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1.
Lancet ; 401(10393): e21-e33, 2023 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of COVID-19 remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from hospital and investigate the associated risk factors, in particular disease severity. METHODS: We did an ambidirectional cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. Patients who died before follow-up; patients for whom follow-up would be difficult because of psychotic disorders, dementia, or readmission to hospital; those who were unable to move freely due to concomitant osteoarthropathy or immobile before or after discharge due to diseases such as stroke or pulmonary embolism; those who declined to participate; those who could not be contacted; and those living outside of Wuhan or in nursing or welfare homes were all excluded. All patients were interviewed with a series of questionnaires for evaluation of symptoms and health-related quality of life, underwent physical examinations and a 6-min walking test, and received blood tests. A stratified sampling procedure was used to sample patients according to their highest seven-category scale during their hospital stay as 3, 4, and 5-6, to receive pulmonary function test, high resolution CT of the chest, and ultrasonography. Enrolled patients who had participated in the Lopinavir Trial for Suppression of SARS-CoV-2 in China received SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests. Multivariable adjusted linear or logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between disease severity and long-term health consequences. FINDINGS: In total, 1733 of 2469 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled after 736 were excluded. Patients had a median age of 57·0 years (IQR 47·0-65·0) and 897 (52%) were male and 836 (48%) were female. The follow-up study was done from June 16 to Sept 3, 2020, and the median follow-up time after symptom onset was 186·0 days (175·0-199·0). Fatigue or muscle weakness (52%, 855 of 1654) and sleep difficulties (26%, 437 of 1655) were the most common symptoms. Anxiety or depression was reported among 23% (367 of 1616) of patients. The proportions of 6-min walking distance less than the lower limit of the normal range were 17% for those at severity scale 3, 13% for severity scale 4, and 28% for severity scale 5-6. The corresponding proportions of patients with diffusion impairment were 22% for severity scale 3, 29% for scale 4, and 56% for scale 5-6, and median CT scores were 3·0 (IQR 2·0-5·0) for severity scale 3, 4·0 (3·0-5·0) for scale 4, and 5·0 (4·0-6·0) for scale 5-6. After multivariable adjustment, patients showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1·61 (95% CI 0·80-3·25) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 4·60 (1·85-11·48) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for diffusion impairment; OR 0·88 (0·66-1·17) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and OR 1·76 (1·05-2·96) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for anxiety or depression, and OR 0·87 (0·68-1·11) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 2·75 (1·61-4·69) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for fatigue or muscle weakness. Of 94 patients with blood antibodies tested at follow-up, the seropositivity (96·2% vs 58·5%) and median titres (19·0 vs 10·0) of the neutralising antibodies were significantly lower compared with at the acute phase. 107 of 822 participants without acute kidney injury and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 or more at acute phase had eGFR less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 at follow-up. INTERPRETATION: At 6 months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were mainly troubled with fatigue or muscle weakness, sleep difficulties, and anxiety or depression. Patients who were more severely ill during their hospital stay had more severe impaired pulmonary diffusion capacities and abnormal chest imaging manifestations, and are the main target population for intervention of long-term recovery. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, and Peking Union Medical College Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Discharge , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Quality of Life , Fatigue
2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2202263, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295932

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain and Omicron sublineages induced by BA.1 breakthrough infection in vaccinees of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines have not been well characterized. Here, we report that BA.1 breakthrough infection induced mucosal sIgA and resulted in higher IgG titers against prototype strain and Omicron sublineages in vaccinees than in vaccine naïve-infected individuals. BA.1 breakthrough infection boosted antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis to prototype strain and BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.2.75 but not BA.4/5 and induced neutralization against prototype strain and BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.2.75, and BA.4/5 but not BF.7, BQ.1, and XBB. In total, BA.1 breakthrough infection individuals produced less extensive sIgA, plasma IgG and NAb responses against Omicron sublineages compared with those against prototype strain. Further, BA.1 breakthrough infection induced recall B cell response to prototype strain and Omicron variant, primarily targeting memory B cells producing conserved epitopes. Memory T cell responses against Omicron is largely preserved. Individuals with vaccine booster did not induce more beneficial immune responses to Omicron sublineages upon BA.1 breakthrough infection than those with primary vaccine dose only. The breakthrough infection individuals produced stronger adaptive immunity than those of inactivated vaccine-healthy individuals. These data have important implications for understanding the vaccine effectiveness and adaptive immunity to breakthrough infection in individuals fully immunized with inactivated vaccines. Omicron sublineages, especially for those emerged after BA.4/5 strain, evade NAb responses induced by BA.1 breakthrough infection. It is urgent to optimize the vaccine immunogen design and formulations to SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Breakthrough Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
5.
Heliyon ; 9(3):e13963-e13963, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2261573

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 at the end of 2019, the Chinese government has imposed strict control measures on affected cities, which may have impacted the spatial and temporal pattern of carbon dioxide emissions. This paper follows the quantitative analysis method, experimental method, mathematical method, etc., and quantitatively studies the impact of the epidemic on China's carbon emissions. The combination model of ARIMA and BP neural network is used to predict the actual impact of epidemic situation on China's carbon emissions in 2020, and the spatial autocorrelation analysis method is used to analyze the spatial characteristics of China's provincial carbon emissions, which indicate that China's carbon emissions have consistently maintained a growth trend, from 2.05 billion tons in 2005 to 3.89 billion tons in 2019. Furthermore, the growth rate of carbon emissions and the changing trend of the emission intensity are the same, dropping from 12% in 2005 to 3% in 2019. The emission intensity also dropped from 1.1 in 2005 to 0.6 in 2019, indicating that the trend of increasing carbon emissions in northern provinces and Xinjiang changed significantly from 2005 to 2019. The overall carbon emissions of the 30 provinces in 2020 are predicted to be 4.068 billion tons, while the actual energy carbon emissions will be 3.921 billion tons, suggesting that the pandemic significantly reduced carbon emissions. Among affected provinces, carbon emissions from Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanghai, and other places changed significantly, from 0.99, 0.25, 0.43, and 76 million tons in 2019 to 0.88, 0.24, 0.42, and 72 million tons in 2020, respectively. The results show a positive spatial correlation between China's provincial carbon emissions;the high-high and bottom-high agglomeration are mainly among the provinces, mainly distributed in North China and East China. Although the pandemic seriously impacts China's carbon emissions, each province's spatial relationship has not changed significantly.

6.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1521(1): 46-66, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228475

ABSTRACT

Positive-strand RNA viruses have been the cause of several recent outbreaks and epidemics, including the Zika virus epidemic in 2015, the SARS outbreak in 2003, and the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. On June 18-22, 2022, researchers focusing on positive-strand RNA viruses met for the Keystone Symposium "Positive-Strand RNA Viruses" to share the latest research in molecular and cell biology, virology, immunology, vaccinology, and antiviral drug development. This report presents concise summaries of the scientific discussions at the symposium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 446: 130686, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165550

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has lasted two and a half years and the infections caused by the viral contamination are still occurring. Developing efficient disinfection technology is crucial for the current epidemic or infectious diseases caused by other pathogenic microorganisms. Gas plasma can efficiently inactivate different microorganisms, therefore, in this study, a combination of water spray and plasma-activated air was established for the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms. The combined treatment efficiently inactivated the Omicron-pseudovirus through caused the nitration modification of the spike proteins and also the pathogenic bacteria. The combined treatment was improved with a funnel-shaped nozzle to form a temporary relatively sealed environment for the treatment of the contaminated area. The improved device could efficiently inactivate the Omicron-pseudovirus and bacteria on the surface of different materials including quartz, metal, leather, plastic, and cardboard and the particle size of the water spray did not affect the inactivation effects. This study supplied a disinfection strategy based on plasma-activated air for the inactivation of contaminated pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Bacteria
8.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2459483.v1

ABSTRACT

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, which is an important target for anti-cancer therapy. In this work, we conducted a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study on 3867 FLT3 inhibitors we collected. MACCS fingerprints, ECFP4 fingerprints, and TT fingerprints were used to represent the inhibitors in the dataset. A total of 36 classification models were built based on support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), and deep neural networks (DNN) algorithms. Model 3D_3 built by deep neural networks (DNN) and TT fingerprints performed best on the test set with the highest prediction accuracy of 85.83% and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.72 and also performed well on the external test set. In addition, we clustered 3867 inhibitors into 11 subsets by K-Means algorithm to figure out the structural characteristics of the reported FLT3 inhibitors. Finally, we analyzed the SAR of FLT3 inhibitors by RF algorithm based on ECFP4 fingerprints. The results showed that 2-aminopyrimidine, 1-ethylpiperidine, 2,4-bis(methylamino)pyrimidine, amino-aromatic heterocycle, [(2E)-but-2-enyl]dimethylamine, but-2-enyl, and alkynyl were typical fragments among highly active inhibitors. Besides, three scaffolds in Subset_A (Subset 4), Subset_B, and Subset_C showed a significant relationship to inhibition activity targeting FLT3.


Subject(s)
Myopathies, Structural, Congenital
9.
BMC Med Imaging ; 22(1): 149, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare and highly heterogeneous tumor in clinical practice. Pathological grading of the soft tissue sarcoma is a key factor in patient prognosis and treatment planning while the clinical data of soft tissue sarcoma are imbalanced. In this paper, we propose an effective solution to find the optimal imbalance machine learning model for predicting the classification of soft tissue sarcoma data. METHODS: In this paper, a large number of features are first obtained based on [Formula: see text]WI images using the radiomics methods.Then, we explore the methods of feature selection, sampling and classification, get 17 imbalance machine learning models based on the above features and performed extensive experiments to classify imbalanced soft tissue sarcoma data. Meanwhile, we used another dataset splitting method as well, which could improve the classification performance and verify the validity of the models. RESULTS: The experimental results show that the combination of extremely randomized trees (ERT) classification algorithm using SMOTETomek and the recursive feature elimination technique (RFE) performs best compared to other methods. The accuracy of RFE+STT+ERT is 81.57% , which is close to the accuracy of biopsy, and the accuracy is 95.69% when using another dataset splitting method. CONCLUSION: Preoperative predicting pathological grade of soft tissue sarcoma in an accurate and noninvasive manner is essential. Our proposed machine learning method (RFE+STT+ERT) can make a positive contribution to solving the imbalanced data classification problem, which can favorably support the development of personalized treatment plans for soft tissue sarcoma patients.


Subject(s)
Machine Learning , Sarcoma , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Algorithms , Humans
10.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-7, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008427

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been assumed to affect mental health of college students. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to examine levels of knowledge and anxiety about COVID-19, as well as attitude towards the back-to-school arrangement among college students in China in May 2020. A total of 716 students (312 males, 404 females) were included. Only 38.1% of the participants showed good knowledge about COVID-19. Moderate and severe anxiety was observed among 7.6% of the students. There were 15.6% of the participants opposing the back-to-school arrangement. Female students had more risk of having anxiety symptoms and negative attitude towards the back-to-school arrangement (p < 0.05). In addition, the level of anxiety was positively associated with the negative attitude towards the back-to-school arrangement (r = 0.11, p < 0.05). We therefore suggest that health education and psychological interventions should be given to college students, especially females and those without health-related backgrounds during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Chin Geogr Sci ; 32(5): 824-833, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007247

ABSTRACT

Depending on various government policies, COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease-19) lockdowns have had diverse impacts on global aerosol concentrations. In 2022, Changchun, a provincial capital city in Northeast China, suffered a severe COVID-19 outbreak and implemented a very strict lockdown that lasted for nearly two months. Using ground-based polarization Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), we detected real-time aerosol profile parameters (EC, extinction coefficient; DR, depolarization ratio; AOD, aerosol optical depth), as well as air-quality and meteorological indexes from 1 March to 30 April in 2021 and 2022 to quantify the effects of lockdown on aerosol concentrations. The period in 2022 was divided into three stages: pre-lockdown (1-10 March), strict lockdown (11 March to 10 April), and partial lockdown (11-30 April). The results showed that, during the strict lockdown period, compared with the pre-lockdown period, there were substantial reductions in aerosol parameters (EC and AOD), and this was consistent with the concentrations of the atmospheric pollutants PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm), and the O3 concentration increased by 8.3%. During the strict lockdown, the values of EC within 0-1 km and AOD decreased by 16.0% and 11.2%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding period in 2021. Lockdown reduced the conventional and organized emissions of air pollutants, and it clearly delayed the time of seasonal emissions from agricultural burning; however, it did not decrease the number of farmland fire points. Considering meteorological factors and eliminating the influence of wind-blown dust events, the results showed that reductions from conventional organized emission sources during the strict lockdown contributed to a 30% air-quality improvement and a 22% reduction in near-surface extinction (0-2 km). Aerosols produced by urban epidemic prevention and disinfection can also be identified using the EC. Regarding seasonal sources of agricultural straw burning, the concentrated burning induced by the epidemic led to the occurrence of heavy pollution from increased amounts of atmospheric aerosols, with a contribution rate of 62%. These results indicate that there is great potential to further improve air quality in the local area, and suggest that the comprehensive use of straw accompanied by reasonable planned burning is the best way to achieve this.

12.
Economic Analysis and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1996116

ABSTRACT

As an innovative and convenient micro-mobility service, dockless bicycle-sharing systems (DBSSs) are essential to achieving green recovery of the transportation sector in post-COVID-19 world. DBSS green externalities on climate change have attracted the attention of scholars and have revealed different roles in carbon mitigation in different studies. In this study, Shanghai is employed as a case city to analyze DBSS green externalities. The direct carbon emissions reduced by DBSS cycling are calculated and the indirect carbon mitigation by a DBSS in promoting use of low-carbon public transport is estimated. The carbon consumption of DBSS from the perspective of life-cycle assessment is also valued. The results show that DBSSs have much greater carbon mitigation potential in promoting the use of low-carbon public transport than do cycling routes. The production, maintenance, and rebalance of DBSSs may produce a large number of carbon emissions and even offset their green benefits. The application of (electric) e-bikes and the integration of DBSSs and public transportation should be the key issue for policy makers to promote the green recovery of the transport sector. This study calls for further studies to demonstrate the green externality of DBSSs based on the detailed operation dataset.

13.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(5): e348-e356, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984300

ABSTRACT

Background: The memory immune response is crucial for preventing reinfection or reducing disease severity. However, the robustness and functionality of the humoral and T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown 12 months after initial infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the durability and functionality of the humoral and T-cell response to the original SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants in recovered patients 12 months after infection. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, we recruited participants who had recovered from COVID-19 and who were discharged from the Wuhan Research Center for Communicable Disease Diagnosis and Treatment at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Wuhan, China, between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. Patients received a follow-up visit between Dec 16, 2020, and Jan 27, 2021. We evaluated the presence of IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, Spike protein, and the receptor-binding domain 12 months after initial infection, using ELISA. Neutralising antibodies against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, and the D614G, beta (B.1.351), and delta (B.1.617.2) variants were analysed using a microneutralisation assay in a subset of plasma samples. We analysed the magnitude and breadth of the SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T-cell responses using the interferon γ (IFNγ) enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISpot) assay and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay. The antibody response and T-cell response (ie, IFN-γ, interleukin-2 [IL-2], and tumour necrosis factor α [TNFα]) were analysed by age and disease severity. Antibody titres were also analysed according to sequelae symptoms. Findings: We enrolled 1096 patients, including 289 (26·4%) patients with moderate initial disease, 734 (67·0%) with severe initial disease, and 73 (6·7%) with critical initial disease. Paired plasma samples were collected from 141 patients during the follow-up visits for the microneutralisation assay. PBMCs were collected from 92 of 141 individuals at the 12-month follow-up visit, of which 80 were analysed by ELISpot and 92 by ICS assay to detect the SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T-cell responses. N-IgG (899 [82·0%]), S-IgG (1043 [95·2%]), RBD-IgG (1032 [94·2%]), and neutralising (115 [81·6%] of 141) antibodies were detectable 12 months after initial infection in most individuals. Neutralising antibodies remained stable 6 and 12 months after initial infection in most individuals younger than 60 years. Multifunctional T-cell responses were detected for all SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins tested. There was no difference in the magnitude of T-cell responses or cytokine profiles in individuals with different symptom severity. Moreover, we evaluated both antibody and T-cell responses to the D614G, beta, and delta viral strains. The degree of reduced in-vitro neutralising antibody responses to the D614G and delta variants, but not to the beta variant, was associated with the neutralising antibody titres after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also found poor neutralising antibody responses to the beta variant; 83 (72·2%) of 115 patients showed no response at all. Moreover, the neutralising antibody titre reduction of the recovered patient plasma against the delta variant was similar to that of the D614G variant and lower than that of the beta variant. By contrast, T-cell responses were cross-reactive to the beta variant in most individuals. Importantly, T-cell responses could be detected in all individuals who had lost the neutralising antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 12 months after the initial infection. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralising antibody and T-cell responses were retained 12 months after initial infection. Neutralising antibodies to the D614G, beta, and delta viral strains were reduced compared with those for the original strain, and were diminished in general. Memory T-cell responses to the original strain were not disrupted by new variants. This study suggests that cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses could be particularly important in the protection against severe disease caused by variants of concern whereas neutralising antibody responses seem to reduce over time. Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation, and UK Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , T-Lymphocytes
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5746-5757, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976742

ABSTRACT

We evaluated and compared humoral immune responses after inactivated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination among naïve individuals, asymptomatically infected individuals, and recovered patients with varying severity. In this multicenter, prospective cohort study, blood samples from 666 participants were collected before and after 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccination. Among 392 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-naïve individuals, the seroconversion rate increased significantly from 51.8% (median antispike protein pan-immunoglobulins [S-Igs] titer: 0.8 U/ml) after the first dose to 96% (median S-Igs titer: 79.5 U/ml) after the second dose. Thirty-two percent of naïve individuals had detectable neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the original strain but all of them lost neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. In 274 individuals with natural infection, humoral immunity was significantly improved after a single vaccine dose, with median S-Igs titers of 596.7, 1176, 1086.5, and 1828 U/ml for asymptomatic infections, mild cases, moderate cases, and severe/critical cases, respectively. NAb titers also improved significantly. However, the second dose did not substantially increase antibody levels. Although a booster dose is needed for those without infection, our findings indicate that recovered patients should receive only a single dose of the vaccine, regardless of the clinical severity, until there is sufficient evidence to confirm the benefits of a second dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
15.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 188, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the humoral immunity of patients with underlying diseases after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 is essential for adopting effective prevention and control strategies. The purpose of this study is to analyze the seroprevalence of people with underlying diseases and the dynamic change features of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. METHODS: We selected 100 communities in Wuhan using the probability-proportional-to-size sampling method. From these 100 communities, we randomly selected households according to a list provided by the local government. Individuals who have lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since December 2019 and were ≥ 40 years old were included. From April 9-13, 2020, community staff invited all selected individuals to the community healthcare center in batches by going door-to-door or telephone. All participants completed a standardized electronic questionnaire simultaneously. Finally, 5 ml of venous blood was collected from all participants. Blood samples were tested for the presence of pan-immunoglobulins, IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and neutralising antibodies were assessed. During the period June 11-13, 2020 and October 9-December 5, 2020, all family members of a positive family and matched negative families were followed up twice. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in people with underlying diseases was 6.30% (95% CI [5.09-7.52]), and that of people without underlying diseases was 6.12% (95% CI [5.33-6.91]). A total of 313 people were positive for total antibodies at baseline, of which 97 had underlying disease. At the first follow-up, a total of 212 people were positive for total antibodies, of which 66 had underlying disease. At the second follow-up, a total of 238 people were positive for total antibodies, of which 68 had underlying disease. A total of 219 participants had three consecutive serum samples with positive total antibodies at baseline. The IgG titers decreased significantly with or without underlying diseases (P < 0.05) within the 9 months at least, while the neutralizing antibody titer remained stable. The titer of asymptomatic patients was lower than that of symptomatic patients (baseline, P = 0.032, second follow-up, P = 0.018) in the underlying diseases group. CONCLUSION: Our research focused on the serological changes of people with and without underlying diseases in a state of single natural infection. Regardless of the underlying diseases, the IgG titer decreased significantly over time, while there was no significant difference in the decline rate of IgG between with and without underlying diseases. Moreover, the neutralizing antibody titer remained relatively stable within the 9 months at least.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
J Mol Biol ; 434(3): 167243, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851574

ABSTRACT

Brain organoids are self-organized three-dimensional aggregates generated from pluripotent stem cells. They exhibit complex cell diversities and organized architectures that resemble human brain development ranging from neural tube formation, neuroepithelium differentiation, neurogenesis and gliogenesis, to neural circuit formation. Rapid advancements in brain organoid culture technologies have allowed researchers to generate more accurate models of human brain development and neurological diseases. These models also allow for direct investigation of pathological processes associated with infectious diseases affecting the nervous system. In this review, we first briefly summarize recent advancements in brain organoid methodologies and neurodevelopmental processes that can be effectively modeled by brain organoids. We then focus on applications of brain organoids to investigate the pathogenesis of neurotropic viral infection. Finally, we discuss limitations of the current brain organoid methodologies as well as applications of other organ specific organoids in the infectious disease research.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Organoids , Brain/growth & development , Brain/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Humans , Neurogenesis , Organoids/virology
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 412, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the use of online antenatal education classes accessed via the Mother and Child Health Handbook app during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to provide a basis and suggestions for optimizing Internet education during pregnancy under public health emergencies. METHODS: We compared and analyzed the use of online antenatal education classes via the Mother and Child Health Handbook app in Hangzhou in 2019 and 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). RESULTS: Between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020, a total of 229,794 pregnant women created files and registered for the app, including 124,273 women in 2019 and 105,521 women in 2020. More pregnant women participated in online antenatal education learning (n = 36,379/34.5% vs. 29,226/23.5%, p = 0.000) in 2020 than in 2019. The proportion of pregnant women in the 18-34-year-old group who participated in online learning was higher than that in the advanced age group, and the difference was statistically significant (2019: 24.3% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.000) (2020: 35.7% vs. 27.4%, p = 0.000). More pregnant women accessed online antenatal education during early pregnancy (n = 13,463/37.0% vs. 9088/31.1%, p = 0.000) in 2020 than in 2019. Similar percentages of pregnant women participated in online antenatal education during mid-pregnancy (n = 15,426/52.8% vs. 19,269/53.0%, p = 0.639) in 2019 and 2020. Fewer pregnant women accessed online antenatal education during late pregnancy (n = 10,246/28.2% vs. 9476/32.4%, p = 0.000) in 2020 than in 2019. Fewer pregnant women choose to take 'Puerperal Health' courses in 2020 than in 2019 (early pregnancy: 36.20% vs. 42.79%, p = 0.000; mid-pregnancy: 41.65% vs. 48.19%, p = 0.000; late pregnancy: 55.31% vs. 58.41%, p = 0.000). Fewer pregnant women choose to take 'Psychological Adjustment' courses in 2020 than in 2019 (early pregnancy: 21.59% vs. 29.60%, p = 0.000; mid-pregnancy: 26.20% vs. 40.50%, p = 0.000; late pregnancy: 12.79% vs. 42.53%, p = 0.000). More pregnant women choose to study 'Nutrition and Exercise' in 2020 than in 2019 (early pregnancy: 44.48% vs. 25.95%, p = 0.000; mid-pregnancy: 47.77% vs. 40.75%, p = 0.000; late pregnancy: 55.94% vs. 42.99%, p = 0.000). "Pregnancy Care and Fetal Development" was the most selected course by pregnant women in early pregnancy (2019: 67.50%; 2020: 71.39%) and middle pregnancy (2019: 67.01%; 2020: 82.05%), and the proportion in 2020 was higher than it was in 2019. "Baby care" was the most selected course by pregnant women in late pregnancy, and the proportion in 2020 was higher than it was in 2019 (78.31% vs. 72.85%). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, online antenatal education was well-used by pregnant women. More women participated in the online antenatal education modules during the COVID-19 pandemic than during 2019.The proportion of choosing different courses for pregnant women before and after the COVID-19 epidemic varied, and the learning course needs of pregnant women in different trimesters were different.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Mobile Applications , Prenatal Education , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Care , Young Adult
18.
Biosaf Health ; 4(3): 186-192, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821155

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve, generating new variants that pose a threat to global health; therefore, it is imperative to obtain safe and broad-spectrum antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. To this end, we screened compounds for their ability to inhibit viral entry, which is a critical step in virus infection. Twenty compounds that have been previously reported to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication were tested by using pseudoviruses containing the spike protein from the original strain (SARS-CoV-2-WH01). The cytotoxicity of these compounds was determined. Furthermore, we identified six compounds with strong antagonistic activity against the WH01 pseudovirus, and low cytotoxicity was identified. These compounds were then evaluated for their efficacy against pseudoviruses expressing the spike protein from B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron), the two most prevalent circulating strains. These assays demonstrated that two phenothiazine compounds, trifluoperazine 2HCl and thioridazine HCl, inhibit the infection of Delta and Omicron pseudoviruses. Finally, we discovered that these two compounds were highly effective against authentic SARS-CoV-2 viruses, including the WH01, Delta, and Omicron strains. Our study identified potential broad-spectrum SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors and provided insights into the development of novel therapeutics.

20.
Cell ; 185(10): 1728-1744.e16, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767964

ABSTRACT

As the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to drive the worldwide pandemic, there is a constant demand for vaccines that offer more effective and broad-spectrum protection. Here, we report a circular RNA (circRNA) vaccine that elicited potent neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses by expressing the trimeric RBD of the spike protein, providing robust protection against SARS-CoV-2 in both mice and rhesus macaques. Notably, the circRNA vaccine enabled higher and more durable antigen production than the 1mΨ-modified mRNA vaccine and elicited a higher proportion of neutralizing antibodies and distinct Th1-skewed immune responses. Importantly, we found that the circRNARBD-Omicron vaccine induced effective neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron but not the Delta variant. In contrast, the circRNARBD-Delta vaccine protected against both Delta and Omicron or functioned as a booster after two doses of either native- or Delta-specific vaccination, making it a favorable choice against the current variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , RNA, Circular/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
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