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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918560

ABSTRACT

While the biomarkers of COVID-19 severity have been thoroughly investigated, the key biological dynamics associated with COVID-19 resolution are still insufficiently understood. We report a case of full resolution of severe COVID-19 due to convalescent plasma transfusion. Following transfusion, the patient showed fever remission, improved respiratory status, and rapidly decreased viral burden in respiratory fluids and SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia. Longitudinal unbiased proteomic analysis of plasma and single-cell transcriptomics of peripheral blood cells conducted prior to and at multiple times after convalescent plasma transfusion identified the key biological processes associated with the transition from severe disease to disease-free state. These included (i) temporally ordered upward and downward changes in plasma proteins reestablishing homeostasis and (ii) post-transfusion disappearance of a subset of monocytes characterized by hyperactivated Interferon responses and decreased TNF-α signaling. Monitoring specific dysfunctional myeloid cell subsets in peripheral blood may provide prognostic keys in COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310867

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer patients are at increased risks of novelcoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, surgical strategies for cancer patients with COVID-19 are generally suggested to be properly delayed. Case presentation: We presented a 69-year-old Chinese female colon cancer patientwith COVID-19, the first case accepted the surgical treatment during the epidemic season in China. Thepatient developed a fever on January 28, 2020. After treatments with Ceftriaxone and Abidol, her fever was not reduced yet. A repeat chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed the infectious lesions significantly exacerbated, with a positive result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid. An abdomen CT scan indicated the tumor of ascending colon with local wrapped changes. She was diagnosed with ‘Severe novel coronavirus pneumonia’ and ‘Incomplete bowel obstruction: Colon cancer?’. After actively anti-inflammatory and anti-viral therapies, aright colectomy with lymph node dissection was performed on March 11. The pathological changes of tissue specimens were further investigated.The patient successfully recovered from COVID-19 and surgery, without any postoperative related complications, and was discharged on the 9th day after operation. No case of surgeon, nurse or anesthetist in our team infected by SARS-CoV-2 occurred. Microscopically, significant degeneration, necrosis and slough of focal intestinal and colonic mucosal epithelial cells were observed. Conclusions: : It is meaningful and imperative to share our experience to protect health care personnel from SARS-CoV-2infection and to provide references for optimizing treatment of cancer patient, at least for the operative intervention absolutely necessary or emergency surgery,during the outbreak of COVID-19.

3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(1): 386-408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607858

ABSTRACT

Responding to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been an unexpected and unprecedented global challenge for humanity in this century. During this crisis, specialists from the laboratories and frontline clinical personnel have made great efforts to prevent and treat COVID-19 by revealing the molecular biological characteristics and epidemic characteristics of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, SARS-CoV-2 has severe consequences for public health, including human respiratory system, immune system, blood circulation system, nervous system, motor system, urinary system, reproductive system and digestive system. In the review, we summarize the physiological and pathological damage of SARS-CoV-2 to these systems and its molecular mechanisms followed by clinical manifestation. Concurrently, the prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19 will be discussed in preclinical and clinical studies. With constantly unfolding and expanding scientific understanding about COVID-19, the updated information can help applied researchers understand the disease to build potential antiviral drugs or vaccines, and formulate creative therapeutic ideas for combating COVID-19 at speed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Male , Mice
4.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 3123-3128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatic immune diseases were more likely to develop severe or critical COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether rheumatoid factor antibodies were present in COVID patients and the level and type of rheumatoid factor antibodies produced in COVID-19 patients were related to the degree of the patient's condition. The study also aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of rheumatoid factor antibodies in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera collected from 129 patients with COVID-19 were tested for rheumatoid factor antibodies by ELISA. Five patients were tracked for several months to monitor dynamic changes of these antibodies. RESULTS: Rheumatoid-associated autoantibodies were detected in 20.16% of patients (26/129) following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition, IgM-RF was primarily present in critically ill patients, while IgA-RF was mainly present in mild patients. Five patients were able to track for several months to monitor dynamic changes of these antibodies. Rheumatoid factor antibodies peaks in the later phase of the disease and last for longer time. Anti-Jo-1 antibody was found in one of the five patients. CONCLUSION: This was the case series report that rheumatoid-associated autoantibodies are present in patients with COVID-19. The clinical significance of these antibodies was not fully understood and needed further characterization. These autoantibodies are related to the severity of the patient's disease and exist for a long time in the patient's body, while their impact on the patient's health is unknown.

5.
Cytokine ; 143: 155523, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163610

ABSTRACT

Cytokines play pleiotropic, antagonistic, and collaborative in viral disease. The high morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) make it a significant threat to global public health. Elucidating its pathogenesis is essential to finding effective therapy. A retrospective study was conducted on 71 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Data on cytokines, T lymphocytes, and other clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected from patients with variable disease severity. The effects of cytokines on the overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of patients were analyzed. The critically severe and severe patients had higher infection indexes and significant multiple organ function abnormalities than the mild patients (P < 0.05). IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the critically severe patients than in the severe and mild patients (P < 0.05). IL-6 and IL-10 were closely associated with white blood cells, neutrophils, T lymphocyte subsets, D-D dimer, blood urea nitrogen, complement C1q, procalcitonin C-reactive protein. Moreover, the IL-6 and IL-10 levels were closely correlated to dyspnea and dizziness (P < 0.05). The patients with higher IL-10 levels had shorter OS than the group with lower levels (P < 0.05). The older patients with higher levels of single IL-6 or IL-10 tended to have shorter EFS (P < 0.05), while the patients who had more elevated IL-6 and IL-10 had shorter OS (P < 0.05). The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that IL-6 was the independent factor affecting EFS. IL-6 and IL-10 play crucial roles in COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aging , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Thromboembolism/pathology , Treatment Outcome
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(2): 253-257, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838644

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Wuhan, China, has subsided after being hard hit by the disease and subsequent city lockdown. Information on the number of people involved in Wuhan is still inadequate. This study aimed to describe the screening results of 61 437 community members in Wuchang District, Wuhan. METHODS: In mid-May 2020, Wuhan launched a population-scale city-wide SARS-CoV-2 testing campaign, which aimed to perform nucleic acid and viral antibody testing for citizens in Wuhan. Here we show the screening results of cluster sampling of 61 437 residents in Wuchang District, Wuhan, China. RESULTS: A total of 1470 (2.39%, 95% CI 2.27-2.52) individuals were detected positive for at least one antiviral antibody. Among the positive individuals, 324 (0.53%, 95% CI 0.47-0.59) and 1200 (1.95%, 95% CI 1.85-2.07) were positive for immunoglobulin IgM and IgG, respectively, and 54 (0.08%, 95% CI 0.07-0.12) were positive for both antibodies. The positive rate of female carriers of antibodies was higher than those of male counterparts (male-to-female ratio of 0.75), especially in elderly citizens (ratio of 0.18 in 90+ age subgroup), indicating a sexual discrepancy in seroprevalence. In addition, viral nucleic acid detection using real-time PCR had showed 8 (0.013%, 95% CI 0.006-0.026) asymptomatic virus carriers. DISCUSSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan was low. Most Wuhan residents are still susceptible to this virus. Precautions, such as wearing mask, frequent hand hygiene and proper social distance, are necessary before an effective vaccine or antiviral treatments are available.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Distribution , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1298

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), currently impacts over 100 countries. Soluble ST2 (sST2) is secreted and detectab

8.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 269, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are at increased risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, surgeries for cancer patients with COVID-19 are generally suggested to be properly delayed. CASE PRESENTATION: We presented a 69-year-old Chinese female colon cancer patient with COVID-19, the first case accepted the surgical treatment during the pandemic in China. The patient developed a fever on January 28, 2020. After treatments with Ceftriaxone and Abidol, her fever was not moderated yet. A repeat chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed significantly exacerbated infectious lesions with a positive result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid. An abdomen CT scan indicated the tumor of ascending colon with local wrapped changes. She was diagnosed with 'Severe novel coronavirus pneumonia' and 'Incomplete bowel obstruction: Colon cancer?'. After actively anti-inflammatory and anti-viral therapies, a right colectomy with lymph node dissection was performed on March 11, followed by a pathological examination. The patient successfully recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia and incomplete bowel obstruction after surgery without any postoperative related complications and was discharged on the 9th day after operation. Significant degeneration, necrosis and slough of focal intestinal and colonic mucosal epithelial cells were observed under microscope. No surgeons, nurses or anesthetists in our team were infected with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: It is meaningful and imperative to share our experience of protecting health care personnels from SARS-CoV-2 infection and providing references for optimizing treatment of cancer patients, at least for the operative intervention with absolute necessity or surgical emergency, during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Colectomy/methods , Colonic Neoplasms , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , COVID-19 , Colon, Ascending/diagnostic imaging , Colon, Ascending/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnosis , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Infect ; 81(1): e28-e32, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46420

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was occurred in Wuhan, China and rapidly spread to other cities and nations. The standard diagnostic approach that widely adopted in the clinic is nucleic acid detection by real-time RT-PCR. However, the false-negative rate of the technique is unneglectable and serological methods are urgently warranted. Here, we presented the colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic (ICG) strip targeting viral IgM or IgG antibody and compared it with real-time RT-PCR. The sensitivity of ICG assay with IgM and IgG combinatorial detection in nucleic acid confirmed cases were 11.1%, 92.9% and 96.8% at the early stage (1-7 days after onset), intermediate stage (8-14 days after onset), and late stage (more than 15 days), respectively. The ICG detection capacity in nucleic acid-negative suspected cases was 43.6%. In addition, the concordance of whole blood samples and plasma showed Cohen's kappa value of 0.93, which represented the almost perfect agreement between two types of samples. In conclusion, serological ICG strip assay in detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection is both sensitive and consistent, which is considered as an excellent supplementary approach in clinical application.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immunoassay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Serologic Tests , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(1): 161-168, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) resembles that of other etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to identify clinical laboratory features to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP. METHODS: We compared the hematological and biochemical features of 84 patients with COVID-19 at hospital admission and 221 patients with CAP. Parameters independently predictive of COVID-19 were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was measured to evaluate the discriminative ability. RESULTS: Most hematological and biochemical indexes of patients with COVID-19 were significantly different from patients with CAP. Nine laboratory parameters were identified to be predictive of a diagnosis of COVID-19. The AUCs demonstrated good discriminatory ability for red cell distribution width (RDW) with an AUC of 0.87 and hemoglobin with an AUC of 0.81. Red blood cell, albumin, eosinophil, hematocrit, alkaline phosphatase, and mean platelet volume had fair discriminatory ability. Combinations of any two parameters performed better than did the RDW alone. CONCLUSIONS: Routine laboratory examinations may be helpful for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Application of laboratory tests may help to optimize the use of isolation rooms for patients when they present with unexplained febrile respiratory illnesses.

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