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1.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study was to describe the clinical characteristics, chest CT image findings and potential role of T cells immunity in adenovirus positive pneumonia. MATERIALS/METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of 53 adult Adv+ patients who were admitted to the Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, from May 2015 to August 2019 were included. Presence of adenovirus and other respiratory viruses was detected using by polymerase chain reaction of throat swabs samples. Clinical features and chest computed tomography (CT) findings were compared between patients with Adv+ pneumonia and Adv+ non-pneumonia. RESULTS: The top 3 most commonly occurring symptoms in Adv+ pneumonia patients were fever (66.7%), cough (63.3%), and tachypnea (16.7%). Patients with Adv+ pneumonia showed significantly higher rates of cough and fever and longer duration of hospitalization than patients with Adv+ non-pneumonia. In the Adv+ pneumonia group, consolidation (73.3%) was the most common imaging finding on chest CT scan, and the likelihood of involvement of bilateral lobes (60%) was high. Classical conspicuous consolidation with surrounding ground-glass opacity was observed in 5 (16.6%) patients with Adv+ pneumonia. Patients with Adv+ pneumonia showed a higher inhibition of T-cell immunity than did patients with Adv+ non-pneumonia, and counts of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cells may predict the presence of pneumonia in Adv+ patients. CONCLUSION: With regard to Adv+ pneumonia, the most frequent symptoms were cough and fever, and the most common CT pattern was consolidation; classical CT findings such as consolidation with surrounding ground-glass opacity could also be observed. Furthermore, our data indicated the incidence of abrogated cellular immunity in patients with Adv+ pneumonia.

2.
IEEE J Electromagn RF Microw Med Biol ; 6(1): 41-51, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731023

ABSTRACT

This paper describes an innovative remote surface sterilization approach applicable to the new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The process is based on the application of a liquid film on the surface or object under sterilization (OUS). A beacon signal is used to self-steer the transmitted power from the designed retrodirective antenna array (RDA) towards the OUS using circularly polarized fields; then, the sterilization is completed by raising and maintaining the required temperature for a certain time. Results suggest that the process takes 5 minutes or less for an angular coverage range over 60 degrees whilst abiding by the relevant safety protocols. This paper also models the power incident onto the OUS, providing consistent results with full-wave simulations. A practical RDA system is developed using a 2 × 1 microstrip patch array operating at 2.5 GHz and tested through the positioning of a representative target surface. Measurements, developed by sampling the power transmitted by the heterodyne RDA, are reported for various distances and angles, operating in the near-field of the system. To further validate the methodology, an additional experiment investigating virus deactivation through microwave heating was also developed. Measurements have been performed with an open cavity microwave oven on the Coronavirus (strain 229E) and egg white protein in a cuvette. This demonstrates that the temperature increases of aqueous films up to 70 [Formula: see text]C by remote microwave-induced heat can denature proteins and deactivate viruses. Possible applications of the method include sterilization of ambulances, medical equipment, and internet of things (IoT) devices.

3.
Anal Chem ; 94(3): 1531-1536, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621192

ABSTRACT

Fluorescence barcoding with multicolor fluorophores is limited by spectral crowding. Herein, we propose a fluorescence encoding method in a single-color channel with photoswitches. The photochromic naphthopyran was used to mediate the fluorescence of polystyrene microspheres through resonance energy transfer. The initial fluorescence intensity (F0) and the fluorescence after UV light activation (F/F0) were combined to generate hundreds of 2-dimensional barcodes. The coding capacity was further expanded with the different chemical kinetics of the photoswitches. The photoswitch-based fluorescence barcodes were applied to simultaneously and selectively detect the DNA sequences of COVID-19 (with related mutations) as a proof-of-concept for real applications. The compatibility with the state-of-the-art fluorescence microscopes and simple encoding and decoding make the method very attractive for multiplexed and high-throughput analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluorescent Dyes , Humans , Microspheres , SARS-CoV-2 , Staining and Labeling
4.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 12461-12469, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585255

ABSTRACT

Severe mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted from the lack of effective treatment. Although COVID-19 vaccines are available, their side effects have become a challenge for clinical use in patients with chronic diseases, especially cancer patients. In the current report, we applied network pharmacology and systematic bioinformatics to explore the use of biochanin A in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and COVID-19 infection. Using the network pharmacology approach, we identified two clusters of genes involved in immune response (IL1A, IL2, and IL6R) and cell proliferation (CCND1, PPARG, and EGFR) mediated by biochanin A in CRC/COVID-19 condition. The functional analysis of these two gene clusters further illustrated the effects of biochanin A on interleukin-6 production and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction in CRC/COVID-19 pathology. In addition, pathway analysis demonstrated the control of PI3K-Akt and JAK-STAT signaling pathways by biochanin A in the treatment of CRC/COVID-19. The findings of this study provide a therapeutic option for combination therapy against COVID-19 infection in CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Genistein/therapeutic use , Phytoestrogens/therapeutic use , Atlases as Topic , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Cyclin D1/genetics , Cyclin D1/immunology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1alpha/genetics , Interleukin-1alpha/immunology , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-2/immunology , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/immunology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Multigene Family , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/immunology , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction
5.
Integr Med Res ; 10: 100796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are several effective complementary and integrative therapies for patients with severe COVID-19. The trial aims to evaluate the efficacy and advantages of the qigong exercise and acupressure rehabilitation program (QARP) for treating patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 128 patients with COVID-19 aged 20 to 80 years were recruited and randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive QARP plus standard therapies or standard therapies alone. QARP consisted of acupressure therapy and qigong exercise (Liu Zi Jue). The primary outcome was measured with the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and the secondary outcomes included the modified Borg dyspnea scale (MBS), fatigue Scale-14 (FS-14), patient health questionnaire-9 scale (PHQ-9), duration of respiratory symptoms, and vital signs. RESULTS: In total, 128 patients completed the clinical trial. The QARP group and standard therapies group showed significant improvements in vital signs (except blood pressure) and clinical scales compared with baseline (p<0.05). The QARP group also showed more significant improvement in the mMRC dyspnea scale (-1.8 [-2.1, -1.6], p=0.018) and modified Borg dyspnea scale (-3.7 [95% confidence intervals (CI) -4.3, -3.1], p=0.045). The duration of cough was 14.3 days (95% CI 12.6, 16.1, p=0.046), and the length of hospital stay was 18.5 days (95% CI 17.0, 20.0, p=0.042) in the QARP group, both of which were significantly reduced compared with the standard therapies group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: QARP plus standard therapies improved lung function and symptoms such as dyspnea and cough in patients with severe COVID-19 and shortened the length of hospital stay. Therefore, QARP may be considered an effective treatment option for patients with severe COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: ChiCTR2000029994.

6.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 66(21): 2153-2156, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192980
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 560209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan City, China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. However, no special therapeutic drugs have been identified for COVID-19. The aim of this study was to search for drugs to effectively treat COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with a total of 162 adult inpatients (≥18 years old) from Ruijin Hospital (Shanghai, China) and Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) between January 27, 2020, and March 10, 2020. The enrolled COVID-19 patients were first divided into the Lianhuaqingwen (LHQW) monotherapy group and the LHQW + Arbidol combination therapy group. Then, these two groups were further classified into moderate and severe groups according to the clinical classification of COVID-19. RESULTS: The early combined usage of LHQW and Arbidol can significantly accelerate the recovery of patients with moderate COVID-19 by reducing the time to conversion to nucleic acid negativity, the time to chest CT improvement, and the length of hospital stay. However, no benefit was observed in severe COVID-19 patients treated with the combination of LHQW + Arbidol. In this study, both Arbidol and LHQW were well tolerated without serious drug-associated adverse events. CONCLUSION: The early combined usage of LHQW and Arbidol may accelerate recovery and improve the prognosis of patients with moderate COVID-19.

8.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(3)2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827715

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of pneumonia, including coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-induced pneumonia. Evidence of the benefits of vitamin C (VC) for the treatment of sepsis is accumulating. However, data revealing the targets and molecular mechanisms of VC action against sepsis are limited. In this report, a bioinformatics analysis of network pharmacology was conducted to demonstrate screening targets, biological functions, and the signaling pathways of VC action against sepsis. As shown in network assays, 63 primary causal targets for the VC action against sepsis were identified from the data, and four optimal core targets for the VC action against sepsis were identified. These core targets were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinase-1 (MAPK1), proto-oncogene c (JUN), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). In addition, all biological processes (including a top 20) and signaling pathways (including a top 20) potentially involved in the VC action against sepsis were identified. The hub genes potentially involved in the VC action against sepsis and interlaced networks from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Mapper assays were highlighted. Considering all the bioinformatic findings, we conclude that VC antisepsis effects are mechanistically and pharmacologically implicated with suppression of immune dysfunction-related and inflammation-associated functional processes and other signaling pathways. These primary predictive biotargets may potentially be used to treat sepsis in future clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Computational Biology , Sepsis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/metabolism
9.
Trials ; 21(1): 738, 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the protection provided by Shenfu injection (a traditional Chinese medicine) against development of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, two-arm ratio 1:1, parallel group clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: The patients, who are aged from 18 to 75 years old, with a confirmed or suspected diagnosis of severe or critical COVID-19, will be consecutively recruited in the study, according to the guideline on diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 (the 7th version) issued by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Exclusion criteria include pregnant and breastfeeding women, atopy or allergies to Shenfu Injection (SFI), severe underlying disease (malignant tumor with multiple metastases, uncontrolled hemopathy, cachexia, severe malnutrition, HIV), active bleeding, obstructive pneumonia caused by lung tumor, severe pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, alveolar proteinosis and allergic alveolitis, continuous use of immunosuppressive drugs in last 6 months, organ transplantation, expected death within 48 hours, the patients considered unsuitable for this study by researchers. The study is conducted in 11 ICUs of designated hospitals for COVID-19, located in 5 cities of China. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The enrolled patients will randomly receive 100 ml SFI (study group) or identical volume of saline (control group) twice a day for seven consecutive days. Patients in the both groups will be given usual care and the necessary supportive therapies as recommended by the latest edition of the management guidelines for COVID-19 (the 7th version so far). MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint is a composite of newly developed or exacerbated organ dysfunction. This is defined as an increase in the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score of two or more, indicating sepsis and involvement of at least one organ. The SOFA score will be measured for the 14 days after enrolment from the baseline (the score at randomization). The secondary endpoints are shown below: • SOFA score in total • Pneumonia severity index score • Dosage of vasoactive drugs • Ventilation free days within 28 days • Length of stay in intensive care unit • Total hospital costs to treat the patient • 28-day mortality • The incidence of adverse drug events related to SFI RANDOMISATION: The block randomization codes were generated by SAS V.9.1 for allocation of participants in this study. The ratio of random distribution is 1:1. The sealed envelope method is used for allocation concealment. BLINDING (MASKING): The patients and statistical personnel analyzing study data are both blinded. The blinding of group assignment is not adopted for the medical staff. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): This study is expected to recruit 300 patients with COVID-19, (150 in each group). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 2.0, February 15, 2020. Patient recruitment started on February 25, and will end on August 31, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000030043. Registered February 21, 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=49866 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
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