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1.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 78: 100231, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) rates and antimicrobial consumption in Intensive Care Units (ICU) in São Paulo city during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare them with the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: This cohort included all hospitals that reported HAI rates (Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection ‒ CLABSI and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia ‒ VAP), the proportion of microorganisms that caused CLABSI, the proportion of resistant microorganisms, and antimicrobial consumption from January 2017 ‒ December 2020. Hospitals were stratified by the number of beds, Central Venous Catheter (CVC) utilization rate, Mechanical-Ventilation (MV) utilization rate, and type of funding. Statistical analyses were based on time-series plots and regression models. RESULTS: 220 ICUs were included. The authors observed an abrupt increase in CLABSI rates after the pandemic onset. High CLABSI rates during the pandemic were associated with hospital size, funding (public and non-profit private), and low CVC use (≤ 50%). An increase in VAP rates was associated with public hospitals, and high MV use (> 35%). The susceptibility profile of microorganisms did not differ from that of the pre-pandemic period. polymyxin, glycopeptides, and antifungal use increased, especially in COVID-19 ICUs. CONCLUSIONS: HAI increased during COVID-19. The microorganisms' susceptibility profile did not change with the pandemic, but the authors observed a disproportionate increase in large-spectrum antimicrobial drug use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Delivery of Health Care
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 712, 2023 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186019

ABSTRACT

In this large cohort of healthcare workers, we aimed to estimate the rate of reinfections by SARS-CoV-2 over 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the proportion of reinfections among all the cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection from March 10, 2020 until March 10, 2022. Reinfection was defined as the appearance of new symptoms that on medical evaluation were suggestive of COVID-19 and confirmed by a positive RT-PCR. Symptoms had to occur more than 90 days after the previous infection. These 2 years were divided into time periods based on the different variants of concern (VOC) in the city of São Paulo. There were 37,729 medical consultations due to COVID-19 at the hospital's Health Workers Services; and 25,750 RT-PCR assays were performed, of which 23% (n = 5865) were positive. Reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 5% (n = 284) of symptomatic cases. Most cases of reinfection occurred during the Omicron period (n = 251; 88%), representing a significant increase on the SARS-CoV-2 reinfection rate before and during the Omicron variant period (0.8% vs. 4.3%; p < 0.001). The mean interval between SARS-CoV-2 infections was 429 days (ranged from 122 to 674). The Omicron variant spread faster than Gamma and Delta variant. All SARS-CoV-2 reinfections were mild cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reinfection/epidemiology , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Personnel
3.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3299, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hemodialysis facilities and the occurrence of and risk factors for clustering of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey between March and July 2020, in all dialysis facilities in São Paulo state, using Google Forms. The online questionnaire contained questions addressing specific components of infection prevention and control practices and the number of cases during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 1,093 (5%) COVID-19 cases were reported among 20,984 patients; approximately 56% of the facilities had ≥1 cluster. Most facilities implemented various measures (such as allocation of dedicated COVID-19 areas/shifts, symptom screening, environmental disinfection, and maintenance of adequate ventilation) to prevent the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Clustering of COVID-19 cases was suspected in only 7% of dialysis facilities. The only variable associated with this event was the performance of aerosol-generating procedures (odds ratio: 4.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-12.86). CONCLUSION: Attention should be paid to avoiding the performance of aerosol-generating procedures in dialysis facilities and monitoring the clustering of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infection Control , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 320-328, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic increased global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) and resulted in shortages. The study evaluated the re-use of surgical masks and respirators by analysing their performance and safety before and after reprocessing using the following methods: oven, thermal drying, autoclave, and hydrogen peroxide plasma vapour. METHODS: In total, 45 surgical masks and 69 respirators were decontaminated. Visual integrity, air permeability, burst resistance, pressure differential and particulate filtration efficiency of new and decontaminated surgical masks and respirators were evaluated. In addition, 14 used respirators were analysed after work shifts before and after decontamination using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culturing. Finally, reprocessed respirators were evaluated by users in terms of functionality and comfort. RESULTS: Oven decontamination (75 °C for 45 min) was found to be the simplest decontamination method. Physical and filtration assays indicated that all reprocessing methods were safe after one cycle. Oven decontamination maintained the characteristics of surgical masks and respirators for at least five reprocessing cycles. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in two of the 14 used respirators. Four respirators submitted to viral culture were PCR-negative and culture-negative. Reprocessed respirators used in work shifts were evaluated positively by users, even after three decontamination cycles. CONCLUSION: Oven decontamination is a safe method for reprocessing surgical masks and respirators for at least five cycles, and is feasible in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Masks/virology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Hospitals , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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