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2.
Indian Journal of Community Medicine ; 47(4):510-516, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2201722

ABSTRACT

Background: While long-term studies on the correlates of protection, vaccine effectiveness, and enhanced surveillance are awaited for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, studies on breakthrough infections help understand the nature and course of this illness among vaccinated individuals and guide in public health preparedness. This study aims to compare the differences in the hospitalization outcomes SARS-CoV-2 infection of fully vaccinated individuals with with those of unvaccinated and partially vaccinated individuals. Materials and Methods: Single institution observational cohort study. This study compared the differences in clinical, biochemical parameters and the hospitalization outcomes of 53 fully vaccinated individuals with those of unvaccinated (1464) and partially vaccinated (231) individuals, among a cohort of 2,080 individuals hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Descriptive statistics and propensity-score weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for clinical and laboratory parameters were used to compare the differences and to identify factors associated with outcomes. Results: Completing the course of vaccination protected individuals from developing severe COVID-19 as evidenced by lower proportions of those with hypoxia, abnormal levels of inflammatory markers, requiring ventilatory support, and death compared to unvaccinated and partially vaccinated individuals. There were no differences in these outcomes among patients who received either vaccine type approved in India. Conclusions: Efforts should be made to improve the vaccination rates as a timely measure to prepare for the upcoming waves of this highly transmissible pandemic. Vaccination rates of the communities may also guide in the planning of the health needs and appropriate use of medical resources.

3.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 7355-7372, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043242

ABSTRACT

Purpose: With millions of people being affected by COVID-19, people living with post COVID-19 clinical symptoms (PCS) are expected to rise further. The primary aim of the study was to comprehensively assess self-reported PCS and its associated risk factors among beneficiaries of Hospital Employee Scheme of a tertiary healthcare institution in Delhi. Patients and Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire developed by employing nominal group technique among individuals aged 18 years and above who were novel SARS-CoV-2 positive from January to April 2021. Participants were telephoned first, before sending the online survey link. Socio-demographic data, information on PCS along with potential risk factors, pre-existing morbidities, vaccination status, severity of acute illness and management were collected between June and July 2021. PCS was presented as relative frequency; Chi-Square test and odds ratio; adjusted values were used to rule out any association between PCS and predictors. Results: In total, 773 of 1801 eligible participants responded to the survey (completion rate 42.9%), with a median age of 34 years (IQR 27-44). Males accounted for 56.4% and PCS was present in 33.2%. The most prevalent symptoms were fatigue (79.3%), arthralgia (33.4%), myalgia (29.9%), hair loss (28.0%), headache (27.2%), breathlessness (25.3%), and sleep disturbance (25.3%). The prevalence of PCS was reduced to 12.8% at 12 weeks. Female gender, older age, oxygen supplementation, severity of acute illness, and pre-existing co-morbidities were positively associated with PCS. Vaccination (second dose) reduced the odds of developing PCS by 39% compared to unvaccinated participants (aOR 0.61; 95% CI 0.40-0.96). Conclusion: PCS affects almost all organ systems of the body, regardless of the severity of acute COVID-19 illness. Two doses of vaccine hel reduce the development of PCS.

4.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(9): 983-995, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As millions of people worldwide recover from COVID-19, a substantial proportion continue to have persistent symptoms, pulmonary function abnormalities, and radiological findings suggestive of post-COVID interstitial lung disease (ILD). To date, there is limited scientific evidence on the management of post-COVID ILD, necessitating a consensus-based approach. AREAS COVERED: A panel of experts in pulmonology and thoracic radiology was constituted. Key questions regarding the management of post-COVID ILD were identified. A search was performed on PubMed and EMBASE and updated till 1 March 2022. The relevant literature regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-COVID ILD was summarized. Subsequently, suggestions regarding the management of these patients were framed, and a consensus was obtained using the Delphi approach. Those suggestions which were approved by over 80% of the panelists were accepted. The final document was approved by all panel members. EXPERT OPINION: Dedicated facilities should be established for the care of patients with post-COVID ILD. Symptom screening, pulmonary function testing, and thoracic imaging have a role in the diagnosis. The pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options for the management of post-COVID ILD are discussed. Further research into the pathophysiology and management of post-COVID ILD will improve our understanding of this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Delphi Technique , COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Consensus , Lung/diagnostic imaging
5.
Journal of family medicine and primary care ; 11(6):2816-2823, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034197

ABSTRACT

Background: Estimating seroepidemiolgical prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody is an essential public health strategy. There is insufficient evidence of prevalence among those belonging to young age population in India. Objective: To compare the SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rate between children and adults in selected sites from India. Materials and Methods: This was a multicentric population-based seroepidemiological study conducted in selected urban and rural areas of five sites selected from four states (Delhi, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura) of India. Participants aged ≥1 year were included from different clusters of each area. Total serum antibody against SARS-CoV-2 virus was assessed qualitatively by using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: Data collection period was from 15 March 2021 to 10 June 2021. Total available data was of 4509 participants, of whom 700 were <18 years of age and 3809 were ≥18 years of age. The site-wise number of available data among those aged 2–17 years was 92, 189, 165, 146 and 108 for the sites of Delhi urban, Delhi rural, Bhubaneswar rural, Gorakhpur rural and Agartala rural area, respectively. The seroprevalence was 55.7% in the <18 years age group and 63.5% in the ≥18 years age group. The prevalence among female children was 58% and among male children was 53%. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rate among children was high and comparable to that of the adult population. Hence, it is unlikely that any future third wave by prevailing SARS-CoV-2 variant would disproportionately infect children 2 years or older.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988056

ABSTRACT

Background: The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is the gold standard to detect the neutralizing capacity of serum antibodies. Neutralizing antibodies confer protection against further infection. The present study measured the antibody level against SARS-CoV-2 among laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and evaluated whether the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies indicates virus neutralizing capacity. Methods: One hundred COVID-19 confirmed cases were recruited. Their sociodemographic details and history of COVID-19 vaccination, contact with positive COVID-19 cases, and symptoms were ascertained using a self-developed semi-structured interview schedule. Serum samples of the participants were collected within three months from the date of the positive report of COVID-19. The presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies), receptor binding domain antibodies (anti-RBD), and neutralizing antibodies were measured. Findings: Almost all the participants had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgA, IgG and IgM) (99%) and anti-RBD IgG antibodies (97%). However, only 69% had neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Anti-RBD antibody levels were significantly higher among participants having neutralizing antibodies compared with those who did not. Interpretation: The present study highlights that the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, or the presence of anti-RBD antibodies does not necessarily imply the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

7.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; : 100023, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945945

ABSTRACT

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 693-702, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: India introduced BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines in January 2021. We estimated the effectiveness of these vaccines against severe COVID-19 among individuals aged ≥45 years. METHODS: We did a multi-centric, hospital-based, case-control study between May and July 2021. Cases were severe COVID-19 patients, and controls were COVID-19 negative individuals from 11 hospitals. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for complete (2 doses ≥ 14 days) and partial (1 dose ≥ 21 days) vaccination; interval between two vaccine doses and vaccination against the Delta variant. We used the random effects logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for relevant known confounders. RESULTS: We enrolled 1143 cases and 2541 control patients. The VE of complete vaccination was 85% (95% CI: 79-89%) with AZD1222/Covishield and 71% (95% CI: 57-81%) with BBV152/Covaxin. The VE was highest for 6-8 weeks between two doses of AZD1222/Covishield (94%, 95% CI: 86-97%) and BBV152/Covaxin (93%, 95% CI: 34-99%). The VE estimates were similar against the Delta strain and sub-lineages. CONCLUSION: BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield were effective against severe COVID-19 among the Indian population during the period of dominance of the highly transmissible Delta variant in the second wave of the pandemic. An escalation of two-dose coverage with COVID-19 vaccines is critical to reduce severe COVID-19 and further mitigate the pandemic in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(6): 2816-2823, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934408

ABSTRACT

Background: Estimating seroepidemiolgical prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody is an essential public health strategy. There is insufficient evidence of prevalence among those belonging to young age population in India. Objective: To compare the SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rate between children and adults in selected sites from India. Materials and Methods: This was a multicentric population-based seroepidemiological study conducted in selected urban and rural areas of five sites selected from four states (Delhi, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura) of India. Participants aged ≥1 year were included from different clusters of each area. Total serum antibody against SARS-CoV-2 virus was assessed qualitatively by using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: Data collection period was from 15 March 2021 to 10 June 2021. Total available data was of 4509 participants, of whom 700 were <18 years of age and 3809 were ≥18 years of age. The site-wise number of available data among those aged 2-17 years was 92, 189, 165, 146 and 108 for the sites of Delhi urban, Delhi rural, Bhubaneswar rural, Gorakhpur rural and Agartala rural area, respectively. The seroprevalence was 55.7% in the <18 years age group and 63.5% in the ≥18 years age group. The prevalence among female children was 58% and among male children was 53%. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rate among children was high and comparable to that of the adult population. Hence, it is unlikely that any future third wave by prevailing SARS-CoV-2 variant would disproportionately infect children 2 years or older.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 606, 2022 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins and aspirin have been proposed for treatment of COVID-19 because of their anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties. Several observational studies have shown favourable results. There is a need for a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: In this single-center, open-label, randomised controlled trial, 900 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalisation, were randomly assigned to receive either atorvastatin 40 mg (Group A, n = 224), aspirin 75 mg (Group B, n = 225), or both (Group C, n = 225) in addition to standard of care for 10 days or until discharge whichever was earlier or only standard of care (Group D, n = 226). The primary outcome variable was clinical deterioration to WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement ≥ 6. The secondary outcome was change in serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and troponin I. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 25 (2.8%) patients: 7 (3.2%) in Group A, 3 (1.4%) in Group B, 8 (3.6%) in Group C, and 7 (3.2%) in Group D. There was no difference in primary outcome across the study groups (P = 0.463). Comparison of all patients who received atorvastatin or aspirin with the control group (Group D) also did not show any benefit [Atorvastatin: HR 1.0 (95% CI 0.41-2.46) P = 0.99; Aspirin: HR 0.7 (95% CI 0.27-1.81) P = 0.46]. The secondary outcomes revealed lower serum interleukin-6 levels among patients in Groups B and C. There was no excess of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients admitted with mild to moderate COVID-19 infection, additional treatment with aspirin, atorvastatin, or a combination of the two does not prevent clinical deterioration. Trial Registry Number CTRI/2020/07/026791 ( http://ctri.nic.in ; registered on 25/07/2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69 Suppl 1: S1-S191, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926544

ABSTRACT

Inhalational therapy, today, happens to be the mainstay of treatment in obstructive airway diseases (OADs), such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is also in the present, used in a variety of other pulmonary and even non-pulmonary disorders. Hand-held inhalation devices may often be difficult to use, particularly for children, elderly, debilitated or distressed patients. Nebulization therapy emerges as a good option in these cases besides being useful in the home care, emergency room and critical care settings. With so many advancements taking place in nebulizer technology; availability of a plethora of drug formulations for its use, and the widening scope of this therapy; medical practitioners, respiratory therapists, and other health care personnel face the challenge of choosing appropriate inhalation devices and drug formulations, besides their rational application and use in different clinical situations. Adequate maintenance of nebulizer equipment including their disinfection and storage are the other relevant issues requiring guidance. Injudicious and improper use of nebulizers and their poor maintenance can sometimes lead to serious health hazards, nosocomial infections, transmission of infection, and other adverse outcomes. Thus, it is imperative to have a proper national guideline on nebulization practices to bridge the knowledge gaps amongst various health care personnel involved in this practice. It will also serve as an educational and scientific resource for healthcare professionals, as well as promote future research by identifying neglected and ignored areas in this field. Such comprehensive guidelines on this subject have not been available in the country and the only available proper international guidelines were released in 1997 which have not been updated for a noticeably long period of over two decades, though many changes and advancements have taken place in this technology in the recent past. Much of nebulization practices in the present may not be evidence-based and even some of these, the way they are currently used, may be ineffective or even harmful. Recognizing the knowledge deficit and paucity of guidelines on the usage of nebulizers in various settings such as inpatient, out-patient, emergency room, critical care, and domiciliary use in India in a wide variety of indications to standardize nebulization practices and to address many other related issues; National College of Chest Physicians (India), commissioned a National task force consisting of eminent experts in the field of Pulmonary Medicine from different backgrounds and different parts of the country to review the available evidence from the medical literature on the scientific principles and clinical practices of nebulization therapy and to formulate evidence-based guidelines on it. The guideline is based on all possible literature that could be explored with the best available evidence and incorporating expert opinions. To support the guideline with high-quality evidence, a systematic search of the electronic databases was performed to identify the relevant studies, position papers, consensus reports, and recommendations published. Rating of the level of the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation was done using the GRADE system. Six topics were identified, each given to one group of experts comprising of advisors, chairpersons, convenor and members, and such six groups (A-F) were formed and the consensus recommendations of each group was included as a section in the guidelines (Sections I to VI). The topics included were: A. Introduction, basic principles and technical aspects of nebulization, types of equipment, their choice, use, and maintenance B. Nebulization therapy in obstructive airway diseases C. Nebulization therapy in the intensive care unit D. Use of various drugs (other than bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids) by nebulized route and miscellaneous uses of nebulization therapy E. Domiciliary/Home/Maintenance nebulization therapy; public & health care workers education, and F. Nebulization therapy in COVID-19 pandemic and in patients of other contagious viral respiratory infections (included later considering the crisis created due to COVID-19 pandemic). Various issues in different sections have been discussed in the form of questions, followed by point-wise evidence statements based on the existing knowledge, and recommendations have been formulated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Child , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Health Personnel
12.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911845

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected different countries in a differential manner. The host susceptibility and host factors are important parameters for this variability. This study aimed to assess the effect of tuberculosis (TB) endemicity and Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) coverage on COVID-19. Available data regarding TB incidence, BCG coverage (as per the World Health Organization), and COVID-19 incidence of 168 countries as of 19th September 2021. Countries were divided into four cohorts based upon annual TB incidence and BCG coverage and COVID-19 incidence and case fatality rates were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Countries with low TB incidence and low BCG coverage had the highest COVID-19 incidence per lac population. However, no significant difference was seen in COVID-19 cases fatality rate. Higher TB incidence and BCG coverage were associated with lesser incidence of COVID-19. This result paves the way for research into pathogenesis and host immune response in COVID-19.

13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 349-356, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been deployed in India. The results of the phase 3 trial have shown clinical efficacy of BBV152. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative, case-control study among employees of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India), who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and had an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the peak of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India between April 15 and May 15, 2021. Cases (test-positives) and controls (test-negatives) were matched (1:1) on the basis of age and gender. The odds of vaccination with BBV152 were compared between cases and controls and adjusted for level of occupational exposure (to COVID-19), previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and calendar time, using conditional logistic regression. The primary outcome was effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 (with the second dose received at least 14 days before testing) in reducing the odds of symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, expressed as (1 - odds ratio) × 100%. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and May 15, 2021, 3732 individuals had an RT-PCR test. Of these, 2714 symptomatic employees had data on vaccination status, and 1068 matched case-control pairs were available for analysis. The adjusted effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 after two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 50% (95% CI 33-62; p<0·0001). The adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 28 days before testing was 46% (95% CI 22-62) and administered at least 42 days before testing was 57% (21-76). After excluding participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, the adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 47% (95% CI 29-61). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 in the context of a huge surge in cases, presumably dominated by the potentially immune-evasive delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the ongoing roll-out of this vaccine to help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, while continuing the emphasis on adherence to non-pharmacological measures. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Virion/immunology
14.
MAPAN ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823918

ABSTRACT

Considerable changes in particulate matter (PM) during COVID-19 lockdown in major cities around the World demand changes in exposure assessment studies of PM. The present study shows variations in respiratory deposition dose (RDD) of both fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles before, during and after Covid-19 lockdown phases at three sites (with different pollution signatures) in Delhi—Alipur, Okhla and Pusa Road. Exposure assessment study showed mean PM2.5 RDD (± S.D.) (µg/min) for walk and sit mode during before lockdown (BL) as 2.41(± 1.20) and 0.84(± 0.42) for Alipur, 2.71(± 1.60) and 0.94(± 0.56) for Okhla, and 2.54(± 1.28) and 0.88(± 0.44) for Pusa road, which decreased drastically during Lockdown 1(L1) as 0.85(± 0.35) and 0.30(± 0.12) for Alipur, 0.83(± 0.33) and 0.29(± 0.11) for Okhla, and 0.68(± 0.28) and 0.23(± 0.10) for Pusa road, respectively. Mean PM10 RDD (± S.D.) (µg/min) for walk and sit mode during before lockdown (BL) as 3.90 (± 1.73) and 1.36 (± 0.60) for Alipur, 4.74 (± 2.04) and 1.65 (± 0.71) for Okhla, and 4.25 (± 1.69) and 1.48 (± 0.59) for Pusa Road, respectively which decreased drastically during Lockdown 1(L1) as 2.19 (± 0.95) and 0.76 (± 0.33) for Alipur, 1.73 (± 0.67) and 0.60 (± 0.23) for Okhla and, 1.45 (± 0.50) and 0.50 (± 0.17) for Pusa Road, respectively. Significant decrease in RDD concentrations (Both PM2.5 and PM10) than that of BL phase have been found during Lockdown 1(L1) phase and other successive lockdown and unlock phases—Lockdown 2(L2), Lockdown 3(L3), Lockdown 4(L4) and Unlock1 (UL1) phases. Changes in RDD values during lockdown phases were affected by lesser traffic emission, minimized industrial activities, biomass burning activities, precipitation activities, etc. Seasonal variations of RDD showed Delhites are found exposed to more fine and coarse particles’ RDD (walk and sit modes) before and after lockdown, i.e. during normal days than during lockdown phases showing potential health effects. People in sit condition found less exposed to fine and coarse RDD comparison to those in walk condition both during normal and lockdown days.

15.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 619-628, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818381

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: India witnessed a massive second surge of COVID-19 cases since March 2021 after a period of decline from September 2020. Data collected under the National Clinical Registry for COVID-19 (NCRC) were analysed to describe the differences in demographic and clinical features of COVID-19 patients recruited during these two successive waves. Methods: The NCRC, launched in September 2020, is an ongoing multicentre observational initiative, which provided the platform for the current investigation. Demographic, clinical, treatment and outcome data of hospitalized, confirmed COVID-19 patients were captured in an electronic data portal from 41 hospitals across India. Patients enrolled during September 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021 and February 1 to May 11, 2021 constituted participants of the two successive waves, respectively. Results: As on May 11, 2021, 18961 individuals were recruited in the registry, 12059 and 6903 reflecting in-patients from the first and second waves, respectively. Mean age of the patients was significantly lower in the second wave [48.7 (18.1) yr vs. 50.7 (18.0) yr, P<0.001] with higher proportion of patients in the younger age group intervals of <20, and 20-39 yr. Approximately 70 per cent of the admitted patients were ≥ 40 yr of age in both waves of the pandemic. The proportion of males were slightly lower in second wave as compared to the first [4400 (63.7%) vs. 7886 (65.4%), P=0.02]. Commonest presenting symptom was fever in both waves. In the second wave, a significantly higher proportion [2625 (48.6%) vs. 4420 (42.8%), P<0.003] complained of shortness of breath, developed ARDS [422(13%) vs. 880 (7.9%), P<0.001], required supplemental oxygen [1637 (50.3%) vs. 4771 (42.7%), P<0.001], and mechanical ventilation [260 (15.9%) vs. 530 (11.1%), P<0.001]. Mortality also significantly increased in the second wave [OR: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.52)] in all age groups except in <20 yr. Interpretation & conclusions: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was slightly different in presentation than the first wave, with a younger demography, lesser comorbidities, and presentation with breathlessness in greater frequency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(6): 622-628, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A large number of studies describing the clinicoepidemiological features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients are available but very few studies have documented similar features of the deceased. This study was aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological features and the causes of mortality of COVID-19 deceased patients admitted in a dedicated COVID center in India. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study done in adult deceased patients admitted in COVID ICU from April 4 to July 24, 2020. The clinical features, comorbidities, complications, and causes of mortality in these patients were analyzed. Pediatric deceased were analyzed separately. RESULTS: A total of 654 adult patients were admitted in the ICU during the study period and ICU mortality was 37.7% (247/654). Among the adult deceased, 65.9% were males with a median age of 56 years [interquartile range (IQR), 41.5-65] and 94.74% had one or more comorbidities, most common being hypertension (43.3%), diabetes mellitus (34.8%), and chronic kidney disease (20.6%). The most common presenting features in these deceased were fever (75.7%), cough (68.8%), and shortness of breath (67.6%). The mean initial sequential organ failure assessment score was 9.3 ± 4.7 and 24.2% were already intubated at the time of admission. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days (IQR, 3-11). The most common cause of death was sepsis with multi-organ failure (55.1%) followed by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (25.5%). All pediatric deceased had comorbid conditions and the most common cause of death in this group was severe ARDS. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of adult deceased, most were young males with age less than 65 years with one or more comorbidities, hypertension being the most common. Only 5% of the deceased had no comorbidities. Sepsis with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome was the most common cause of death. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Aggarwal R, Bhatia R, Kulshrestha K, Soni KD, Viswanath R, Singh AK, et al. Clinicoepidemiological Features and Mortality Analysis of Deceased Patients with COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Center. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021; 25(6):622-628.

17.
Lung India ; 39(3): 247-253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810866

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypoxia in patients with COVID-19 is one of the strongest predictors of mortality. Silent hypoxia is characterised by the presence of hypoxia without dyspnoea. Silent hypoxia has been shown to affect the outcome in previous studies. Methods: This was a retrospective study of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were hypoxic at presentation. Clinical, laboratory and treatment parameters in patients with silent hypoxia and dyspnoeic hypoxia were compared. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the factors predicting mortality. Results: Among 2080 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital, 811 patients were hypoxic with SpO2 <94% at the time of presentation. Among them, 174 (21.45%) did not have dyspnoea since the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Further, 5.2% of patients were completely asymptomatic for COVID-19 and were found to be hypoxic only on pulse oximetry. The case fatality rate in patients with silent hypoxia was 45.4% as compared to 40.03% in dyspnoeic hypoxic patients (P = 0.202). The odds ratio of death was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.41-2.97) in the patients with silent hypoxia after adjusting for baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment and in-hospital complications, which did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.851). Conclusion: Silent hypoxia may be the only presenting feature of COVID-19. As the case fatality rate is comparable between silent and dyspnoeic hypoxia, it should be recognised early and treated as aggressively. Because home isolation is recommended in patients with COVID-19, it is essential to use pulse oximetry in the home setting to identify these patients.

18.
Dis Model Mech ; 15(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793721

ABSTRACT

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that manifest lung abnormalities during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing of lung autopsies from 31 patients with severe COVID-19 and ten uninfected controls. Using metatranscriptomics, we identified the existence of two distinct molecular signatures of lethal COVID-19. The dominant 'classical' signature (n=23) showed upregulation of the unfolded protein response, steroid biosynthesis and complement activation, supported by massive metabolic reprogramming leading to characteristic lung damage. The rarer signature (n=8) that potentially represents 'cytokine release syndrome' (CRS) showed upregulation of cytokines such as IL1 and CCL19, but absence of complement activation. We found that a majority of patients cleared SARS-CoV-2 infection, but they suffered from acute dysbiosis with characteristic enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus cohnii in 'classical' patients and Pasteurella multocida in CRS patients. Our results suggest two distinct models of lung pathology in severe COVID-19 patients, which can be identified through complement activation, presence of specific cytokines and characteristic microbiome. These findings can be used to design personalized therapy using in silico identified drug molecules or in mitigating specific secondary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Cytokines , Humans , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(9): e240-e253, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773856

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) remains an underdiagnosed entity. Using a modified Delphi method, we have formulated a consensus statement for the diagnosis and management of CAPM. We selected 26 experts from various disciplines who are involved in managing CAPM. Three rounds of the Delphi process were held to reach consensus (≥70% agreement or disagreement) or dissensus. A consensus was achieved for 84 of the 89 statements. Pulmonary mucormycosis occurring within 3 months of COVID-19 diagnosis was labelled CAPM and classified further as proven, probable, and possible. We recommend flexible bronchoscopy to enable early diagnosis. The experts proposed definitions to categorise dual infections with aspergillosis and mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend liposomal amphotericin B (5 mg/kg per day) and early surgery as central to the management of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend response assessment at 4-6 weeks using clinical and imaging parameters. Posaconazole or isavuconazole was recommended as maintenance therapy following initial response, but no consensus was reached for the duration of treatment. In patients with stable or progressive disease, the experts recommended salvage therapy with posaconazole or isavuconazole. CAPM is a rare but under-reported complication of COVID-19. Although we have proposed recommendations for defining, diagnosing, and managing CAPM, more extensive research is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents , COVID-19 Testing , Delphi Technique , Humans
20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(3): 1140-1145, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753782

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) had generated considerable interest for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prophylaxis. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary care hospital in India, with dedicated COVID-19 care facilities. Objectives: Primary objective was incidence of adverse effects, secondary objective being efficacy in preventing COVID-19. Methods: Healthcare workers were recruited and grouped based on voluntary HCQ prophylaxis as per national guidelines. Side effects in HCQ group were graded in accordance with national cancer institute-common terminology criteria for adverse events (NCI-CTCAE) version 5.0. At 3-7-week follow-up, groups were compared for COVID-19 exposure, symptoms development and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR results. Results: Among 358 participants recruited, 216 (60.3%) were males and mean age was 31.2 ± 6.6 years. Chemoprophylaxis was initiated by 258 (72%) participants. After loading dose, 7 (2.7%) reported grade 2 and 1 (0.4%) grade 3 adverse effects. Discontinuation of HCQ due to side effects was reported in 11 (4.3%) participants. Electrocardiogram was done by 50 (19.4%) participants on HCQ; no abnormalities were noted. A total of 106 (41%) among those taking and 63 (63%) among those not taking HCQ were tested for SARS-CoV-2 due to influenza-like illness or significant exposure. Among all participants, 25 (6.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3-9.6) developed COVID-19 during the study period. In the group taking HCQ, 10 (3.9%) tested positive compared to 15 (15%) in the group not taking HCQ (P < 0.001). Odds ratio with HCQ intake was 0.34 (95% CI 0.13-0.83, P = 0.01) and the number needed to treat was 12. Conclusion: HCQ is safe at the recommended dose for pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19.

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