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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1003953, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous boost vaccination has been proposed as an option to elicit stronger and broader, or longer-lasting immunity. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous immunization with a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (Convidecia, hereafter referred to as CV) and a protein-subunit-based COVID-19 vaccine (ZF2001, hereafter referred to as ZF). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, in which healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who have received 1 dose of Convidecia, with no history of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, were recruited in Jiangsu, China. Sixty participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either 1 dose of ZF2001 or placebo control (trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)) administered at 28 days after priming, and received the third injection with ZF2001 at 5 months, referred to as CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M5) regimen, respectively. Sixty participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either 1 dose of ZF2001 or TIV administered at 56 days after priming, and received the third injection with ZF2001 at 6 months, referred to as CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) and CV/ZF (D0-M6) regimen, respectively. Participants and investigators were masked to the vaccine received but not to the boosting interval. Primary endpoints were the geometric mean titer (GMT) of neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and 7-day solicited adverse reactions. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Between April 7, 2021 and May 6, 2021, 120 eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive ZF2001/ZF2001 (n = 40) or TIV/ZF2001 (n = 20) 28 days and 5 months post priming, and receive ZF2001/ZF2001 (n = 40) or TIV/ZF2001 (n = 20) 56 days and 6 months post priming. Of them, 7 participants did not receive the third injection with ZF2001. A total of 26 participants (21.7%) reported solicited adverse reactions within 7 days post boost vaccinations, and all the reported adverse reactions were mild, with 13 (32.5%) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) regimen, 7 (35.0%) in CV/ZF (D0- M5) regimen, 4 (10.0%) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) regimen, and 2 (10.0%) in CV/ZF (D0-M6) regimen, respectively. At 14 days post first boost, GMTs of neutralizing antibodies in recipients receiving ZF2001 at 28 days and 56 days post priming were 18.7 (95% CI 13.7 to 25.5) and 25.9 (17.0 to 39.3), respectively, with geometric mean ratios of 2.0 (1.2 to 3.5) and 3.4 (1.8 to 6.4) compared to TIV. GMTs at 14 days after second boost of neutralizing antibodies increased to 107.2 (73.7 to 155.8) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5) regimen and 141.2 (83.4 to 238.8) in CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6) regimen. Two-dose schedules of CV/ZF (D0-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M6) induced antibody levels comparable with that elicited by 3-dose schedules, with GMTs of 90.5 (45.6, 179.8) and 94.1 (44.0, 200.9), respectively. Study limitations include the absence of vaccine effectiveness in a real-world setting and current lack of immune persistence data. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous boosting with ZF2001 following primary vaccination with Convidecia is more immunogenic than a single dose of Convidecia and is not associated with safety concerns. These results support flexibility in cooperating viral vectored and recombinant protein vaccines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study on Heterologous Prime-boost of Recombinant COVID-19 Vaccine (Ad5 Vector) and RBD-based Protein Subunit Vaccine; ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04833101.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to waning immunity and protection against infection with SARS-CoV-2, a third dose of a homologous or heterologous COVID-19 vaccine has been proposed by health agencies for individuals who were previously primed with two doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous boost immunisation with an orally administered aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in Chinese adults (≥18 years old) who had previously received two doses of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-Sinovac CoronaVac. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a heterologous booster vaccination with a low dose (1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL; 0·1 mL; low dose group), or a high dose (1·0 × 1011 viral particles per mL; 0·2 mL; high dose group) aerosolised Ad5-nCoV, or a homologous intramuscular vaccination with CoronaVac (0·5 mL). Only laboratory staff were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint for safety was the incidence of adverse reactions within 14 days after the booster dose. The primary endpoint for immunogenicity was the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of serum neutralising antibodies (NAbs) against live SARS-CoV-2 virus 14 days after the booster dose. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05043259. FINDINGS: Between Sept 14 and 16, 2021, 420 participants were enrolled: 140 (33%) participants per group. Adverse reactions were reported by 26 (19%) participants in the low dose group and 33 (24%) in the high dose group within 14 days after the booster vaccination, significantly less than the 54 (39%) participants in the CoronaVac group (p<0·0001). The low dose group had a serum NAb GMT of 744·4 (95% CI 520·1-1065·6) and the high dose group had a GMT of 714·1 (479·4-1063·7) 14 days after booster dose, significantly higher than the GMT in the CoronaVac group (78·5 [60·5-101·7]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: We found that a heterologous booster vaccine with an orally administered aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is safe and highly immunogenic in adults who have previously received two doses of CoronaVac as the primary series vaccination. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Jiangsu Provincial Key Research and Development Program.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329517

ABSTRACT

Background: Heterologous boost vaccination has been proposed as an option to elicit stronger and broader, or longer-lasting immunity. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous immunization with a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine (Convidecia) and a protein-subunit-based COVID-19 vaccine (ZF2001). Methods and Findings We did a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults previously received one dose of Convidecia. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either ZF2001 (vaccine group) or a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) (placebo group) at either 28-day or 56-day intervals. For both regimens, all participants received the 2nd injection with ZF2001 at 4 months after a dose of ZF2001 or TIV, with three-dose schedules of Convidecia/Convidecia/ZF2001 at day 0, day 28 and month 5 (referred to as CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D28-M5)) and CV/ZF/ZF (D0-D56-M6), and two-dose schedules of CV/ZF (D0-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M6). The primary outcome was the geometric mean titer (GMT) of the neutralizing antibodies against live SARS-CoV-2 virus 14 days after each boost vaccination. The safety outcome was 7-day reactogenicity, measured as solicited local or systemic adverse reactions after each vaccination. Between April 7, 2021, and May 6, 2021, 120 participants were enrolled, among whom 60 were randomly assigned to receive ZF2001 (n=40) or TIV (n=20) at a 28-day interval, and 60 were randomly assigned to receive ZF2001 (n=40) or TIV (n=20) at a 56-day interval. 113 (94.2%) participants received the 2nd injection with ZF2001 4 months after a dose of ZF2001 or TIV. A total of 26 participants (21.7%) reported solicited adverse events within 7 days post boost vaccinations, and all the reported adverse reactions were mild . Among participants receiving ZF001 as second dose, the GMTs of neutralizing antibodies increased to 58.4 IU/ml (42.8-79.8) in 0-28 regimen, and to 80.8 IU/ml (53.1-122.9) in 0-56 regimen at 14 days post first boost dose. The GMTs of neutralizing antibodies increased to 334.9 IU/ml (95% CI 230.4, 486.9) in C/Z/Z (D0-D28-M5) regimen, and 441.2 IU/ml (260.8, 746.4) in C/Z/Z (D0-D56-M6) regimen at 14 days after the third dose. Two-dose schedules of CV/ZF (D0-M5) and CV/ZF (D0-M6) induced comparable antibody level comparable with that elicited by three-dose schedules, with the GMTs of 282.9 IU/ml (142.5, 561.8) and 293.9 IU/ml (137.6, 627.9), respectively. Study limitations include the absence of vaccine effectiveness in real-world, and current lack of immune persistence data and the neutralizing antibodies to Omicron. Conclusions Heterologous boosting with ZF001 following primary vaccination of Convidecia is safe and more immunogenic than a single dose of Convidecia. These results support flexibility in cooperating viral vectored vaccines and recombinant protein vaccine. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04833101

4.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705312

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) lose potency against variants of concern. In this study, we developed 2 strategies to produce mutation-resistant antibodies. First, a yeast library expressing mutant receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the spike protein was utilized to screen for potent nAbs that are least susceptible to viral escape. Among the candidate antibodies, P5-22 displayed ultrahigh potency for virus neutralization as well as an outstanding mutation resistance profile. Additionally, P14-44 and P15-16 were recognized as mutation-resistant antibodies with broad betacoronavirus neutralization properties. P15-16 has only 1 binding hotspot, which is K378 in the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the P5-22, P14-44, and RBD ternary complex clarified the unique mechanisms that underlie the excellent mutation resistance profiles of these antibodies. Secondly, polymeric IgG enhanced antibody avidity by eliminating P5-22's only hotspot, residue F486 in the RBD, thereby potently blocking cell entry by mutant viruses. Structural and functional analyses of antibodies screened using both potency assays and the yeast RBD library revealed rare, ultrapotent, mutation-resistant nAbs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Food Environ Virol ; 14(1): 101-104, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653805

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in cold-chain transportation in China, we developed specific cryogenic disinfectants. Carrier tests were performed against SARS-CoV-2 at - 20 °C for the four cryogenic disinfectants developed and qRT-PCR was used to test the virus RNA. Peracetic acid, chlorine disinfectants (two different concentrations), and quaternary ammonium disinfectant with their antifreeze can all inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in 5 min at - 20 °C. However, after 2-3 h of exposure, only chlorine disinfectant could destroy SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The viruses treated with peracetic acid and quaternary disinfectants showed positive Ct values even after 3 h detected with qRT-PCR. The conclusion was that the cold-chain disinfectants we tested could inactivate SARS-CoV-2 quickly and effectively, but only chlorine disinfectants could destroy nucleic acids in 3 h. Our study also illustrated that using qRT-PCR detection of viral nucleic acids to assess disinfection was inappropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
6.
Nat Med ; 28(2): 401-409, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655605

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the waning of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies suggests that additional coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine doses may be needed for individuals who initially received CoronaVac. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant adenovirus type 5 (AD5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine Convidecia as a heterologous booster versus those of CoronaVac as homologous booster in adults previously vaccinated with CoronaVac in an ongoing, randomized, observer-blinded, parallel-controlled phase 4 trial ( NCT04892459 ). Adults who had received two doses of CoronaVac in the past 3-6 months were vaccinated with Convidecia (n = 96) or CoronaVac (n = 102). Adults who had received one dose of CoronaVac in the past 1-3 months were also vaccinated with Convidecia (n = 51) or CoronaVac (n = 50). The co-primary endpoints were the occurrence of adverse reactions within 28 d after vaccination and geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralizing antibodies against live wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus at 14 d after booster vaccination. Adverse reactions after vaccination were significantly more frequent in Convidecia recipients but were generally mild to moderate in all treatment groups. Heterologous boosting with Convidecia elicited significantly increased GMTs of neutralizing antibody against SARS-CoV-2 than homologous boosting with CoronaVac in participants who had previously received one or two doses of CoronaVac. These data suggest that heterologous boosting with Convidecia following initial vaccination with CoronaVac is safe and more immunogenic than homologous boosting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenoviridae/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Injection Site Reaction/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
7.
Mol Biomed ; 2(1): 29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515465

ABSTRACT

In the face of the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine that can induce fast, effective, long-lasting and broad protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein vaccine candidate adjuvanted by PIKA, which can induce robust cellular and humoral immune responses. The results showed a high level of neutralizing antibodies induced by the vaccine was maintained for at least 400 days. In the study of non-human primates, PIKA adjuvanted S-trimer induced high SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers and protected from virus replication in the lung following SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In addition, the long-term neutralizing antibody response induced by S-trimer vaccine adjuvanted by PIKA could neutralize multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and there is no obvious different among the SARS- CoV-2 variants of interest or concern, including B.1.351, B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 variants. These data support the utility of S-trimer protein adjuvanted by PIKA as a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s43556-021-00054-z.

8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0059021, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434909

ABSTRACT

To assess the persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies produced by natural infection and describe the serological characteristics over 7 months after symptom onset among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by age and severity group, we followed up COVID-19 convalescent patients confirmed from 1 January to 20 March 2020 in Jiangsu, China and collected serum samples for testing IgM/IgG and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 between 26 August and 28 October 2020. In total, 284 recovered participants with COVID-19 were enrolled in our study. Patients had a mean age of 46.72 years (standard deviation [SD], 17.09), and 138 (48.59%) were male. The median follow-up time after symptom onset was 225.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 219 to 232) days. During the follow-up period (162 to 282 days after symptom onset), the seropositive rate of IgM fluctuated around 25.70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.72% to 31.20%) and that of IgG fluctuated around 79.93% (95% CI, 74.79% to 84.43%). Of the 284 patients, 64 participants were tested when discharged from hospital. Compared with that at the acute phase, the IgM/IgG antibody levels and IgM seropositivity have decreased; however, the seropositivity of IgG was not significantly lower at this follow-up (78.13% versus 82.81%). Fifty percent inhibitory dilution (ID50) titers of neutralizing antibody for samples when discharged from hospital (geometric mean titer [GMT], 82; 95% CI, 56 to 121) were significantly higher than those at 6 to 7 months after discharge (GMT, 47; 95% CI, 35 to 63) (P < 0.001). After 7 months from symptom onset, the convalescent COVID-19 patients continued to have high IgG seropositive; however, many plasma samples decreased neutralizing activity. IMPORTANCE The long-term characteristics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among COVID-19 patients remain largely unclear. Tracking the longevity of these antibodies can provide a forward-looking reference for monitoring COVID-19. We conducted a comprehensive assessment combining the kinetics of specific and neutralizing antibodies over 7 months with age and disease severity and revealed influencing factors of the protection period of convalescent patients. By observing the long-term antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 and comparing antibody levels at two time points after symptom onset, we found that the convalescent COVID-19 patients continued to have a high IgG seropositive rate; however, their plasma samples decreased neutralizing activity. These findings provide evidence supporting that the neutralizing activity of SARS-CoV-2-infected persons should be monitored and the administration of vaccine may be needed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(8): nwab053, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358471

ABSTRACT

Mutations and transient conformational movements of the receptor binding domain (RBD) that make neutralizing epitopes momentarily unavailable present immune escape routes for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To mitigate viral escape, we developed a cocktail of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting epitopes located on different domains of spike (S) protein. Screening of a library of monoclonal antibodies generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of COVID-19 convalescent patients yielded potent NAbs, targeting the N-terminal domain (NTD) and RBD domain of S, effective at nM concentrations. Remarkably, a combination of RBD-targeting NAbs and NTD-binding NAbs, FC05, enhanced the neutralization potency in cell-based assays and an animal model. Results of competitive surface plasmon resonance assays and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of antigen-binding fragments bound to S unveil determinants of immunogenicity. Combinations of immunogens, identified in the NTD and RBD of S, when immunized in rabbits and macaques, elicited potent protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. More importantly, two immunizations of this combination of NTD and RBD immunogens provided complete protection in macaques against a SARS-CoV-2 challenge, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These results provide a proof of concept for neutralization-based immunogen design targeting SARS-CoV-2 NTD and RBD.

10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 271, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315588

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines from multiple manufacturers are needed to cope with the problem of insufficient supply. We did two single-center, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 and phase 2 trials to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) in healthy population aged 18 years or older in China. Eligible participants were enrolled, the ratio of candidate vaccine and placebo within each dose group was 3:1 (phase 1) or 5:1 (phase 2). From August 28, 2020, 168 participants were sequentially enrolled and randomly assigned to receive the low dose vaccine, high dose vaccine or placebo with the schedule of 0, 28 days or 0, 14, 28 days in phase 1 trial. From November 18, 2020, 960 participants were randomly assigned to receive the low dose vaccine, high dose vaccine or placebo with the schedule of 0, 21 days or 0, 14, 28 days in phase 2 trial. The most common solicited injection site adverse reaction within 7 days in both trials was pain. The most common solicited systematic adverse reactions within 7 days were fatigue, cough, sore throat, fever and headache. ELISA antibodies and neutralising antibodies increased at 14 days, and peaked at 28 days (phase 1) or 30 days (phase 2) after the last dose vaccination. The GMTs of neutralising antibody against live SARS-CoV-2 at 28 days or 30 days after the last dose vaccination were highest in the adult high dose group (0, 14, 28 days), with 102.9 (95% CI 61.9-171.2) and 102.6 (95% CI 75.2-140.1) in phase 1 and phase 2 trials, respectively. Specific T-cell response peaked at 14 days after the last dose vaccination in phase 1 trial. This vaccine is safe, and induced significant immune responses after three doses of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1062-1070, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199302

ABSTRACT

An effective vaccine is needed to end the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Here, we assess the preliminary safety, tolerability and immunogenicity data from an ongoing single-center (in Jiangsu province, China), parallel-group, double-blind phase 1 trial of the vaccine candidate BNT162b1 in 144 healthy SARS-CoV-2-naive Chinese participants. These participants are randomized 1:1:1 to receive prime and boost vaccinations of 10 µg or 30 µg BNT162b1 or placebo, given 21 d apart, with equal allocation of younger (aged 18-55 years) and older adults (aged 65-85 years) to each treatment group (ChiCTR2000034825). BNT162b1 encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and is one of several messenger RNA-based vaccine candidates under clinical investigation. Local reactions and systemic events were generally dose dependent, transient and mild to moderate. Fever was the only grade 3 adverse event. BNT162b1 induced robust interferon-γ T cell responses to a peptide pool including the RBD in both younger and older Chinese adults, and geometric mean neutralizing titers reached 2.1-fold (for younger participants) and 1.3-fold (for the older participants) that of a panel of COVID-19 convalescent human sera obtained at least 14 d after positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test. In summary, BNT162b1 has an acceptable safety profile and produces high levels of humoral and T cell responses in an Asian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Young Adult
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 165, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199266

ABSTRACT

The global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires an urgent need to find effective therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we developed an integrative drug repositioning framework, which fully takes advantage of machine learning and statistical analysis approaches to systematically integrate and mine large-scale knowledge graph, literature and transcriptome data to discover the potential drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Our in silico screening followed by wet-lab validation indicated that a poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor, CVL218, currently in Phase I clinical trial, may be repurposed to treat COVID-19. Our in vitro assays revealed that CVL218 can exhibit effective inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 replication without obvious cytopathic effect. In addition, we showed that CVL218 can interact with the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and is able to suppress the LPS-induced production of several inflammatory cytokines that are highly relevant to the prevention of immunopathology induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Drug Repositioning , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Humans
13.
J Virol ; 95(4)2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054610

ABSTRACT

Among seven coronaviruses that infect humans, three (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus [SARS-CoV], Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus [MERS-CoV], and the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) are associated with a severe, life-threatening respiratory infection and multiorgan failure. We previously proposed that the cationically modified chitosan N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) is a potent inhibitor of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63). Next, we demonstrated the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of the compound, as it inhibited all low-pathogenicity human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-HKU1). Here, using in vitro and ex vivo models of human airway epithelia, we show that HTCC effectively blocks MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also confirmed the mechanism of action for these two viruses, showing that the polymer blocks the virus entry into the host cell by interaction with the S protein.IMPORTANCE The beginning of 2020 brought us information about the novel coronavirus emerging in China. Rapid research resulted in the characterization of the pathogen, which appeared to be a member of the SARS-like cluster, commonly seen in bats. Despite the global and local efforts, the virus escaped the health care measures and rapidly spread in China and later globally, officially causing a pandemic and global crisis in March 2020. At present, different scenarios are being written to contain the virus, but the development of novel anticoronavirals for all highly pathogenic coronaviruses remains the major challenge. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of an HTCC compound, previously developed by us, which may be used as a potential inhibitor of currently circulating highly pathogenic coronaviruses-SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chitosan/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
14.
J Infect Dis ; 222(5): 746-754, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990712

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We investigated the serum cytokine and chemokine levels in asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and convalescent SARS-CoV-2-infected cases. Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production induced by SARS-CoV-2 were observed not only in symptomatic patients but also in asymptomatic cases, and returned to normal after recovery. IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-18, G-CSF, M-CSF, MCP-1, MCP-3, IP-10, MIG, and MIP-1α were found to be associated with the severity of COVID-19. Moreover, a set of cytokine and chemokine profiles were significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2-infected male than female patients. The serum levels of MCP-1, G-CSF, and VEGF were weakly and positively correlated with viral titers. We suggest that combinatorial analysis of serum cytokines and chemokines with clinical classification may contribute to evaluation of the severity of COVID-19 and optimize the therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Chemokines/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Cytokines/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood , Viral Load
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