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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264178, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731596

ABSTRACT

Renalase is a secreted flavoprotein with anti-inflammatory and pro-cell survival properties. COVID-19 is associated with disordered inflammation and apoptosis. We hypothesized that blood renalase levels would correspond to severe COVID-19 and survival. In this retrospective cohort study, clinicopathologic data and blood samples were collected from hospitalized COVID-19 subjects (March-June 2020) at a single institution tertiary hospital. Plasma renalase and cytokine levels were measured and clinical data abstracted from health records. Of 3,450 COVID-19 patients, 458 patients were enrolled. Patients were excluded if <18 years, or opted out of research. The primary composite outcome was intubation or death within 180 days. Secondary outcomes included mortality alone, intensive care unit admission, use of vasopressors, and CPR. Enrolled patients had mean age 64 years (SD±17), were 53% males, and 48% non-whites. Mean renalase levels was 14,108·4 ng/ml (SD±8,137 ng/ml). Compared to patients with high renalase, those with low renalase (< 8,922 ng/ml) were more likely to present with hypoxia, increased ICU admission (54% vs. 33%, p < 0.001), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (10% vs. 4%, p = 0·023). In Cox proportional hazard model, every 1000 ng/ml increase in renalase decreased the risk of death or intubation by 5% (HR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91-0·98) and increased survival alone by 6% (HR 0·95; CI 0·90-0·98), after adjusting for socio-demographics, initial disease severity, comorbidities and inflammation. Patients with high renalase-low IL-6 levels had the best survival compared to other groups (p = 0·04). Renalase was independently associated with reduced intubation and mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Future studies should assess the pathophysiological relevance of renalase in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Monoamine Oxidase/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Endothelium/metabolism , Endothelium/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649378

ABSTRACT

Public environmental cognition is an important basis for optimizing environmental management and reducing tensions between humans and land. Although the level of environmental cognition is a gradual process under normal conditions, it often changes qualitatively because of major public emergencies. During the 2019 new coronavirus epidemic (COVID-19), the most significant public health event in recent years, 24,188 national samples were obtained based on a network survey. The comprehensive evaluation method was used to assess the impact of major public events on public environmental cognition and the characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution. The findings are as follows. (1) During the epidemic period, sudden public health emergencies effectively promoted the national residents' environmental awareness, whether urban residents or rural; most respondents generally agreed with the concept of "respect nature and cherish life". (2) The environmental cognition of national residents was higher in the northwest and lower in the northeast of China, which is suitable for economic and social development and humanistic tradition. (3) There was a clear positive correlation between environmental awareness and education level. (4) During the epidemic, nervousness of respondents had a negative effect on environmental cognition. This study provides scientific support and a basis for decision making for the government to carry out environmental management optimization and improve the ecological and environmental cognition of the public, as well as devise effective intervention mechanisms with different time and space dimensions for similar future public health emergencies.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416893

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of a novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), wherein more than 200 million people have been infected and millions have died, poses a great threat to achieving the United Nations 2030 sustainable development goal (SDGs). Based on the Baidu index of 'novel coronavirus', this paper analyses the spatial and temporal characteristics of and factors that influenced the attention network for COVID-19 from January 9, 2020, to April 15, 2020. The study found that (1) Temporally, the attention in the new coronavirus network showed an upward trend from January 9 to January 29, with the largest increase from January 23 to January 29 and a peak on January 29, and then a slow downward trend. The level of attention in the new coronavirus network was basically flat when comparing January 22 and March 4. (2) Spatially, first, from the perspective of regional differences, the network attention in the eastern and central regions decreased in turn. The network users in the eastern region exhibited the highest attention to the new coronavirus, especially in Guangdong, Shandong, Jiangsu and other provinces and cities. The network attention in Tibet, Xinjiang, Qinghai and Ningxia in the western region was the lowest in terms of the national network attention. Second, from the perspective of interprovincial differences, the attention in the new coronavirus network was highly consistent with the Hu Huanyong line of China's population boundary. The east of the Hu Huanyong line is densely populated, and the network showed high concern, mostly ranking at the third to fifth levels. (3) The number of Internet users in the information technology field, the population, and the culture and age characteristics of individuals are important factors that influence the novel coronavirus attention network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Information Dissemination/methods , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Online Social Networking , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Epidemics , Geography , Humans , Internet/trends , Models, Theoretical , Public Health/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173684

ABSTRACT

Harmonious and stable family relations are undoubtedly an important component of victory in terms of epidemic prevention. Take the COVID-2019 (2019 new crown pneumonia epidemic) as the major public events background; 24,188 national samples were obtained based on a network survey. We selected gender, education level, occupation type, family scale, neighborhood relationship and psychological state as independent variables, and adopted multiple logistic models to assess the impact of major public events on family relationships and the characteristics of humanistic-regional attributes. The findings are as follows: (1) During the epidemic period, major public health emergencies effectively promoted the national residents' family relationships. (2) The family relationships of national residents presented a high level in central China and a low level in the border areas of China, which is consistent with the spread of COVID-2019 in January and February. (3) Family relationship level averages between 2.201~2.507 among different groups when divided by occupation, age and education. The family relationship has improved, but the change is not drastic and the gap between various groups is not significant, so there is essentially no difference. (4) The impact of major public health emergencies on all families is nearly sudden and instant, so that family relationship changes are often also abrupt. (5) Educational level, family size and gender have a positive effect on the change in family relations, but this effect is weakened as family education level increases; while the anxiety of the interviewees and the neighborhood had a negative effect on the change in family relationship, this indicates that the better the neighborhood relations are, the more harmonious a family relationship is. The above research can provide an important scientific support and decision-making basis for the government to carry out community prevention work, respond to major public health emergencies and construct a family support social policy system in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Relations , China/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 776-784, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217480

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by a new coronavirus has posed a great threat to public health. Identifying safe and effective antivirals is of urgent demand to cure the huge number of patients. Virus-encoded proteases are considered potential drug targets. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors (lopinavir/ritonavir) has been recommended in the global Solidarity Trial in March launched by World Health Organization. However, there is currently no experimental evidence to support or against its clinical use. We evaluated the antiviral efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir along with other two viral protease inhibitors in vitro, and discussed the possible inhibitory mechanism in silico. The in vitro to in vivo extrapolation was carried out to assess whether lopinavir/ritonavir could be effective in clinical. Among the four tested compounds, lopinavir showed the best inhibitory effect against the novel coronavirus infection. However, further in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of pharmacokinetics suggested that lopinavir/ritonavir could not reach effective concentration under standard dosing regimen [marketed as Kaletra®, contained lopinavir/ritonavir (200 mg/50 mg) tablets, recommended dosage is 400 mg/10 mg (2 tablets) twice daily]. This research concluded that lopinavir/ritonavir should be stopped for clinical use due to the huge gap between in vitro IC50 and free plasma concentration. Nevertheless, the structure-activity relationship analysis of the four inhibitors provided further information for de novel design of future viral protease inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Humans , Lopinavir/blood , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Ritonavir/blood , Vero Cells , Viral Protease Inhibitors/chemistry
6.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(9): 2524-2531, 2020 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695395

ABSTRACT

The discovery of novel drug candidates with anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) potential is critical for the control of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Artemisinin, an old antimalarial drug derived from Chinese herbs, has saved millions of lives. Artemisinins are a cluster of artemisinin-related drugs developed for the treatment of malaria and have been reported to have multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antiviral, and immune modulation. Considering the reported broad-spectrum antiviral potential of artemisinins, researchers are interested in whether they could be used to combat COVID-19. We systematically evaluated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities of nine artemisinin-related compounds in vitro and carried out a time-of-drug-addition assay to explore their antiviral mode of action. Finally, a pharmacokinetic prediction model was established to predict the therapeutic potential of selected compounds against COVID-19. Arteannuin B showed the highest anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential with an EC50 of 10.28 ± 1.12 µM. Artesunate and dihydroartemisinin showed similar EC50 values of 12.98 ± 5.30 µM and 13.31 ± 1.24 µM, respectively, which could be clinically achieved in plasma after intravenous administration. Interestingly, although an EC50 of 23.17 ± 3.22 µM was not prominent among the tested compounds, lumefantrine showed therapeutic promise due to high plasma and lung drug concentrations after multiple dosing. Further mode of action analysis revealed that arteannuin B and lumefantrine acted at the post-entry step of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This research highlights the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of artemisinins and provides leading candidates for anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug research and development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artemisinins/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
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