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1.
Int J Med Inform ; 165: 104834, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945205

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We summarized a decade of new research focusing on semantic data integration (SDI) since 2009, and we aim to: (1) summarize the state-of-art approaches on integrating health data and information; and (2) identify the main gaps and challenges of integrating health data and information from multiple levels and domains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used PubMed as our focus is applications of SDI in biomedical domains and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to search and report for relevant studies published between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2021. We used Covidence-a systematic review management system-to carry out this scoping review. RESULTS: The initial search from PubMed resulted in 5,326 articles using the two sets of keywords. We then removed 44 duplicates and 5,282 articles were retained for abstract screening. After abstract screening, we included 246 articles for full-text screening, among which 87 articles were deemed eligible for full-text extraction. We summarized the 87 articles from four aspects: (1) methods for the global schema; (2) data integration strategies (i.e., federated system vs. data warehousing); (3) the sources of the data; and (4) downstream applications. CONCLUSION: SDI approach can effectively resolve the semantic heterogeneities across different data sources. We identified two key gaps and challenges in existing SDI studies that (1) many of the existing SDI studies used data from only single-level data sources (e.g., integrating individual-level patient records from different hospital systems), and (2) documentation of the data integration processes is sparse, threatening the reproducibility of SDI studies.

2.
IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine ; 29(2):4, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1891408

ABSTRACT

As more and more countries ease coronavirus restrictions and open up, the global supply chain crisis does not seem to get better, and many industries are facing a shortage of labor. The old myth that robots will destroy jobs is proving to be far from the truth. In fact, the evidence suggests that robots will be disruptive but ultimately beneficial for labor markets [1] . In a pandemic-ravaged world, it would be a good thing to have more robots to boost productivity affected by staff shortages and to look after older adults who are in need of help.

3.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 103(4): 115721, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819473

ABSTRACT

Our objectives were to evaluate the role of procalcitonin in identifying bacterial co-infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and quantify antibiotic prescribing during the 2020 pandemic surge. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with both a procalcitonin test and blood or respiratory culture sent on admission were included in this retrospective study. Confirmed co-infection was determined by an infectious diseases specialist. In total, 819 patients were included; 335 (41%) had an elevated procalcitonin (>0.5 ng/mL) and of these, 42 (13%) had an initial bacterial co-infection. Positive predictive value of elevated procalcitonin for co-infection was 13% while the negative predictive value was 94%. Ninety-six percent of patients with an elevated procalcitonin received antibiotics (median 6 days of therapy), compared to 82% with low procalcitonin (median 4 days of therapy) (adjusted OR:3.3, P < 0.001). We observed elevated initial procalcitonin in many COVID patients without concurrent bacterial co-infections which potentially contributed to antibiotic over-prescribing.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Procalcitonin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Procalcitonin/analysis , Retrospective Studies
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809866

ABSTRACT

Syndromic surveillance involves the near-real-time collection of data from a potential multitude of sources to detect outbreaks of disease or adverse health events earlier than traditional forms of public health surveillance. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the role of syndromic surveillance during mass gathering scenarios. In the present review, the use of syndromic surveillance for mass gathering scenarios is described, including characteristics such as methodologies of data collection and analysis, degree of preparation and collaboration, and the degree to which prior surveillance infrastructure is utilized. Nineteen publications were included for data extraction. The most common data source for the included syndromic surveillance systems was emergency departments, with first aid stations and event-based clinics also present. Data were often collected using custom reporting forms. While syndromic surveillance can potentially serve as a method of informing public health policy regarding specific mass gatherings based on the profile of syndromes ascertained, the present review does not indicate that this form of surveillance is a reliable method of detecting potentially critical public health events during mass gathering scenarios.


Subject(s)
Mass Gatherings , Sentinel Surveillance , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Population Surveillance , Public Health Surveillance/methods
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 137, 2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805598

ABSTRACT

Whether and how innate antiviral response is regulated by humoral metabolism remains enigmatic. We show that viral infection induces progesterone via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in mice. Progesterone induces downstream antiviral genes and promotes innate antiviral response in cells and mice, whereas knockout of the progesterone receptor PGR has opposite effects. Mechanistically, stimulation of PGR by progesterone activates the tyrosine kinase SRC, which phosphorylates the transcriptional factor IRF3 at Y107, leading to its activation and induction of antiviral genes. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have increased progesterone levels, and which are co-related with decreased severity of COVID-19. Our findings reveal how progesterone modulates host innate antiviral response, and point to progesterone as a potential immunomodulatory reagent for infectious and inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Mice , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Progesterone/pharmacology
6.
IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine ; 29(1):4, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1759125

ABSTRACT

Two years into the pandemic, many places in the world experienced another wave of spiking COVID cases. People got used to remote shopping, working from home, and Zoom meetings more than ever. The world’s predictable unpredictability has become the new normal, and we are trying to live with a disease that has not yet settled into its endemic state.

7.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733334

ABSTRACT

Objective The main objectives of this study were to use the effect of information framing (different expressions of the same issue, e.g., positive messages and negative messages) to explore key factors that influence the attitude of and intention of the public toward wearing masks and to understand the internal and external factors of intervention on information framing perception. Methods This study performed an online questionnaire survey to explore the influence of demographic characteristics, information framing, social norms, and information credibility on the attitude of the public toward masks and their intention to wear them. Results (1) Information framing had a significant impact on the attitudes of people toward masks and their intention to wear them, and the persuasion effect of gain-framed messages was higher than that of loss-framed messages. (2) Gender, income, occupation, educational background, and residence have no significant difference in attitude and intention to wear masks. There was a significant correlation between age and wearing of masks (p = 0.041 < 0.05). (3) Social norms affected people's perception of information framing and their attitude toward wearing masks, but only the impact of loss-framed messages on intention was significant. (4) Information framing affected people's perception of information credibility, which had a positive impact on their intention to wear masks;however, information credibility only had a significant impact on attitude toward wearing masks under the gain-framed messages and played an intermediary role. Conclusion The impact of information framing on the attitude of people toward masks and their intention to wear them varies. Individuals involved in the publicity of health information related to this issue should pay attention to the influence of information framing and content on the public wearing masks as a means of enhancing public health awareness.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731872

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the pathophysiologic understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suggests that cytokine release syndrome (CRS) has an association with the severity of disease, which is characterized by increased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, IL-7, and IL-10. Hence, managing CRS has been recommended for rescuing severe COVID-19 patients. TNF-α, one of the pro-inflammatory cytokines commonly upregulated in acute lung injury, triggers CRS and facilitates SARS-CoV-2 interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). TNF-α inhibitors, therefore, may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy for attenuating disease progression in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Below, we review the possibilities and challenges of targeting the TNF-α pathway in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328699

ABSTRACT

Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) prevent COVID-19 progression during early disease presentation. We aimed to compare the mAb treatment outcomes among vaccinated and unvaccinated patients during Delta wave and assess the feasibility of implementing stricter eligibility criteria given mAb scarcity in New York City. Methods: : We conducted a retrospective observational study of casirivimab/imdevimab recipients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infection in an emergency department or outpatient infusion center (July 1 – August 20, 2021). The outcome was all-cause hospital admission within 30 days post-treatment between vaccinated vs. unvaccinated patients during Delta surge in the Bronx, NY. Results: A total of 250 patients received casirivimab/imdevimab (162 unvaccinated vs. 88 vaccinated). The median age was 39 years for unvaccinated patients, and 52 years for vaccinated patients (p<0.0001). The median number of EUA criteria met was 1 for unvaccinated and 2 for vaccinated patients (p<0.0001). Overall, 6% (15/250) of patients were admitted within 30 days post-treatment. Eleven unvaccinated patients (7%) were admitted (all-cause) within 30-days compared to 4 (5%) of vaccinated patients (p=0.48). Conclusions: : All-cause 30-day admission was not statistically different between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. With limited federal allocation of therapies, programs must prioritize patients at highest risk of hospitalization and death regardless of vaccination status.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313035

ABSTRACT

It is important to exactly identify the difference in the changes in a receptor C5aR1-levels at onset and Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-levels after recovery between severe (acute respiratory distress syndrome) and nonsevere (pneumonia) coronavirus disease 2019 patients to reduce the severity of the disease and prevent reinfection with the causative virus. 2012 literature studies were selected from the PubMed Central® databases with keywords of (((covid-19) AND individual) NOT review) AND C5a / IgG. Three studies showing individual expression levels of C5a/C5aR1 / antibody in the patients before and after the passage of time without significance were selected by assessing the literatures. We extracted dynamics where the slope values of the regression line between the initial (X) and changed level (C) with passage of time were not zero significantly (p < 0.05) using SAS-JMP-10. We examined the significance of C in the patients with Ishida’s t-test1 and that of the difference in C between the severe and nonsevere patients with Ishida’s t-test2, which used the values on the above regression line as the expected values of C. These tests suggested a greater increase in C5aR1-levels at onset and a smaller decrease in IgG-levels after recovery in severe patients than in nonsevere patients.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312698

ABSTRACT

Background: No specific therapeutic agents or vaccines are available for the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) yet. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of high dose ulinastatin for patients with Covid-19. Methods: Twelve patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were treated with high dose of ulinastatin beyond standard care. The changes of clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and 2 patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0 ± 11.9 years, ranging from 48 to 87 years. Nine of 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12), and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70 ± 77.70 mg/L). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP decreased significantly and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87 ± 6.63 mg/L) on the seventh day after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not need further oxygen therapy seven days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. No obvious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data revealed that high dose of ulinastatin treatment was safe and showed a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305497

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to build models to tackle Indoor Air Quality issue. Since the model should be accurate and fast, Reduced Order Modelling technique is used to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. The accuracy of the model, that represent a dynamic system, is improved integrating real data coming from sensors using Data Assimilation techniques. In this paper, we formulate a new methodology called Latent Assimilation that combines Data Assimilation and Machine Learning. We use a Convolutional neural network to reduce the dimensionality of the problem, a Long-Short-Term-Memory to build a surrogate model of the dynamic system and an Optimal Interpolated Kalman Filter to incorporate real data. Experimental results are provided for CO2 concentration within an indoor space. This methodology can be used for example to predict in real-time the load of virus, such as the SARS-COV-2, in the air by linking it to the concentration of CO2.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311935

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten global stability. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is mostly by respiratory droplets and direct contact but viral RNA fragments have also been detected in the faecal waste of patients with COVID-19. Cleanliness and effective sanitation of public toilets is a concern, as flushing the toilet is potentially an aerosol generating procedure. When the toilets are of the squatting type and without a cover, there exists a risk of viral contamination through the splashing of toilet water and aerosol generation. Methods: : This study reports an online survey of 134 people in China to determine whether the cleanliness of public toilets was a concern to the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether a squatting toilet was preferred to a seated design. Results: : The survey showed that 91% of participants preferred squatting toilets, but that 72% were apprehensive of personal contamination when using public toilets. Over 63% of the respondents had encountered an incidence of water splash and would prefer public toilets to be covered during flushing and 83% of these respondents preferred a foot-controlled device. Conclusions: : This survey suggests that consideration should be given to the installation of a simple foot-controlled device to cover public squatting toilets to help restrict potential COVID-19 contamination and to meet hygienic expectations of the public.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311723

ABSTRACT

Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a severe complication of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It may interfere with COVID-19 treatment and delay the recovery, but there is less data about the anticoagulant therapy and sex difference of VTE in patients with COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to study the prevalence, risk factors, anticoagulant therapy and sex difference of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with COVID-19. Methods: The enrolled 121 patients were confirmed positive for COVID-19. All suspected patients with a high Caprini index (≥4) or PADUA index (≥4) received color Doppler Ultrasound (US) to screen DVT in both lower extremities. Clinical characteristics of DVT-COVID-19 patients were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors related to DVT in COVID-19 patients. The distribution of DVT locations, anticoagulation therapy with sex difference, and the outcomes were also analyzed. Results: DVT was found in 48% asymptomatic COVID-19 patients with increased PAUDA index or Caprini index by US scanning. Multivariate logistic regression determined that age, CRP and baseline D-dimer were risk factors among COVDI-19 patients. Although the most common DVT location was infrapopliteal (Class I and Class II), higher mortality in DVT-COVID-19 patients was confirmed. DVT-COVID-19 patients presented significant increases in the CRP, neutrophil count and D-dimer throughout the whole inpatient period compared to non-DVT-COVID-19 patients. Although anticoagulation therapy accelerated the recovery of lymphocytopenia condition in DVT patients, men DVT-COVID-19 patients showed higher CRP and neutrophil count vs. lymphocyte count (N/L) ratio but lower lymphocyte count compared to women DVT-COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: DVT is common in COVID-19 patients with high risk factors, especially for older age, higher CRP and baseline D-dimer populations. It is important to consider sex differences in the anticoagulant therapy among DVT-COVID-19 patients.

15.
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine ; 23(2):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1678877

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents available for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of high-dose ulinastatin for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. A total of 12 patients hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were treated with a high dose of ulinastatin alongside standard care. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and two patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0±11.9 years (age range, 48-87 years). In total, nine of the 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12) and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70±77.70 mg/l). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP was significantly decreased and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87±6.63 mg/l) on day 7 after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not require further oxygen therapy 7 days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. Compared with the standard care group, ulinastatin treatment significantly prevented illness deterioration. In conclusion, these preliminary data revealed that high-dose ulinastatin treatment was safe and exhibited a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 358: 131460, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655165

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly diffuse respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technology is commonly used in clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. However, this method is time-consuming and labor-intensive, which is limited in clinical application. Here, we propose a new method for the ultrasensitive and visual detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid. The assay integrates with a paper device and highly efficient isothermal amplification technology - Netlike rolling circle amplification (NRCA), which can reach a limit of detection of 4.12 aM. The paper-based NRCA owns advantages of specificity, portability, visualization and low-cost. Therefore, this method can effectively meet the requirements of point-of-care testing, providing a novel molecular detection technology for clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and promoting the development of NRCA devices.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the uptake and vaccination willingness of the COVID-19 vaccine among Chinese residents and analyze the difference and factors that impact vaccination. METHODS: The snowball sampling method was used to distribute online questionnaires. Relevant sociodemographic data along with the circumstances of COVID-19 vaccination were collected from the respondents. The χ2 test, independent samples t test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Among 786 respondents, 84.22% had been vaccinated. Over 80% of the vaccinated population have completed all the injections because of supporting the national vaccination policies of China, while the unvaccinated population (23.91%) is mainly due to personal health status. Meanwhile, statistical analysis revealed that the main predictors of not being vaccinated were younger age (3 to 18 years old), personal health status, and lower vaccinated proportion of family members and close friends (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was a high level of uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine in China, and people who have not been vaccinated generally had a low willingness to vaccinate in the future. Based on our results, it suggested the next work to expand the coverage of the COVID-19 vaccination should be concentrated on targeted publicity and education for people who have not been vaccinated.

19.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(2): 121, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594196

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents available for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of high-dose ulinastatin for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. A total of 12 patients hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were treated with a high dose of ulinastatin alongside standard care. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and two patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0±11.9 years (age range, 48-87 years). In total, nine of the 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12) and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70±77.70 mg/l). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP was significantly decreased and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12; mean, 6.87±6.63 mg/l) on day 7 after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not require further oxygen therapy 7 days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. Compared with the standard care group, ulinastatin treatment significantly prevented illness deterioration. In conclusion, these preliminary data revealed that high-dose ulinastatin treatment was safe and exhibited a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

20.
IEEE Internet Things J ; 8(21): 15929-15938, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570215

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while bringing various serious threats to the world, it reminds us that we need to take precautions to control the transmission of the virus. The rise of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) has made related data collection and processing, including healthcare monitoring systems, more convenient on the one hand, and requirements of public health prevention are also changing and more challengeable on the other hand. One of the most effective nonpharmaceutical medical intervention measures is mask wearing. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an automatic real-time mask detection method to help prevent the public epidemic. In this article, we put forward an edge computing-based mask (ECMask) identification framework to help public health precautions, which can ensure real-time performance on the low-power camera devices of buses. Our ECMask consists of three main stages: 1) video restoration; 2) face detection; and 3) mask identification. The related models are trained and evaluated on our bus drive monitoring data set and public data set. We construct extensive experiments to validate the good performance based on real video data, in consideration of detection accuracy and execution time efficiency of the whole video analysis, which have valuable application in COVID-19 prevention.

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