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Lancet Infect Dis ; 23(5): 578-588, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299258


BACKGROUND: Human monoclonal antibodies might offer an important new approach to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. In the first two parts of a three-part clinical trial, the antimalarial monoclonal antibody CIS43LS conferred high protection against parasitaemia at doses of 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg administered intravenously followed by controlled human malaria infection. The ability of CIS43LS to confer protection at lower doses or by the subcutaneous route is unknown. We aimed to provide data on the safety and optimisation of dose and route for the human antimalaria monoclonal antibody CIS43LS. METHODS: VRC 612 Part C was the third part of a three-part, first-in-human, phase 1, adaptive trial, conducted at the University of Maryland, Baltimore Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. We enrolled adults aged 18-50 years with no previous malaria vaccinations or infections, in a sequential, dose-escalating manner. Eligible participants received the monoclonal antibody CIS43LS in a single, open-label dose of 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg intravenously, or 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg subcutaneously. Participants underwent controlled human malaria infection by the bites of five mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain approximately 8 weeks after their monoclonal antibody inoculation. Six additional control participants who did not receive CIS43LS underwent controlled human malaria infection simultaneously. Participants were followed-up daily on days 7-18 and day 21, with qualitative PCR used for P falciparum detection. Participants who tested positive for P falciparum were treated with atovaquone-proguanil and those who remained negative were treated at day 21. Participants were followed-up until 24 weeks after dosing. The primary outcome was safety and tolerability of CIS43LS at each dose level, assessed in the as-treated population. Secondary outcomes included protective efficacy of CIS43LS after controlled human malaria infection. This trial is now complete and is registered with, NCT04206332. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2021, and Oct 29, 2021, 47 people were assessed for eligibility and 31 were enrolled (one subsequently withdrew and was replaced) and assigned to receive doses of 1 mg/kg (n=7), 5 mg/kg (n=4), and 10 mg/kg (n=3) intravenously and 5 mg/kg (n=4) and 10 mg/kg (n=4) subcutaneously, or to the control group (n=8). CIS43LS administration was safe and well tolerated; no serious adverse events occurred. CIS43LS protected 18 (82%) of 22 participants who received a dose. No participants developed parasitaemia following dosing at 5 mg/kg intravenously or subcutaneously, or at 10 mg/kg intravenously or subcutaneously. All six control participants and four of seven participants dosed at 1 mg/kg intravenously developed parasitaemia after controlled human malaria infection. INTERPRETATION: CIS43LS was safe and well tolerated, and conferred protection against P falciparum at low doses and by the subcutaneous route, providing evidence that this approach might be useful to prevent malaria across several clinical use cases. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.

Antimalarials , Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Adult , Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Plasmodium falciparum , Malaria Vaccines/therapeutic use
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7733, 2022 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160214


An important consequence of infection with a SARS-CoV-2 variant is protective humoral immunity against other variants. However, the basis for such cross-protection at the molecular level is incompletely understood. Here, we characterized the repertoire and epitope specificity of antibodies elicited by infection with the Beta, Gamma and WA1 ancestral variants and assessed their cross-reactivity to these and the more recent Delta and Omicron variants. We developed a method to obtain immunoglobulin sequences with concurrent rapid production and functional assessment of monoclonal antibodies from hundreds of single B cells sorted by flow cytometry. Infection with any variant elicited similar cross-binding antibody responses exhibiting a conserved hierarchy of epitope immunodominance. Furthermore, convergent V gene usage and similar public B cell clones were elicited regardless of infecting variant. These convergent responses despite antigenic variation may account for the continued efficacy of vaccines based on a single ancestral variant.

COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin Variable Region , Humans , Epitopes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Clone Cells , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics