes (11 [68.8%]), and white streaks (10 [62.5%]) characterized the dermoscopic picture. Histologic analysis revealed a remodeling of the dermal blood vessels with a lobular arrangement, wall thickening, and a mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. SARS-CoV-2 infection was excluded by molecular and serologic testing. In situ hybridization did not highlight the viral genome in the lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: This study delineated the clinical, histologic, and laboratory features of chilblain-like lesions that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic, and its findings do not support their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The lesions occurred in otherwise healthy adolescents, had a long but benign course to self-resolution, and were characterized by a microvascular remodeling with perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate but no other signs of vasculitis. These results suggest that chilblain-like lesions do not imply a concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ongoing studies will help clarify the etiopathogenic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin/pathology , Toes/pathology , Vascular Remodeling , Adolescent , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/pathology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Toes/blood supply
16.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(3): e42-e47, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The paucity of symptoms and the difficulties in wearing personal protective equipment make children a potential source of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection for health care workers (HCWs). Previous experience in pediatric settings reported high rate of intrahospital SARS-CoV-2 transmission in HCWs caring for children. We aimed at investigating the rate and determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs working in a regional reference center in the Southern Italy. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted to monitor the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among HCWs and investigate the relation between the infection rate and hours of exposure or number and characteristics of procedures, including nasopharyngeal swab, high-flow oxygen delivery, suctioning of airway secretions, sputum induction, and nebulizer administration. RESULTS: After 5 months of monitoring, 425.6 hours of SARS-CoV-2 exposure (18.5 hours per person), and 920 hospital procedures, no case of nosocomial transmission was reported among the 23 HCWs enrolled in the study. CONCLUSIONS: The application of stringent preventive measures, also outside the area dedicated to patients' care, can effectively control infection spreading also in pediatric settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hospital Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 170, 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In comparison with adults, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children has a milder course. The management of children with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) needs to be appropriately targeted. METHODS: We designed a hub-and-spoke system to provide healthcare indications based on the use of telemedicine and stringent admission criteria, coordinate local stakeholders and disseminate information. RESULT: Between March 24th and September 24th 2020, the Hub Centre managed a total of 208 children (52% males, median age, 5.2, IQR 2-9.6 years) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Among them, 174 were managed in cooperation with family pediatricians and 34 with hospital-based physicians. One hundred-four (50%) received a final diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Application of stringent criteria for hospital admission based on clinical conditions, risk factors and respect of biocontainment measures, allowed to manage the majority of cases (74, 71.1%) through telemedicine. Thirty children (28%) were hospitalized (median length 10 days, IQR 5-19 days), mainly due to the presence of persistent fever, mild respiratory distress or co-infection occurring in infant or children with underlying conditions. However, the reasons for admission slightly changed over time. CONCLUSION: An hub-and-spoke system is effective in coordinate territorial health-care structures involved in management paediatric COVID-19 cases through telemedicine and the definition of stringent hospital admission criteria. The management of children with COVID-19 should be based on clinical conditions, assessed on a case-by-case critical evaluation, as well as on isolation measures, but may vary according to local epidemiological changes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Disease Management , Health Status , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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