Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3519, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900486

ABSTRACT

Since its discovery in 2019, multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified. This study investigates virus spread and associated pathology in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of Syrian golden hamsters at 4 days post intranasal SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection, in comparison to infection with variants of concern (VOCs) Gamma and Delta as well as ancestral strain 614 G. Pathological changes in the upper and lower respiratory tract of VOC Omicron infected hamsters are milder than those caused by other investigated strains. VOC Omicron infection causes a mild rhinitis with little involvement of the olfactory epithelium and minimal lesions in the lung, with frequent sparing of the alveolar compartment. Similarly, viral antigen, RNA and infectious virus titers are lower in respiratory tissues of VOC Omicron infected hamsters. These findings demonstrate that the variant has a decreased pathogenicity for the upper and lower respiratory tract of hamsters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabp9312, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807305

ABSTRACT

The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of Omicron, which displays notable immune escape potential through mutations at key antigenic sites on the spike protein. Many of these mutations localize to the spike protein ACE2 receptor binding domain, annulling the neutralizing activity of therapeutic antibodies that were effective against other variants of concern (VOCs) earlier in the pandemic. Here, we identified a receptor-blocking human monoclonal antibody, 87G7, that retained potent in vitro neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1/BA.2) VOCs. Using cryo-electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, we showed that 87G7 targets a patch of hydrophobic residues in the ACE2-binding site that are highly conserved in SARS-CoV-2 variants, explaining its broad neutralization capacity. 87G7 protected mice and hamsters prophylactically against challenge with all current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and showed therapeutic activity against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in both animal models. Our findings demonstrate that 87G7 holds promise as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent for COVID-19 that is more resilient to SARS-CoV-2 antigenic diversity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mice , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328776

ABSTRACT

Since its discovery in 2019, multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified worldwide. The present study investigates virus spread and associated pathology in the upper and lower respiratory tracts in the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection in the Syrian golden hamster ( Mesocricetus auratus ) in comparison to previous identified variants of concern (VOCs). Syrian golden hamsters were infected intranasally with SARS-CoV-2 614G or with VOCs Gamma, Delta and Omicron. Pathological changes both in the upper and lower respiratory tract of VOC Omicron infected hamsters were milder than those caused by the other investigated strains. VOC Omicron infection caused only a mild rhinitis with mild involvement of the olfactory epithelium and minimal lesions in the lung with frequent sparing of the alveolar compartment. Similarly, viral antigen detection as well as infectious SARS-CoV-2 titers were lower in upper and lower respiratory tract of VOC Omicron infected hamsters. These findings demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 VOC Omicron variant has a decreased pathogenicity for both the upper and lower respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamsters.

4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327732

ABSTRACT

The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of Omicron, which displays striking immune escape potential. Many of its mutations localize to the spike protein ACE2 receptor-binding domain, annulling the neutralizing activity of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Here we describe a receptor-blocking human monoclonal antibody, 87G7, that retains ultrapotent neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron (BA.1/BA.2) Variants-of-Concern (VOCs). Structural analysis reveals that 87G7 targets a patch of hydrophobic residues in the ACE2-binding site that are highly conserved in SARS-CoV-2 variants, explaining its broad neutralization capacity. 87G7 protects mice and/or hamsters against challenge with all current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Our findings may aid the development of sustainable antibody-based strategies against COVID-19 that are more resilient to SARS-CoV-2 antigenic diversity. One sentence summary A human monoclonal antibody confers broad neutralization and protection against Omicron and other SARS-CoV-2 variants

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323849

ABSTRACT

Efforts to develop and deploy effective vaccines against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue at pace. Here we describe rational antigen design through to manufacturability and vaccine efficacy, of a prefusion-stabilised Spike (S) protein, Sclamp. This strategy uses an orthogonal stabilisation approach compared to canonical vaccines, in combination with the licensed adjuvant MF59 (Seqirus). In mice, the Sclamp vaccine elicits high levels of neutralising antibodies, as well as broadly reactive and polyfunctional S-specific CD4+ and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in vivo. In the Syrian hamster challenge model (n = 70), vaccination results in reduced viral load within the lung, protection from pulmonary disease, and decreased viral shedding in daily throat swabs which correlated strongly with the neutralising antibody level. The Sclamp vaccine candidate is currently completing Phase 1 clinical evaluation, in parallel with large-scale commercial manufacture for pivotal efficacy trials and potential widespread distribution.Funding: This work was funded by CEPI.Conflict of Interest: K.J.C., D.W. and P.R.Y. are inventors of the “Molecular Clamp” patent, US 2020/0040042.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323848

ABSTRACT

Efforts to develop and deploy effective vaccines against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue at pace with more than 30 candidate vaccines now in clinical evaluation. Here we describe the preclinical development of an adjuvanted, prefusion-stabilised Spike (S) protein “Sclamp” subunit vaccine, from rational antigen design through to assessing manufacturability and vaccine efficacy. In mice, the vaccine candidate elicits high levels of neutralising antibodies to epitopes both within and outside the receptor binding domain (RBD) of S, as well as broadly reactive and polyfunctional S-specific CD4+ and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. We also show protection in Syrian hamsters, which has emerged as a robust animal model for pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infection. No evidence of vaccine enhanced disease was observed in animal challenge studies and pre-clinical safety was further demonstrated in a GLP toxicology study in rats. The Sclamp vaccine candidate is currently progressing rapidly through clinical evaluation in parallel with large-scale manufacture for pivotal efficacy trials and potential widespread distribution.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296599

ABSTRACT

Early treatment of patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting mild symptoms can reduce the number that progress to more severe disease and require hospitalization. Considering the potential for the development of drug resistance to existing therapies and the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, there is a need for an expanded armamentarium of treatment options for COVID-19. Epeleuton is a novel orally administered second-generation n-3 fatty acid with potential direct antiviral and immunomodulatory actions, and a favourable clinical safety profile. In this study we show that epeleuton inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infectious viral load, replication and disease pathology in the lungs and upper airways in the Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data support the potential utility of epeleuton in the early treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of epeleuton as an outpatient treatment and prevention of COVID-19.

8.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(4): e1269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162553

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Efforts to develop and deploy effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue at pace. Here, we describe rational antigen design through to manufacturability and vaccine efficacy of a prefusion-stabilised spike (S) protein, Sclamp, in combination with the licensed adjuvant MF59 'MF59C.1' (Seqirus, Parkville, Australia). METHODS: A panel recombinant Sclamp proteins were produced in Chinese hamster ovary and screened in vitro to select a lead vaccine candidate. The structure of this antigen was determined by cryo-electron microscopy and assessed in mouse immunogenicity studies, hamster challenge studies and safety and toxicology studies in rat. RESULTS: In mice, the Sclamp vaccine elicits high levels of neutralising antibodies, as well as broadly reactive and polyfunctional S-specific CD4+ and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in vivo. In the Syrian hamster challenge model (n = 70), vaccination results in reduced viral load within the lung, protection from pulmonary disease and decreased viral shedding in daily throat swabs which correlated strongly with the neutralising antibody level. CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp vaccine candidate is compatible with large-scale commercial manufacture, stable at 2-8°C. When formulated with MF59 adjuvant, it elicits neutralising antibodies and T-cell responses and provides protection in animal challenge models.

9.
Nature ; 586(7830): 509-515, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792975

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines to mitigate the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of COVID-19. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assembled an international panel to develop animal models for COVID-19 to accelerate the testing of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here we summarize the findings to date and provides relevant information for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Primates/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL