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1.
Brain Circ ; 8(1): 10-16, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that COVID-19 can trigger thrombosis because of a hypercoagulable state, including large-vessel occlusion ischemic strokes. Bihemispheric ischemic stroke is uncommon and is thought to indicate an embolic source. Here, we examine the findings and outcomes of patients with bihemispheric stroke in the setting of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at a quaternary academic medical center between March 1, 2020, and April 30, 2020. We identified all patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who presented with simultaneous bihemispheric ischemic strokes. RESULTS: Of 637 COVID-19 admissions during the 2-month period, 13 had a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, including 5 who developed bihemispheric cerebral infarction. Three of those 5 (60%) were female, median age was 54 (range 41-67), and all five were being managed for severe COVID-19-related pneumonia complicated by acute kidney injury and liver failure before the diagnosis of cerebral infarction was established. Five presented with elevated ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and four had lymphopenia and elevated D-dimer levels. All patients underwent neuroimaging with computed tomography for persistent depressed mentation, with or without a focal neurologic deficit, demonstrating multifocal ischemic strokes with bihemispheric involvement. Outcome was poor in all patients: two were discharged to a rehabilitation facility with moderate-to-severe disability and three (60%) patients died. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although causality cannot be established, we present the imaging and clinical findings of patients with COVID-19 and simultaneous bihemispheric ischemic strokes. Multifocal ischemic strokes with bihemispheric involvement should be considered in COVID-19 patients with severe infection and poor neurologic status and may be associated with poor outcomes.

2.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 107-113, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous case reports and case series have described brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with concurrent posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PURPOSE: We aim to compile and analyze brain MRI findings in patients with COVID-19 disease and PRES. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched on April 5th, 2021 using the terms "COVID-19", "PRES", "SARS-CoV-2" for peer-reviewed publications describing brain MRI findings in patients 21 years of age or older with evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and PRES. RESULTS: Twenty manuscripts were included in the analysis, which included descriptions of 30 patients. The average age was 57 years old. Twenty-four patients (80%) required mechanical ventilation. On brain MRI examinations, 15 (50%) and 7 (23%) of patients exhibited superimposed foci of hemorrhage and restricted diffusion respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PRES is a potential neurological complication of COVID-19 related disease. COVID-19 patients with PRES may exhibit similar to mildly greater rates of superimposed hemorrhage compared to non-COVID-19 PRES patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105434, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941358

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, has recently been associated with a myriad of hematologic derangements; in particular, an unusually high incidence of venous thromboembolism has been reported in patients with COVID-19 infection. It is postulated that either the cytokine storm induced by the viral infection or endothelial damage caused by viral binding to the ACE-2 receptor may activate a cascade leading to a hypercoaguable state. Although pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis have been well described in patients with COVID-19 infection, there is a paucity of literature on cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (cVST) associated with COVID-19 infection. cVST is an uncommon etiology of stroke and has a higher occurrence in women and young people. We report a series of three patients at our institution with confirmed COVID-19 infection and venous sinus thrombosis, two of whom were male and one female. These cases fall outside the typical demographic of patients with cVST, potentially attributable to COVID-19 induced hypercoaguability. This illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for cVST in patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly those with unexplained cerebral hemorrhage, or infarcts with an atypical pattern for arterial occlusive disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(2): 105429, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899244

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus pandemic due to the novel SARS-Cov-2 virus has proven to have systemic and multi-organ involvement with high acuity neurological conditions including acute ischemic strokes. We present a case series of consecutive COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular disease treated at our institution including 3 cases of cerebral artery dissection including subarachnoid hemorrhage. Knowledge of the varied presentations including dissections will help treating clinicians at the bedside monitor and manage these complications preemptively.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hemorrhagic Stroke/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Aneurysm/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Patient Admission , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnosis , Aneurysm, Dissecting/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hemorrhagic Stroke/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnosis , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105011, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548355

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has recently brought to attention the myriad of neuro- logic sequelae associated with Coronavirus infection including the predilection for stroke, particularly in young patients. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a well-described clinical syndrome leading to vasoconstriction in the intracra- nial vessels, and has been associated with convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage and oc- casionally cervical artery dissection. It is usually reported in the context of a trigger such as medications, recreational drugs, or the postpartum state; however, it has not been described in COVID-19 infection. We report a case of both cervical vertebral ar- tery dissection as well as convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage due to RCVS, in a pa- tient with COVID-19 infection and no other triggers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cerebral Arteries/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Vasoconstriction , Vertebral Artery Dissection/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Headache Disorders, Primary/etiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Syndrome , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation , Vertebral Artery Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Vertebral Artery Dissection/physiopathology
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