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1.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 803785, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639579

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus infectious disease associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome. More and more patients are being cured due to the development of clinical guidelines for COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosis, treatment, and vaccines. However, the long-term impact of COVID-19 on patients after recovery is unclear. Currently available reports have shown that patients recovered from COVID-19 continue to experience health problems in respiratory and other organ systems. Oral problem is one of the important complications which has serious impacts on the rehabilitation and future quality of life, such as ageusia and macroglossia, but the oral complication is often being neglected. Aim of Review: From the perspective of stomatology, we summarized and elaborated in detail the types, pathogenesis of oral complications from COVID-19 patients after rehabilitation, and the reported prevention or treatment recommendations which may improve the COVID-19 patients associated oral diseases. Key Scientific Concepts of Review: 1) To understand the common oral complications and the mechanisms of the development of oral complications after the COVID-19 recovery; 2) To summary the practical strategies to prevent the oral complications and construct the rehabilitation plans for patients with oral complications.

2.
Cell Rep Phys Sci ; : 100740, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639470

ABSTRACT

Accurate and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 is significant for early tracing, isolating and treating infected patients, which will efficiently prevent large-scale transmission of COVID-19. Herein, two kinds of test strips for RBD and N antigens of SARS-CoV-2 are established with high sensitivity and specificity, in which AIE luminogens are utilized as reporters. Because of the high brightness and resistance of quenching properties in aqueous solution, the limit of detection can be as low as 6.9 ng/mL for RBD protein and 7.2 ng/mL for N protein. As an antigen collector, the N95 mask equipped with the test strip with excellent enrichment effect would efficiently simplify the sampling procedures. Compared with the test strip based on Au nanoparticles or FITC, the AIEgen-based test strip shows high anti-interference capacity in complex biosamples. Therefore, the AIEgen-based test strip assay could be built as a promising platform for emergency usage during the pandemic.

3.
Biomacromolecules ; 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574875

ABSTRACT

ß-Hydroxybutyrate (3HB) is a small molecule produced as a ketone body in mammalian animals. It has been found that 3HB provides not only energy for a body, it also participates in cell signal transduction events as a signal molecule. This study focuses on investigation of 3HB immunomodulatory mechanisms. Proteomic analysis indicates a new post-translational modification of ß-hydroxybutyrylation (Kbhb) on antibodies. Because of the low level of Kbhb antibodies and the associated difficulty in purifying them, simulated Kbhb antibody was produced using chemical modification in vitro. The chemically modified Kbhb antibody was shown to improve the stability of antibodies to protease and heat treatments. Furthermore, Kbhb of antibodies stabilizes the antibodies in plasma. As a remarkable example, COVID-19 neutralizing antibody B38 produced by 293T cells was Kbhb modified and stabilized in vivo, providing a strategy for the possibility of extending the protection effects of COVID-19 antibodies.

4.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296422

ABSTRACT

\Accurate and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 is significant for early tracing, isolating and treating the infected patients, which will efficiently prevent the virus large-scale spread from human to human. In this paper, two kinds of novel quantitative lateral flow test strip for N and RBD antigens of SARS-CoV-2 were established with high sensitivity, which utilize AIE luminogens (AIEgens) as reporter. Because of the high brightness and resistance of quenching property in aqueous of the AIEgens, the limit of detection of 7.2 ng/mL for N protein and 6.9 ng/mL for RBD protein could be achieved with the AIEgens-based lateral flow test strip. Furthermore, it was negative for other protein or antigen samples assay, which demonstrated the great specificity of the test strategy. A N95 mask equipped with the test strip was designed to employ as the antigen collector with excellent enrichment effect. Compared with the other two test strips based on the Au nanoparticle and FITC, the well-designed AIEgens-based lateral flow test strip presented high sensitivity and excellent anti-interference capacity in complex bio-samples. Furthermore, the AIEgens-based lateral flow test strip assay could be built as a promising platform for the emergency usage at pandemic.<br><br>Funding: This work was supported by the NSFC (51961160730, 51873092, and 81921004), the National Key R&D Program of China (Intergovernmental Cooperation Project, 2017YFE0132200), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Tianjin Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (19JCJQJC61200).<br><br>Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

5.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-293491

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) raised a global pandemic and caused over 4.2 million deaths worldwide. However, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 patients. In this study, we noticed that male COVID-19 patients had a higher severe rate than females, and IL-6 levels act as an independent risk factor for COVID-19 patients. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), we identified a macrophage and a fibroblast cell clusters that secreted IL-6 in COVID-19 lungs were specific in COVID-19 lung microenvironment. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), transcriptional factors (TFs) prediction and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that the macrophage and fibroblast inducing the cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) in severe COVID-19 patients, and the trinity of AR, HIF-1α and YY1 regulates the progression of CSS. Our results firstly explained the mechanism of sex disproportion of COVID-19 and provided a novel rationale for combined therapeutic approach for COVID-19 treatment.

6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 228: 114030, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540607

ABSTRACT

The epidemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now spread worldwide and efficacious therapeutics are urgently needed. 3-Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) is an indispensable protein in viral replication and represents an attractive drug target for fighting COVID-19. Herein, we report the discovery of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives as non-peptidomimetic and non-covalent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The structure-activity relationships of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors have carefully been investigated and discussed in this study. Among all tested 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives, C1 and C2 display the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity, with IC50 values of 1.55 ± 0.21 µM and 1.81 ± 0.17 µM, respectively. Further enzyme kinetics assays show that these two compounds dose-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a mixed-inhibition manner. Molecular docking simulations reveal the binding modes of C1 in the dimer interface and substrate-binding pocket of the target. In addition, C1 shows outstanding metabolic stability in the gastrointestinal tract, human plasma, and human liver microsome, suggesting that this agent has the potential to be developed as an orally administrated SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 174: 105955, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487920

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by numerous complications, complex disease, and high mortality, making its treatment a top priority in the treatment of COVID-19. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine played an important role in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of COVID-19 during the epidemic. However, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for the integrated treatment of severe COVID-19 with TCM and western medicine. Therefore, it is important to develop an evidence-based guideline on the treatment of severe COVID-19 with integrated TCM and western medicine, in order to provide clinical guidance and decision basis for healthcare professionals, public health personnel, and scientific researchers involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of COVID-19 patients. We developed and completed the guideline by referring to the standardization process of the "WHO handbook for guideline development", the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, and the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT).

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 818, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver injuries have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the clinical role played by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: In this multicentre, retrospective study, the parameters of liver function tests in COVID-19 inpatients were compared between various time-points in reference to SARS-CoV-2 shedding, and 3 to 7 days before the first detection of viral shedding was regarded as the reference baseline. RESULTS: In total, 70 COVID-19 inpatients were enrolled. Twenty-two (31.4%) patients had a self-medication history after illness. At baseline, 10 (14.3%), 7 (10%), 9 (12.9%), 2 (2.9%), 15 (21.4%), and 4 (5.7%) patients already had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and total bilirubin (TBIL) values, respectively. ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not show any significant dynamic changes during the full period of viral shedding (all p > 0.05). The GGT abnormal rate (p = 0.008) and level (p = 0.033) significantly increased on day 10 of viral shedding. Meanwhile, no simultaneous significant increases in abnormal ALP rates and levels were observed. TBIL abnormal rates and levels significantly increased on days 1 and 5 of viral shedding (all p < 0.05). Albumin abnormal decrease rates increased, and levels decreased consistently from baseline to SARS-CoV-2 clearance day (all p < 0.05). Thirteen (18.6%) patients had chronic liver disease, two of whom died. The ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not increase in patients with chronic liver disease during SARS-CoV-2 shedding. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 does not directly lead to elevations in ALT and AST but may result in elevations in GGT and TBIL; albumin decreased extraordinarily even when SARS-CoV-2 shedding ended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver/virology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 586-594, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of humoral and T and B cell response after the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the virus-specific antibody and memory T and B cell responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients up to 343 days after infection. Neutralizing antibodies and antibodies against the receptor-binding domain, spike, and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured. Virus-specific memory T and B cell responses were analyzed. RESULTS: We enrolled 59 patients with COVID-19, including 38 moderate, 16 mild, and 5 asymptomatic patients; 31 (52.5%) were men and 28 (47.5%) were women. The median age was 41 years (interquartile range, 30-55). The median day from symptom onset to enrollment was 317 days (range 257 to 343 days). We found that approximately 90% of patients still have detectable immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid proteins and neutralizing antibodies against pseudovirus, whereas ~60% of patients had detectable IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain and surrogate virus-neutralizing antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG+ memory B cell and interferon-γ-secreting T cell responses were detectable in more than 70% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immune memory response persists in most patients approximately 1 year after infection, which provides a promising sign for prevention from reinfection and vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
10.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 55: 103217, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been described. Recent improvements in supportive care measures and increased testing capacity may modify the risk of severe COVID-19 outcome in MS patients. This retrospective study evaluates the severity and outcome of COVID-19 in MS and characterizes temporal trends over the course of the pandemic in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cohort study using de-identified electronic health record (EHR) claims-based data. MS patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 2, 2020 and October 13, 2020 were matched (1:2) to a control group using propensity score analysis. The primary outcome was a composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and/or death. RESULTS: A total of 2,529 patients (843 MS and 1,686 matched controls) were included. Non-ambulatory and pre-existing comorbidities were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity. The risk for the severe composite outcome was lower in the late cohorts compared with the early cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of MS patients actively treated with a disease-modifying therapy (DMT) had mild disease. The observed trend toward a reduction in severity risk in recent months suggests an improvement in COVID-19 outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 49, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation relates to the initiation and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW)/albumin ratio have been reported to be predictive prognostic biomarkers in ARDS patients. However, the role of monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) as a prognostic inflammatory biomarker in a variety of diseases is rarely mentioned in ARDS. In this study, we explored the relationship between MLR and disease severity in ARDS patients and compared it with other indicators associated with 28-day mortality in patients with ARDS. METHODS: We retrospectively included 268 patients who fulfilled the Berlin definition of ARDS and were admitted to a single institute from 2016 to 2020. Clinical characteristics and experimental test data were collected from medical records within 24 h after the ARDS diagnosis. MLR, NLR, and RDW/albumin ratio levels were calculated. The primary clinical outcome was 28-day mortality. Logistic regression analysis was used to illustrate the relationship between indicators and 28-day mortality. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the area under the curve (AUC), and propensity score matching (PSM) was employed to validate our findings. RESULTS: The median MLR values were higher for non-survivors than for survivors before and after matching (P<0.001, P=0.001, respectively). MLR values were significantly associated with 28-day mortality (OR 2.956; 95% CI 1.873-4.665; P<0.001). MLR and NLR indicators were combined for predictive efficacy analysis, and its AUC reached 0.750. There was a significant increase in 28-day mortality depending on the increasing MLR level: low MLR group 38 (20.4%), high MLR group 47 (57.3%) (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher MLR values were associated with 28-day mortality in patients with ARDS. Further investigation is required to verify this relationship with prospectively collected data.

12.
Front Neurol ; 12: 702927, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337657

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with coagulopathy, and D-dimer levels have been used to predict disease severity. However, the role of D-dimer in predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains incompletely characterized. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Optum® de-identified COVID-19 Electronic Health Record dataset. Patients were included if they were 18 or older, had been hospitalized within 7 days of confirmed COVID-19 positivity from March 1, 2020 to November 30, 2020. We determined the optimal threshold of D-dimer to predict in-hospital mortality and compared risks of in-hospital mortality between patients with D-dimer levels below and above the cutoff. Risk ratios (RRs) were estimated adjusting for baseline characteristics and clinical variables. Results: Among 15,250 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 positivity, 285 presented with AIS at admission (2%). Patients with AIS were older [70 (60-79) vs. 64 (52-75), p < 0.001] and had greater D-dimer levels at admission [1.42 (0.76-3.96) vs. 0.94 (0.55-1.81) µg/ml FEU, p < 0.001]. Peak D-dimer level was a good predictor of in-hospital mortality among all patients [c-statistic 0.774 (95% CI 0.764-0.784)] and among patients with AIS [c-statistic 0.751 (95% CI 0.691-0.810)]. Among AIS patients, the optimum cutoff was identified at 5.15 µg/ml FEU with 73% sensitivity and 69% specificity. Elevated peak D-dimer level above this cut-off was associated with almost 3 times increased mortality [adjusted RR 2.89 (95% CI 1.87-4.47), p < 0.001]. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with AIS present with greater D-dimer levels. Thresholds for outcomes prognostication should be higher in this population.

13.
Data Science and Management ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1309217

ABSTRACT

While incomplete non-medical data has been integrated into prediction models for epidemics, the accuracy and the generalizability of the data are difficult to guarantee. To comprehensively evaluate the ability and applicability of using social media data to predict the development of COVID-19, a new confirmed case prediction algorithm improving the Google Flu Trends algorithm is established, called Weibo COVID-19 Trends (WCT), based on the post dataset generated by all users in Wuhan on Sina Weibo. A genetic algorithm is designed to select the keyword set for filtering COVID-19 related posts. WCT can constantly outperform the highest average test score in the training set between daily new confirmed case counts and the prediction results. It remains to produce the best prediction results among other algorithms when the number of forecast days increases from one to eight days with the highest correlation score from 0.98 (p < 0.01) to 0.86 (p < 0.01) during all analysis period. Additionally, WCT effectively improves the Google Flu Trends algorithm's shortcoming of overestimating the epidemic peak value. This study offers a highly adaptive approach for feature engineering of third-party data in epidemic prediction, providing useful insights for the prediction of newly emerging infectious diseases at an early stage.

14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 327, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and relevant prevention and control measures may affect the mental health and induce depressive symptoms in fathers with concurrent partner delivery exposure. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of depression in fathers with simultaneous exposure to COVID-19 pandemic and the effects of family functions on paternal perinatal depression (PPD) risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the perinatal fathers recruited in a large tertiary hospital in Wuhan across the whole pandemic period from 31 December 2019 to 11 April 2020. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and APGAR family function scale were used to evaluate PPD and family function, respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model were applied for data analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1187 participants, the prevalence of PPD was 13.82% throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with that in the time period before the announcement of human-to-human transmission on 19 January 2020, the depression risk was significantly lower during the traffic restriction (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.86) and public transportation reopening periods (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.59). Poor/fair family functions was associated with elevated depression risk (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.90, 4.52). Individuals reporting a low family income and smoking had high depression risks. CONCLUSIONS: A declined risk of PPD was observed over the traffic restriction period of the COVID-19 pandemic. An improved family function may help alleviate the risk of PPD during the pandemic. Health authorities are recommended to formulate targeted prevention and control strategies to handle PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Fathers , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 586-594, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of humoral and T and B cell response after the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the virus-specific antibody and memory T and B cell responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients up to 343 days after infection. Neutralizing antibodies and antibodies against the receptor-binding domain, spike, and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured. Virus-specific memory T and B cell responses were analyzed. RESULTS: We enrolled 59 patients with COVID-19, including 38 moderate, 16 mild, and 5 asymptomatic patients; 31 (52.5%) were men and 28 (47.5%) were women. The median age was 41 years (interquartile range, 30-55). The median day from symptom onset to enrollment was 317 days (range 257 to 343 days). We found that approximately 90% of patients still have detectable immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid proteins and neutralizing antibodies against pseudovirus, whereas ~60% of patients had detectable IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain and surrogate virus-neutralizing antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG+ memory B cell and interferon-γ-secreting T cell responses were detectable in more than 70% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immune memory response persists in most patients approximately 1 year after infection, which provides a promising sign for prevention from reinfection and vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
16.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 647508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207702

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an unprecedented threat to the human health. A close association of the digestive tract is implied by the high frequency of gastrointestinal syndromes among COVID-19 patients. A better understanding of the role of intestinal microenvironment in COVID-19 immunopathology will be helpful to improve the control of COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the immune responses associated with the severity of COVID-19, the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 intestinal tropism, and the potential involvement of gut microenvironment in COVID-19 severity. Additionally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of probiotics as an alternative medicine to prevent or alleviate severe COVID-19 outcome.

17.
J Biomed Inform ; 117: 103744, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155518

ABSTRACT

Fast temporal query on large EHR-derived data sources presents an emerging big data challenge, as this query modality is intractable using conventional strategies that have not focused on addressing Covid-19-related research needs at scale. We introduce a novel approach called Event-level Inverted Index (ELII) to optimize time trade-offs between one-time batch preprocessing and subsequent open-ended, user-specified temporal queries. An experimental temporal query engine has been implemented in a NoSQL database using our new ELII strategy. Near-real-time performance was achieved on a large Covid-19 EHR dataset, with 1.3 million unique patients and 3.76 billion records. We evaluated the performance of ELII on several types of queries: classical (non-temporal), absolute temporal, and relative temporal. Our experimental results indicate that ELII accomplished these queries in seconds, achieving average speed accelerations of 26.8 times on relative temporal query, 88.6 times on absolute temporal query, and 1037.6 times on classical query compared to a baseline approach without using ELII. Our study suggests that ELII is a promising approach supporting fast temporal query, an important mode of cohort development for Covid-19 studies.


Subject(s)
Big Data , COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Information Storage and Retrieval , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
World J Pediatr ; 17(2): 171-179, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We collected neonatal neurological, clinical, and imaging data to study the neurological manifestations and imaging characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This case-control study included newborns diagnosed with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China from January 2020 to July 2020. All included newborns had complete neurological evaluations and head magnetic resonance imaging. We normalized the extracted T2-weighted imaging data to a standard neonate template space, and segmented them into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. The comparison of gray matter volume was conducted between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of five neonates with COVID-19 were included in this study. The median reflex scores were 2 points lower in the infected group than in the control group (P = 0.0094), and the median orientation and behavior scores were 2.5 points lower in the infected group than in the control group (P = 0.0008). There were also significant differences between the two groups in the total scale score (P = 0.0426). The caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus had the strongest correlations with the Hammersmith neonatal neurologic examination (HNNE) score, and the absolute correlation coefficients between the gray matter volumes and each part of the HNNE score were all almost greater than 0.5. CONCLUSIONS: We first compared the neurological performance of neonates with and without COVID-19 by quantitative neuroimaging and neurological examination methods. Considering the limited numbers of patients, more studies focusing on the structural or functional aspects of the virus in the central nervous system in different age groups will be carried out in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child Development , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Neurologic Examination , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 13, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Children with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia admitted to 20 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective multi-center cohort study. A total of 64 children with COVID-19 were defined as the COVID-19 cohort, of which 40 children who developed pneumonia were defined as the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort. Another 284 children with pneumonia caused by other viruses were defined as the viral pneumonia cohort. The epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings were compared by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Contingency table method. Drug usage, immunotherapy, blood transfusion, and need for oxygen support were collected as the treatment indexes. Mortality, intensive care needs and symptomatic duration were collected as the outcome indicators. RESULTS: Compared with the viral pneumonia cohort, children in the COVID-19 cohort were mostly exposed to family members confirmed to have COVID-19 (53/64 vs. 23/284), were of older median age (6.3 vs. 3.2 years), and had a higher proportion of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (18/40 vs. 0/38, P < 0.001). Children in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort had a lower proportion of severe cases (1/40 vs. 38/284, P = 0.048), and lower cases with high fever (3/40 vs. 167/284, P < 0.001), requiring intensive care (1/40 vs. 32/284, P < 0.047) and with shorter symptomatic duration (median 5 vs. 8 d, P < 0.001). The proportion of cases with evaluated inflammatory indicators, biochemical indicators related to organ or tissue damage, D-dimer and secondary bacterial infection were lower in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort than those in the viral pneumonia cohort (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared with duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 d, P = 0.885]. CONCLUSION: The symptoms and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in children were no more severe than those in children with other viral pneumonia. Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19. During the COVID-19 outbreak, attention also must be given to children with infection by other pathogens infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severity of Illness Index
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 33, 2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Septic cardiomyopathy has been observed in association with influenza, indicating that not only bacteria but also other infective agents can cause this condition. There has been no systematic study as to whether Treponema pallidum infection induces septic cardiomyopathy, and we are the first to report this possibility. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two cases of a 48-year-old man and a 57-year-old man who were diagnosed with syphilis-related septic cardiomyopathy. The diagnosis of cardiomyopathy was made based on elevation of cardiogenic markers and decrease in ejection fraction evaluated by echocardiography. Screen for infective pathogens was negative except for syphilis, which supported our diagnosis. The two patients recovered following effective anti-syphilis treatment and advanced life support technology. Syphilis serology became negative after treatment. CONCLUSION: Syphilis has the potential to cause septic cardiomyopathy. Clinicians should consider Treponema pallidum in cases of septic cardiomyopathy with unknown pathogens. However, the specific pathophysiological mechanism of syphilis-associated septic cardiomyopathy has not been elucidated, and more specific studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/etiology , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Syphilis/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/microbiology , Echocardiography , Humans , Imipenem/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , Treponema pallidum/immunology
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