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1.
J Pathol ; 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549277

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. In an autopsy cohort of COVID-19 patients, we found extensive accumulation of the tryptophan degradation products 3-hydroxy anthranilic acid and quinolinic acid in lungs, heart, and brain. This was not related to the expression of the tryptophan-catabolizing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-1, but rather to that of its isoform IDO-2, which otherwise is expressed rarely. Bioavailability of tryptophan is an absolute requirement for proper cell functioning and synthesis of hormones, whereas its degradation products can cause cell death. Markers of apoptosis and severe cellular stress were associated with IDO-2 expression in large areas of lung and heart tissue, whereas affected areas in brain were more restricted. Analyses of tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and sequential plasma samples indicate early initiation of the kynurenine/aryl-hydrocarbon receptor/IDO-2 axis as a positive feedback loop, potentially leading to severe COVID-19 pathology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149678, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356434

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has brought viruses into the public horizon. Since viruses can pose a threat to human health in a low concentration range, seeking efficient virus removal methods has been the research hotspots in the past few years. Herein, a total of 1060 research papers were collected from the Web of Science database to identify technological trends as well as the research status. Based on the analysis results, this review elaborates on the state-of-the-art of membrane filtration and disinfection technologies for the treatment of virus-containing wastewater and drinking water. The results evince that membrane and disinfection methods achieve a broad range of virus removal efficiency (0.5-7 log reduction values (LRVs) and 0.09-8 LRVs, respectively) that is attributable to the various interactions between membranes or disinfectants and viruses having different susceptibility in viral capsid protein and nucleic acid. Moreover, this review discusses the related challenges and potential of membrane and disinfection technologies for customized virus removal in order to prevent the dissemination of the waterborne diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Water Purification , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
3.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1512-1521, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238201

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can deteriorate to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is implicated in ARDS pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of NETs and correlates of pathogenesis in blood and LRT samples of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Plasma NET levels peaked early after intensive care unit admission and were correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in sputum and levels of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and inflammatory markers in plasma samples. The baseline plasma NET quantity was correlated with disease severity but was not associated with soluble markers of thrombosis or with development of thrombosis. High NET levels were present in LRT samples and persisted during the course of COVID-19, consistent with the detection of NETs in bronchi and alveolar spaces in lung tissue from deceased patient with COVID-19. Thus, NETs are produced and retained in the LRT of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and could contribute to SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Chemokines/blood , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/virology , Viral Load
4.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(7): e290-e299, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087376

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) targets multiple organs and causes severe coagulopathy. Histopathological organ changes might not only be attributable to a direct virus-induced effect, but also the immune response. The aims of this study were to assess the duration of viral presence, identify the extent of inflammatory response, and investigate the underlying cause of coagulopathy. Methods: This prospective autopsy cohort study was done at Amsterdam University Medical Centers (UMC), the Netherlands. With informed consent from relatives, full body autopsy was done on 21 patients with COVID-19 for whom autopsy was requested between March 9 and May 18, 2020. In addition to histopathological evaluation of organ damage, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and the composition of the immune infiltrate and thrombi were assessed, and all were linked to disease course. Findings: Our cohort (n=21) included 16 (76%) men, and median age was 68 years (range 41-78). Median disease course (time from onset of symptoms to death) was 22 days (range 5-44 days). In 11 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 tropism, SARS-CoV-2 infected cells were present in multiple organs, most abundantly in the lungs, but presence in the lungs became sporadic with increased disease course. Other SARS-CoV-2-positive organs included the upper respiratory tract, heart, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. In histological analyses of organs (sampled from nine to 21 patients per organ), an extensive inflammatory response was present in the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, and brain. In the brain, extensive inflammation was seen in the olfactory bulbs and medulla oblongata. Thrombi and neutrophilic plugs were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, and brain and were most frequently observed late in the disease course (15 patients with thrombi, median disease course 22 days [5-44]; ten patients with neutrophilic plugs, 21 days [5-44]). Neutrophilic plugs were observed in two forms: solely composed of neutrophils with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), or as aggregates of NETs and platelets.. Interpretation: In patients with lethal COVID-19, an extensive systemic inflammatory response was present, with a continued presence of neutrophils and NETs. However, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells were only sporadically present at late stages of COVID-19. This suggests a maladaptive immune response and substantiates the evidence for immunomodulation as a target in the treatment of severe COVID-19. Funding: Amsterdam UMC Corona Research Fund.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1512-1521, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052199

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can deteriorate to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is implicated in ARDS pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of NETs and correlates of pathogenesis in blood and LRT samples of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Plasma NET levels peaked early after intensive care unit admission and were correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in sputum and levels of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and inflammatory markers in plasma samples. The baseline plasma NET quantity was correlated with disease severity but was not associated with soluble markers of thrombosis or with development of thrombosis. High NET levels were present in LRT samples and persisted during the course of COVID-19, consistent with the detection of NETs in bronchi and alveolar spaces in lung tissue from deceased patient with COVID-19. Thus, NETs are produced and retained in the LRT of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and could contribute to SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Chemokines/blood , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/virology , Viral Load
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