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1.
Virol J ; 20(1): 106, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity and virulence of the Omicron strain have weakened significantly pathogenesis of Omicron variants. Accumulating data indicated accessory proteins play crucial roles in host immune evasion and virus pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the impact of simultaneous deletion of accessory protein ORF7a, ORF7b and ORF8 on the clinical characteristics and specific immunity in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (BIPs) need to be verified. METHODS: Herein, plasma cytokines were identified using a commercial Multi-cytokine detection kit. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and pseudovirus neutralization assays were utilized to determine the titers of SARS-CoV-2 specific binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to quantify SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells and memory B cells. RESULTS: A local COVID-19 outbreak was caused by the Omicron BA.2 variant, which featured a deletion of 871 base pairs (∆871 BA.2), resulting in the removal of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8. We found that hospitalized patients with ∆871 BA.2 had significantly shorter hospital stays than those with wild-type (WT) BA.2. Plasma cytokine levels in both ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 patients were within the normal range of reference, and there was no notable difference in the titers of SARS-CoV-2 ancestor or Omicron-specific binding IgG antibodies, neutralizing antibody titers, effector T cells, and memory B cells frequencies between ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 infected adult patients. However, antibody titers in ∆871 BA.2 infected adolescents were higher than in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous deletion of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8 facilitates the rapid clearance of the BA.2 variant, without impacting cytokine levels or affecting SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immunity in Omicron-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 5-9, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113670

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the infectiousness of re-positive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: All nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed using throat swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs, and anal swabs, which were tested by Fluorescent quantitative realtime PCR. Re-positive cases were defined as a discharged patient who re-tested positive by NAT. Micro-neutralization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was performed based on the methods for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) viruses. IgM and IgG against the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: A total 255 (16.04%) of 1590 COVID-19 patients were re-positive. The re-positive cases were more likely to occur in patients in the 20-39 years age group and in patients with disease of moderate severity. Quantitative PCR showed that cycle threshold (Ct) values and viral loads were both far lower than in the hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The viral load in re-positive cases was very low. Viral culture of the samples from re-positive patients showed no cytopathic effect, and NAT of the culture medium of viral cultures all exhibited negative results. CONCLUSION: The viral load in re-positive cases was very low; patients were not infectious and the risk of human-to-human transmission was extremely low. Discharged COVID-19 patients should undergo home health management for 3 weeks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests , Viral Load
5.
Geoscience Frontiers ; : 101384, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1757360

ABSTRACT

Underground subway platforms are among the world’s busiest public transportation systems, but the airborne transmission mechanism of respiratory infections on these platforms has been rarely studied. Here, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is used to investigate the airflow patterns and infection risks in an island platform under two common ventilation modes: Mode 1- both sides have air inlets and outlets;Mode 2- air inlets are present at the two sides and outlets are present in the middle. Under the investigated scenario, airflow structure is characterized by the ventilation jet and human thermal plumes. Their interaction with the infector’s breathing jet imposes the front passenger under the highest exposure risk by short-range airborne route, with intake fractions up to 2.57% (oral breathing) or 0.63% (nasal breathing) under Mode 1;oral breathing of the infector may impose higher risks for the front passenger compared with nasal breathing. Pathogen are efficiently diluted as they travel further, in particular to adjacent crowds. The maximum and median value of intake fractions of passengers in adjacent crowds are respectively 0.093% and 0.016% (oral breathing), and 0.073% and 0.014% (nasal breathing) under Mode 1. Compared with Mode 1, the 2nd mode minimizes the interaction of ventilation jet and breathing jet, where the maximum intake fraction is only 0.34%, and the median value in the same crowd and other crowds are reduced by 23-63%. Combining published quanta generation rate data of COVID-19 and influenza infectors, the predicted maximum and median infection risks for passengers in the same crowds are respectively 1.46%−40.23% and 0.038%−1.67% during the 3−10 min waiting period, which are more sensitive to ventilation rate and exposure time compared with return air. This study can provide practical guidance for the prevention of respiratory infections in subway platforms.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 460, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651070

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has spread rapidly worldwide. To provide data on its virological profile, we here report the first local transmission of Delta in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of quarantined individuals indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR-positive, were on average ~1000 times greater compared to lineage A/B infections during the first epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. The estimated transmission bottleneck size of the Delta variant was generally narrow, with 1-3 virions in 29 donor-recipient transmission pairs. However, the transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 3 of the 34 substitutions that were identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population-level viral diversity during rapid spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , RNA-Seq/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding/genetics , Virus Shedding/physiology
10.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(2): 228-235, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193157

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with unknown origin spread rapidly to 222 countries, areas or territories. To investigate the genomic evolution and variation in the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic in Guangdong, 60 specimens of SARS-CoV-2 were used to perform whole genome sequencing, and genomics, amino acid variation and Spike protein structure modeling analyses. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the early variation in the SARS-CoV-2 genome was still intra-species, with no evolution to other coronaviruses. There were one to seven nucleotide variations (SNVs) in each genome and all SNVs were distributed in various fragments of the genome. The Spike protein bound with human receptor, an amino acid salt bridge and a potential furin cleavage site were found in the SARS-CoV-2 using molecular modeling. Our study clarified the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 genomic evolution, variation and Spike protein structure in the early phase of local cases in Guangdong, which provided reference for generating prevention and control strategies and tracing the source of new outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Furin/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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