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1.
Respir Med Res ; 83: 100990, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276566

ABSTRACT

This multicenter observational study included 171 COVID-19 adult patients hospitalized in the ICUs of nine hospitals in Lombardy (Northern Italy) from December, 1st 2021, to February, 9th 2022. During the study period, the Delta/Omicron variant ratio of cases decreased with a delay of two weeks in ICU patients compared to that in the community; a higher proportion of COVID-19 unvaccinated patients was infected by Delta than by Omicron whereas a higher rate of COVID-19 boosted patients was Omicron-infected. A higher number of comorbidities and a higher comorbidity score in ICU critically COVID-19 inpatients was positively associated with the Omicron infection as well in vaccinated individuals. Although people infected by Omicron have a lower risk of severe disease than those infected by Delta variant, the outcome, including the risk of ICU admission and the need for mechanical ventilation due to infection by Omicron versus Delta, remains uncertain. The continuous monitoring of the circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants remains a milestone to counteract this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology
2.
New Microbiol ; 46(1): 18-23, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270291

ABSTRACT

Existing evidence about HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection has, so far, yield conflicting results. Methods: This is a cohort, single center, clinical study aimed at identifying possible characteristics of PLWH that could correlate with the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 and would influence the outcome. 155 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with 307 PLWH who tested negative. No variable was associated with an increased risk of infection. SARS-CoV-2 PLWH were completely asymptomatic in 20.6% of cases. Factors associated with severe COVID-19 were age (P=0.001), diabetes (P=0.009) hypertension (P=0.004), cardiovascular disease (P=0.001) or an increasing number of chronic co-morbidities (P=0.002); only the first two variables retained statistical significance in a multivariable model. Only older age and a lower CD4 count were statistically associated with death in the multivariate model. Sixteen PLWH not included in the analysis were infected by SARS-Cov-2 after vaccination. In 4 cases the infection was completely asymptomatic, while in the remaining 12 cases the infection was mild and resembled a flu-like syndrome. Conclusions: No baseline characteristic defines patients at greater risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Older age and the presence of multi-comorbidities are risk factors for a severe clinical course. Lower CD4 counts correlate with a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza, Human , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5736, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778634

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including < 80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 (20B) most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 (20D) developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, within the limitations of phylogeographical reconstruction, the estimated ancestral scenario suggests an important role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1145-1149, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196426

ABSTRACT

Information about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in HIV-infected individuals is scarce. In this prospective study, we included HIV (human immunodefeciency virus)-infected individuals (people living with HIV [PLWHIV]) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared them with PLWHIV negative for SARS-CoV-2. We compared 55 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with 69 asymptomatic PLWHIV negative for SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and/or serology. There was no significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative patients for age distribution, gender, time with HIV infection, nadir CD4-cell counts, type and number of co-morbidities, current CD4 and CD8 counts and type of anti-HIV therapy. Positive patients presented with a median of three symptoms (interquartile range, 1-3). Most common symptoms were fever (76%), dyspnea (35%), anosmia (29%) non-productive cough (27%), fatigue 22%), and ageusia (20%). Ten patients (18%) were completely asymptomatic. Four (7.2%) subjects died of coronavirus disease 2019. Factors significantly (P < .05) associated with death included age and number of co-morbidities, while time from HIV infection and lower current CD4 counts were significant only in univariate analysis. HIV-infected individuals are not protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection or have a lower risk of severe disease. Indeed, those with low CD4 cell counts might have worse outcomes. Infection is asymptomatic in a large proportion of subjects and this is relevant for epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Age Distribution , CD4 Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
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