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J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(6): 714-721, 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358467


BACKGROUND: Children with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have a milder clinical course than adults. We describe the spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations during a COVID-19 outbreak in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed, including all patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD), myocarditis, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) from February to April 2020. KD patients were compared with those diagnosed before the epidemic. RESULTS: KD: 8 patients (6/8 boys, all negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]): complete presentation in 5/8, 7/8 immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders, and 3/8 showed transient coronary lesions (CALs). Myocarditis: one 5-year-old girl negative for SARS-CoV-2 and positive for parvovirus B19. She responded to IVIG. MIS-C: 4 SARS-CoV-2-positive boys (3 patients with positive swab and serology and 1 patient with negative swab and positive serology): 3 presented myocardial dysfunction and pericardial effusion, and 1 developed multicoronary aneurysms and hyperinflammation; all responded to treatment. The fourth boy had mitral and aortic regurgitation that rapidly regressed after steroids. CONCLUSIONS: KD, myocarditis, and MIS-C were distinguishable cardiovascular manifestations. KD did not show a more aggressive form compared with previous years: coronary involvement was frequent but always transient. MIS-C and myocarditis rapidly responded to treatment without cardiac sequelae despite high markers of myocardial injury at the onset, suggesting a myocardial depression due to systemic inflammation rather than focal necrosis. Evidence of actual or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was documented only in patients with MIS-C.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome