Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 25
Filter
1.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 265, 2022 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome eliciting highly heterogeneous host responses. Current prognostic evaluation methods used in clinical practice are characterized by an inadequate effectiveness in predicting sepsis mortality. Rapid identification of patients with high mortality risk is urgently needed. The phenotyping of patients will assistant invaluably in tailoring treatments. METHODS: Machine learning and deep learning technology are used to characterize the patients' phenotype and determine the sepsis severity. The database used in this study is MIMIC-III and MIMIC-IV ('Medical information Mart for intensive care') which is a large, public, and freely available database. The K-means clustering is used to classify the sepsis phenotype. Convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to predict the 28-day survival rate based on 35 blood test variables of the sepsis patients, whereas a double coefficient quadratic multivariate fitting function (DCQMFF) is utilized to predict the 28-day survival rate with only 11 features of sepsis patients. RESULTS: The patients were grouped into four clusters with a clear survival nomogram. The first cluster (C_1) was characterized by low white blood cell count, low neutrophil, and the highest lymphocyte proportion. C_2 obtained the lowest Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and the highest survival rate. C_3 was characterized by significantly prolonged PTT, high SIC, and a higher proportion of patients using heparin than the patients in other clusters. The early mortality rate of patients in C_3 was high but with a better long-term survival rate than that in C_4. C_4 contained septic coagulation patients with the worst prognosis, characterized by slightly prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT), significantly prolonged prothrombin time (PT), and high septic coagulation disease score (SIC). The survival rate prediction accuracy of CNN and DCQMFF models reached 92% and 82%, respectively. The models were tested on an external dataset (MIMIC-IV) and achieved good performance. A DCQMFF-based application platform was established for fast prediction of the 28-day survival rate. CONCLUSION: CNN and DCQMFF accurately predicted the sepsis patients' survival, while K-means successfully identified the phenotype groups. The distinct phenotypes associated with survival, and significant features correlated with mortality were identified. The findings suggest that sepsis patients with abnormal coagulation had poor outcomes, abnormal coagulation increase mortality during sepsis. The anticoagulation effects of appropriate heparin sodium treatment may improve extensive micro thrombosis-caused organ failure.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Sepsis , Hematologic Tests , Heparin/pharmacology , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
2.
Sci Signal ; 15(729): eabg8744, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784765

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Critical cases of COVID-19 are characterized by the production of excessive amounts of cytokines and extensive lung damage, which is partially caused by the fusion of SARS-CoV-2-infected pneumocytes. Here, we found that cell fusion caused by the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein induced a type I interferon (IFN) response. This function of the S protein required its cleavage by proteases at the S1/S2 and the S2' sites. We further showed that cell fusion damaged nuclei and resulted in the formation of micronuclei that were sensed by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS and led to the activation of its downstream effector STING. Phosphorylation of the transcriptional regulator IRF3 and the expression of IFNB, which encodes a type I IFN, were abrogated in cGAS-deficient fused cells. Moreover, infection with VSV-SARS-CoV-2 also induced cell fusion, DNA damage, and cGAS-STING-dependent expression of IFNB. Together, these results uncover a pathway underlying the IFN response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data suggest a mechanism by which fused pneumocytes in the lungs of patients with COVID-19 may enhance the production of IFNs and other cytokines, thus exacerbating disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Fusion , Cytokines , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 777-784, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770853

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the psychological status and the attitudes toward the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine among anesthesiologists. We expected to analyze related factors and offer them some strategies to prevent and manage psychological issues under the post COVID-19 era. Methods: Based on the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES), an online survey was designed and conducted among anesthesiologists in Shaanxi, China. Participants were asked to complete a validated questionnaire voluntarily. The following tests were performed: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Primary Care Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD), and the attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccine. Results: A total of 795 anesthesiologists completed the survey, the majority of them were female, young and middle-aged, well educated, and married. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress in this sample were 26.5%, 35.5%, and 19.9%, respectively. Longer daily working time, concomitant basic chronic disease, and COVID-19 exposure were extracted as risk factors for the psychological symptoms, while vaccination, elder age, and married status were negatively associated with them. An unsatisfied vaccination rate (71.9%) which might be linked with inadequate awareness and perception of the COVID-19 vaccine was also detected in this study. Conclusion: Anesthesiologists are still under rising pressure of psychological symptoms in the post COVID-19 era. It is imperative to afford continuous psychological support to them and ensure their mental health and professional performance.

4.
J Popul Res (Canberra) ; 39(1): 1-43, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694270

ABSTRACT

Understanding of the patterns of and changes in mortality from respiratory infectious diseases (RID) and its contribution to loss of life expectancy (LE) is inadequate in the existing literature. With rapid sociodemographic changes globally, and the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is timely to revisit the disease burden of RID. Using the approaches of life table and cause-eliminated life table based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD), the study analyses loss of LE due to RID in 195 countries/territories and its changes during the period 1990-2017. Results indicate that loss of LE due to RID stood at 1.29 years globally in 2017 globally and varied widely by age, gender, and geographic location, with men, elderly people, and populations in middle/low income countries/territories suffering a disproportionately high loss of LE due to RID. Additionally, loss of LE due to RID decreased remarkably by 0.97 years globally during the period 1990-2017 but increased slightly among populations older than 70 years and in many high income countries/territories. Results suggest that RID still pose a severe threat for population and public health, and that amid dramatic sociodemographic changes globally, the disease burden of RID may resurge. The study presents the first examination of the life-shortening effect of RID at the global and country/territory levels, providing new understanding of the changing disease burden of RID and shedding light on the potential consequences of the current COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316206

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the anxiety and depression experienced by patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 during hospitalization and isolation. Methods: : A cross-sectional survey was performed with 66 patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from February 9, 2020, to February 22, 2020. The data collected including sex, age, education level, and nucleic acid test results. Anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders were evaluated using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), respectively. Statistical analysis: SPSS 23.0 software was used for data processing, and multifactor logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent risk factors. Spearman correlation analysis was used to study the correlations among the observed indicators;P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: : The incidences of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in the suspected case group were 18.2%, 18.2%, and 39.4%;the incidences of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in the diagnosed group were 42.4%, 57.6%, and 69.7%. The incidence of sleep disorders was higher than the domestic norm, and the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.05). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for multiple factors showed that the main factor affecting anxiety was age;the main factors affecting depression were age and a positive nucleic acid test;and the main factor affecting sleep disorders was age. The anxiety, depression and sleep disorder scores were significantly positively correlated ( P <0.05). Conclusion: Patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19, especially people aged 50 years and over, have significant anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. Anxiety, depression and sleep disorders in patients with confirmed cases are more serious than those in patients with suspected cases. It is necessary to focus on the psychological state of such patients, actively conduct psychological counseling, and reduce their anxiety and depression.

6.
Antiviral Res ; 198: 105254, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654045

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the importance and urgency for potential drugs to control the pandemic. The functional importance of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in the viral life cycle, combined with structural conservation and absence of closely related homologs in humans, makes it an attractive target for designing antiviral drugs. Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are still the most promising broad-spectrum class of viral RdRp inhibitors. In this study, using our previously developed cell-based SARS-CoV-2 RdRp report system, we screened 134 compounds in the Selleckchemicals NAs library. Four candidate compounds, Fludarabine Phosphate, Fludarabine, 6-Thio-20-Deoxyguanosine (6-Thio-dG), and 5-Iodotubercidin, exhibit remarkable potency in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. Among these four compounds, 5-Iodotubercidin exhibited the strongest inhibition upon SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, and was resistant to viral exoribonuclease activity, thus presenting the best antiviral activity against coronavirus from a different genus. Further study showed that the RdRp inhibitory activity of 5-Iodotubercidin is closely related to its capacity to inhibit adenosine kinase (ADK).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tubercidin/analogs & derivatives , Cell Line , Deoxyguanosine/analogs & derivatives , Deoxyguanosine/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thionucleosides/pharmacology , Tubercidin/pharmacology , Vidarabine/analogs & derivatives , Vidarabine/pharmacology , Vidarabine Phosphate/analogs & derivatives , Vidarabine Phosphate/pharmacology
7.
Antiviral Res ; 196: 105209, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520691

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite intensive and global efforts to discover and develop novel antiviral therapies, only Remdesivir has been approved as a treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, effective antiviral therapeutics are still urgently needed to combat and halt the pandemic. Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates high potential as a reliable target for the development of antivirals. We previously developed a cell-based assay to assess the efficiency of compounds that target SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, as well as their tolerance to viral exoribonuclease-mediated proof-reading. In our previous study, we discovered that 2-((1H-indol-3-yl)thio)-N-phenyl-acetamides specifically targets the RdRp of both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus. Thus, we hypothesize that 2-((1H-indol-3-yl)thio)-N-phenyl-acetamides may also have the ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by targeting its RdRp activity. In this research, we test a compound library containing 103 of 2-((1H-indol-3-yl)thio)-N-phenyl-acetamides against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, using our cell-based assay. Among these compounds, the top five candidates strongly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity while exhibiting low cytotoxicity and resistance to viral exoribonuclease. Compound 6-72-2a is the most promising candidate with the lowest EC50 value of 1.41 µM and highest selectivity index (CC50/EC50) (above 70.92). Furthermore, our data suggests that 4-46b and 6-72-2a also inhibit the replication of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63 virus in a dose-dependent manner. Compounds 4-46b and 6-72-2a exhibit EC50 values of 1.13 µM and 0.94 µM, respectively, on HCoV-OC43 viral replication. However, higher concentrations of these compounds are needed to effectively block HCoV-NL63 replication. Together, our findings successfully identified 4-46b and 6-72-2a as promising inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.


Subject(s)
Acetamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(1): e4, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450402

ABSTRACT

Efficient annotation of alterations in binding sequences of molecular regulators can help identify novel candidates for mechanisms study and offer original therapeutic hypotheses. In this work, we developed Somatic Binding Sequence Annotator (SBSA) as a full-capacity online tool to annotate altered binding motifs/sequences, addressing diverse types of genomic variants and molecular regulators. The genomic variants can be somatic mutation, single nucleotide polymorphism, RNA editing, etc. The binding motifs/sequences involve transcription factors (TFs), RNA-binding proteins, miRNA seeds, miRNA-mRNA 3'-UTR binding target, or can be any custom motifs/sequences. Compared to similar tools, SBSA is the first to support miRNA seeds and miRNA-mRNA 3'-UTR binding target, and it unprecedentedly implements a personalized genome approach that accommodates joint adjacent variants. SBSA is empowered to support an indefinite species, including preloaded reference genomes for SARS-Cov-2 and 25 other common organisms. We demonstrated SBSA by annotating multi-omics data from over 30,890 human subjects. Of the millions of somatic binding sequences identified, many are with known severe biological repercussions, such as the somatic mutation in TERT promoter region which causes a gained binding sequence for E26 transformation-specific factor (ETS1). We further validated the function of this TERT mutation using experimental data in cancer cells. Availability:http://innovebioinfo.com/Annotation/SBSA/SBSA.php.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/instrumentation , Genomics/instrumentation , Mutation , Proteomics/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , 3' Untranslated Regions , Algorithms , Amino Acid Motifs , COVID-19/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Computers , Genetic Techniques , Genome, Human , Genomics/methods , Humans , Internet , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Phenotype , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Binding , Proteomics/methods , Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism
9.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2038-2046, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263879

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA could be detected in the blood of infected cases. From February 9, all blood establishments in Hubei province, China, implemented nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA among blood donors to ensure blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Nucleic acid test screening individually (ID) or by minipool (MP) testing was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Inactivated culture supernatant of SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells was quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and series diluted with negative plasma to evaluate the assay's performance. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the kit for MP testing was 62.94 and 33.14 copies/mL for N and ORF1ab region, respectively. ID testing could achieve 3.87 and 4.85 copies/mL for two regions using 1600 µL of plasma. Coefficients of variations of two different concentrations of reference samples were all less than 5% in MP testing. As of April 30, 2020, a total of 98,342 blood donations including 87,095 whole blood donations and 11,247 platelet donations were tested by ID or MP testing, and no RNAemia was found. In addition, Hubei province suffered precipitously decreased blood supply, especially in February: 86% reduction compared with the same period of 2019. CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid test screening of SARS-CoV-2 on blood donations is suitable in blood establishments using the commercial real-time PCR detection kit based on available instruments. The negative result indicated that SARS-CoV-2 appears to be no direct threat to blood safety but raises some serious issues for general blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/diagnosis , Animals , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Cultivation
10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(17): 4427-4439, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252107

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid aptamers are small fragments of DNA or RNA molecules binding specifically to targets, which can be obtained through in vitro screening via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important tumor marker, whose level in patients is of great significance for diagnosis of many diseases. Here, we report the identification of LDH aptamers by 9 rounds of screening from a length-mixed single-stranded DNA library using the SELEX technology. After the 3rd and 7th rounds of aptamer screening, affinity was significantly improved, and fluorescence quantitative analysis showed stronger affinity for the aptamers selected from the 7th to 9th rounds of screening. After high-throughput sequencing, motif analysis, and secondary structure prediction, we finally chose and further investigated 15 candidate LDH aptamer sequences with obvious differences in secondary structure in the 7th to 9th rounds of screening. Among them, LDH7-1, LDH7-9, LDH8-2, and LDH9-1 were shown to bind to LDH protein with high affinity and specificity with Kd < 25 nM. This study provides new ideas for rapid detection of LDH protein content and enzyme activity, thus contributing to the development of rapid medical detection.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , DNA, Single-Stranded/chemistry , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/chemistry , SELEX Aptamer Technique/methods , Base Sequence , Binding Sites , Humans
11.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1535-1544, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243273

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a fatal respiratory illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The identification of potential drugs is urgently needed to control the pandemic. RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a conserved protein within RNA viruses and plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, thus making it an attractive target for development of antiviral drugs. In this study, 101 quinoline and quinazoline derivatives were screened against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp using a cell-based assay. Three compounds I-13e, I-13h, and I-13i exhibit remarkable potency in inhibiting RNA synthesis driven by SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and relatively low cytotoxicity. Among these three compounds, I-13e showed the strongest inhibition upon RNA synthesis driven by SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, the resistance to viral exoribonuclease activity and the inhibitory effect on the replication of CoV, thus holding potential of being drug candidate for treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Quinazolines , Quinolines , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis
12.
Antiviral Res ; 190: 105078, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198616

ABSTRACT

Antiviral therapeutics is one effective avenue to control and end this devastating COVID-19 pandemic. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2 has been recognized as a valuable target of antivirals. However, the cell-free SARS-CoV-2 RdRp biochemical assay requires the conversion of nucleotide prodrugs into the active triphosphate forms, which regularly occurs in cells yet is a complicated multiple-step chemical process in vitro, and thus hinders the utility of this cell-free assay in the rapid discovery of RdRp inhibitors. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 exoribonuclease provides the proof-reading capacity to viral RdRp, thus creates relatively high resistance threshold of viral RdRp to nucleotide analog inhibitors, which must be examined and evaluated in the development of this class of antivirals. Here, we report a cell-based assay to evaluate the efficacy of nucleotide analog compounds against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and assess their tolerance to viral exoribonuclease-mediated proof-reading. By testing seven commonly used nucleotide analog viral polymerase inhibitors, Remdesivir, Molnupiravir, Ribavirin, Favipiravir, Penciclovir, Entecavir and Tenofovir, we found that both Molnupiravir and Remdesivir showed the strong inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, with EC50 value of 0.22 µM and 0.67 µM, respectively. Moreover, our results suggested that exoribonuclease nsp14 increases resistance of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp to nucleotide analog inhibitors. We also determined that Remdesivir presented the highest resistance to viral exoribonuclease activity in cells. Therefore, we have developed a cell-based SARS-CoV-2 RdRp assay which can be deployed to discover SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitors that are urgently needed to treat COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , A549 Cells , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1383, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114711

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang in China. From January to April 2020, 38,144 healthy blood donors in the three cities were tested for total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 followed by pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, IgG, and IgM antibody testing. Finally, a total of 398 donors were confirmed positive. The age- and sex-standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among 18-60 year-old adults (18-65 year-old in Shenzhen) was 2.66% (95% CI: 2.24%-3.07%) in Wuhan, 0.033% (95% CI: 0.0029%-0.267%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0028% (95% CI: 0.0001%-0.158%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. Female sex and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among blood donors in Wuhan. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(6): 1555-1567, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082559

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become one major threat to human population health. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) presents an ideal target of antivirals, whereas nucleoside analogs inhibitor is hindered by the proofreading activity of coronavirus. Herein, we report that corilagin (RAI-S-37) as a non-nucleoside inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, binds directly to RdRp, effectively inhibits the polymerase activity in both cell-free and cell-based assays, fully resists the proofreading activity and potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection with a low 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 0.13 µmol/L. Computation modeling predicts that RAI-S-37 lands at the palm domain of RdRp and prevents conformational changes required for nucleotide incorporation by RdRp. In addition, combination of RAI-S-37 with remdesivir exhibits additive activity against anti-SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. Together with the current data available on the safety and pharmacokinetics of corilagin as a medicinal herbal agent, these results demonstrate the potential of being developed into one of the much-needed SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.

15.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(3): 300-309, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030468

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 threatens the whole world, which catalyzes a variety of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test (NAT) kits. To monitor test quality and evaluate NAT kits, quality control materials that best simulate real clinical samples are needed. In this study, the performance of SARS-CoV-2 cell culture supernatant, PCDH-based pseudovirus, and MS2-based pseudovirus as quality control materials was compared. PCDH-based pseudovirus was found to be more similar in characteristics to SARS-CoV-2 particle, and more suitable for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 NAT kits than MS2-based pseudovirus. Proper detection using sensitive and precise NAT kits is essential to guarantee diagnosis. Thus, limit of detection, precision, anti-inference ability, and cross-reactivity of NAT kits from PerkinElmer, Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co, Ltd, Shanghai Kehua Bio-Engineering Co, Ltd, Sansure Biotech Inc., Da An Gene Co, Ltd, Shanghai BioGerm Medical Biotechnology Co, Ltd, and Applied Biological Technologies Co, Ltd, were compared using PCDH-based pseudovirus. For the seven kits evaluated, N gene was more sensitive than ORF1ab gene in most kits, whereas E gene was most sensitive among the three genes in Shanghai Kehua Bio-Engineering Co, Ltd, and Applied Biological Technologies Co, Ltd. PerkinElmer got the lowest limit of detection for N gene at 11.61 copies/mL, and the value was 34.66 copies/mL for ORF1ab gene. All of the kits showed good precision, with CV values less than 5%, as well as acceptable anti-interference ability of 2 mg/L human genomic DNA. No cross-reactivity was observed with other respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Humans , Limit of Detection , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Science & Technology Review ; 38(4):68-76, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-825791

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the emotional state and the social mentality of the Chinese public during the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia pandemic, the data of two online public surveys conducted on February 18-20 and 21-22 are analyzed. The results show that nearly 1/3 of the respondents have some degree of depression symptoms, and 22.4% have significant anxiety symptoms. The current level of depression is higher than in the 2008 national survey. Among various occupational groups, the anxiety and the depression are significantly higher among the unemployed, and the mental health state of private enterprises, self-employed and entrepreneurs is in a relatively low level. In terms of social mentality, the public are in different psychological stages, some of them are prone to be depressive and angry. The public tend to be more altruistic under pressure, especially toward medical workers. According to the survey results, the current mental health is a very important issue to work upon, in the current epidemic it is necessary to persistently strengthen the public mental health publicity and the psychological counseling, to deal with the mental health problems after the epidemic, to strengthen the construction of the social psychological service system, and to improve the public mental health literacy in the future.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3810, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690732

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has posed an unprecedented threat to global public health. However, the interplay between the viral pathogen of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and host innate immunity is poorly understood. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 induces overt but delayed type-I interferon (IFN) responses. By screening 23 viral proteins, we find that SARS-CoV-2 NSP1, NSP3, NSP12, NSP13, NSP14, ORF3, ORF6 and M protein inhibit Sendai virus-induced IFN-ß promoter activation, whereas NSP2 and S protein exert opposite effects. Further analyses suggest that ORF6 inhibits both type I IFN production and downstream signaling, and that the C-terminus region of ORF6 is critical for its antagonistic effect. Finally, we find that IFN-ß treatment effectively blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication. In summary, our study shows that SARS-CoV-2 perturbs host innate immune response via both its structural and nonstructural proteins, and thus provides insights into the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immune Evasion , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Signal Transduction , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , Mutation , Open Reading Frames , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3028-3034, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679284

ABSTRACT

With the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), screening of effective drugs has became the emphasis of research today; furthermore, screening of Chinese classic prescriptions has became one of the directions for drug development. This study analyzed the application of classic prescriptions in the diagnosis and treatment schemes based on the Diagnosis and Treatment Schemes for Coronavirus Disease at the country, provincial and municipal levels, and further explored its disrobing effect on COVID-19 disease severe phase network, and selected representative prescriptions for core target screening and gene enrichment analysis, so as to reveal its mechanism of action. Among them, 13 prescriptions were found to be used for 10 times or more, including Maxing Shigan Tang, Yinqiao San, Shengjiang San, Dayuan Drink, Xuanbai Chengqi Decoction. In addition, the COVID-19 efficacy prediction analysis platform(TCMATCOV platform) was used to calculate the network disturbances of the Chinese classic prescriptions involved. Based on the prediction results, 68 classic prescriptions were assessed on the COVID-19 disease network robustness disturbance. The average disturbance scores for the interaction confidence scores were ranked to be 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 from the highest to the lowest. There were 7 prescriptions with a score of 17 or more, and 50 prescriptions with a score of 13 or more. Among them, the top three prescriptions were Ganlu Xiaodu Dan(18.19), Lengxiao Wan(17.74), and Maxing Shigan Tang(17.62). After further mining the action targets of these three prescriptions, it was found that COVID-19 disease-specific factors Ccl2, IL10, IL6 and TNF were all the targets of three prescriptions. Through the enrichment analysis of the biological processes of the core targets, it was found that the three prescriptions may prevent the development of the disease by affecting cell-to-cell adhesion, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, and chronic inflammatory responses to COVID-19 at the severe phase. This study showed that the TCMATCOV platform could evaluate the disturbance effect of different prescriptions on the COVID-19 disease network, and predict potential effectiveness based on the robustness of drug-interfered pneumonia disease networks, so as to provide a reference for further experiments or clinical verification.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2257-2264, 2020 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378552

ABSTRACT

There is urgent need to discover effective traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) for treating coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). The development of a bioinformatic tool is beneficial to predict the efficacy of TCM against COVID-19. Here we deve-loped a prediction platform TCMATCOV to predict the efficacy of the anti-coronavirus pneumonia effect of TCM, based on the interaction network imitating the disease network of COVID-19. This COVID-19 network model was constructed by protein-protein interactions of differentially expressed genes in mouse pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV and cytokines specifically up-regulated by COVID-19. TCMATCOV adopted quantitative evaluation algorithm of disease network disturbance after multi-target drug attack to predict potential drug effects. Based on the TCMATCOV platform, 106 TCM were calculated and predicted. Among them, the TCM with a high disturbance score account for a high proportion of the classic anti-COVID-19 prescriptions used by clinicians, suggesting that TCMATCOV has a good prediction ability to discover the effective TCM. The five flavors of Chinese medicine with a disturbance score greater than 1 are mainly spicy and bitter. The main meridian of these TCM is lung, heart, spleen, liver, and stomach meridian. The TCM related with QI and warm TCM have higher disturbance score. As a prediction tool for anti-COVID-19 TCM prescription, TCMATCOV platform possesses the potential to discovery possible effective TCM against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL