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1.
Medical Journal of Dr DY Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(8):265-270, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2202089

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mass vaccination is considered one of the most crucial weapons in fighting against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, the occurrence of breakthrough infections (BTIs) has questioned the vaccine effectiveness of the currently available vaccines. The present study aimed to determine the breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in the vaccinated population and to compare the clinic-epidemiological profile and outcomes between breakthrough cases and unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 positive cases. Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted between April 15, 2021, and June 15, 2021, in a zonal military hospital in Jaipur. We evaluated individuals with BTI as cases which were SARS-CoV-2 positive after 14 days of the second dose of vaccine and unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals as control. The clinical and demographic data was collected from the Indian Council of Medical Research and specimen referral forms were filled out for all persons who had undergone testing for SARS-CoV-2. The outcome of positive cases in terms of discharge and deaths were collected from hospital records. Results: A total of 162 breakthrough COVID 19 infections and 925 unvaccinated positive confirmed controls were recorded within the study duration. The majority of cases presented with mild infection in both case (80.2%) and control groups (72.4%). The risk of hospitalization and occurrence of moderate to severe disease was 2.3 and 4 times more in the non-vaccinated group as compared to the vaccinated group, respectively. No mortality was reported among the breakthrough cases. Interpretation and Conclusions: Despite the occurrence of BTIs, the benefits of vaccines are far greater. Our findings suggest that vaccination is associated with a lower risk of hospital admission, severe disease, and mortality against COVID-19. © 2022 Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1):249-256, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2201801

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the clinico-demographic profile of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in patients during the "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in eastern India, and their ophthalmic manifestations at presentation to our tertiary institute. METHODS: Cross-sectional study amongst patients presenting to our center based on their hospital records. Demographic information, history related to COVID-19, records of detailed ocular examination, and microbiological, radiological, and histopathological investigation were entered into an online worksheet and analyzed using SPSS 26.0. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients with ROCM were treated from May to September 2021, and 110 of these had ocular manifestations at presentation (50.2%). The age of patients ranged from 22 to 83 years and the mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 49.9 ± 12.9 years. Ninety (81.8%) patients had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, 31 (34%) had hypertension, and 10 had other comorbidities. The duration between the onset of COVID-19 and mucormycosis symptoms was 0 to 60 days with a mean ± SD interval of 20.9 ± 12.6 days. Fifty-six (50.9%) patients had a history of steroid use. Unrelenting ocular or facial pain was the most common presenting symptom, ptosis was the most common anterior segment manifestation, and ophthalmic artery occlusion was the most common posterior segment manifestation. CONCLUSION: Our data from eastern India reinforces the relationship between COVID-19, diabetes, corticosteroid use, and ROCM. Knowledge of various presenting anterior and posterior segment manifestations of the disease as described in the present study will guide clinicians to recognize the disease early and make every effort to prevent complications.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2198904

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with cancer, especially hematological cancer, are at increased risk for breakthrough COVID-19 infection. So far, a predictive biomarker that can assess compromised vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in cancer patients has not been proposed. Methods: We employed machine learning approaches to identify a biomarker signature based on blood cytokines, chemokines, and immune- and non-immune-related growth factors linked to vaccine immunogenicity in 199 cancer patients receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. Results: C-reactive protein (general marker of inflammation), interleukin (IL)-15 (a pro-inflammatory cytokine), IL-18 (interferon-gamma inducing factor), and placental growth factor (an angiogenic cytokine) correctly classified patients with a diminished vaccine response assessed at day 49 with >80% accuracy. Amongst these, CRP showed the highest predictive value for poor response to vaccine administration. Importantly, this unique signature of vaccine response was present at different studied timepoints both before and after vaccination and was not majorly affected by different anti-cancer treatments. Conclusion: We propose a blood-based signature of cytokines and growth factors that can be employed in identifying cancer patients at persistent high risk of COVID-19 despite vaccination with BNT162b2. Our data also suggest that such a signature may reflect the inherent immunological constitution of some cancer patients who are refractive to immunotherapy.

4.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198881

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite numerous efforts to describe COVID-19's immunological landscape, there is still a gap in our understanding of the virus's infections after-effects, especially in the recovered patients. This would be important to understand as we now have huge number of global populations infected by the SARS-CoV-2 as well as variables inclusive of VOCs, reinfections, and vaccination breakthroughs. Furthermore, single-cell transcriptome alone is often insufficient to understand the complex human host immune landscape underlying differential disease severity and clinical outcome. Method(s): By combining single-cell multi-omics (Whole Transcriptome Analysis plus Antibody-seq) and machine learning-based analysis, we aim to better understand the functional aspects of cellular and immunological heterogeneity in the COVID-19 positive, recovered and the healthy individuals. Result(s): Based on single-cell transcriptome and surface marker study of 163,197 cells (124,726 cells after data QC) from the 33 individuals (healthy=4, COVID-19 positive=16, and COVID-19 recovered=13), we observed a reduced MHC Class-I-mediated antigen presentation and dysregulated MHC Class-II-mediated antigen presentation in the COVID-19 patients, with restoration of the process in the recovered individuals. B-cell maturation process was also impaired in the positive and the recovered individuals. Importantly, we discovered that a subset of the naive T-cells from the healthy individuals were absent from the recovered individuals, suggesting a post-infection inflammatory stage. Both COVID-19 positive patients and the recovered individuals exhibited a CD40-CD40LG-mediated inflammatory response in the monocytes and T-cell subsets. T-cells, NK-cells, and monocyte-mediated elevation of immunological, stress and antiviral responses were also seen in the COVID-19 positive and the recovered individuals, along with an abnormal T-cell activation, inflammatory response, and faster cellular transition of T cell subtypes in the COVID-19 patients. Importantly, above immune findings were used for a Bayesian network model, which significantly revealed FOS, CXCL8, IL1beta, CST3, PSAP, CD45 and CD74 as COVID-19 severity predictors. Discussion(s): In conclusion, COVID-19 recovered individuals exhibited a hyper-activated inflammatory response with the loss of B cell maturation, suggesting an impeded post-infection stage, necessitating further research to delineate the dynamic immune response associated with the COVID-19. To our knowledge this is first multi-omic study trying to understand the differential and dynamic immune response underlying the sample subtypes. Copyright © 2022 Chattopadhyay, Khare, Kumar, Mishra, Anand, Maurya, Gupta, Sahni, Gupta, Wadhwa, Yadav, Devi, Tardalkar, Joshi, Sethi and Pandey.

5.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2196825

ABSTRACT

The population health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are less well understood in low and middle-income countries, where mortality surveillance before the pandemic was patchy. Interpreting the limited all-cause mortality data available in India is challenging. We use existing data on all-cause mortality from civil registration systems of twelve Indian states comprising around 60% of the national population to understand the scale and timing of excess deaths in India during the COVID-19 pandemic. We carefully characterize the reasons why registration is incomplete and estimate the extent of coverage in the data. Comparing the pandemic period to 2019, we estimate excess mortality in twelve Indian states, and extrapolate our estimates to the rest of India. We explore sensitivity of the estimates to various assumptions. For the 12 states with available all-cause mortality data, we document an increase of 28% in deaths during April 2020-May 2021 relative to expectations from 2019. This level of increase in mortality, if it applies nationally, would imply 2.8-2.9 million excess deaths. More limited data from June 2021 increases national estimates of excess deaths during April 2020-June 2021 to 3.8 million. With more optimistic or pessimistic assumptions, excess deaths during this period could credibly lie between 2.8 million and 5.2 million. The scale of estimated excess deaths is broadly consistent with expectations based on seroprevalence and COVID-19 fatality rates observed internationally. Moreover, the timing of excess deaths and recorded COVID-19 deaths is similar-they rise and fall at the same time. The surveillance of pandemic mortality in India has been extremely poor, with 8-10 times as many excess deaths as officially recorded COVID-19 deaths. India is among the countries most severely impacted by the pandemic. Our approach highlights the utility of all-cause mortality data, as well as the significant challenges in interpreting it.

6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S495, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189806

ABSTRACT

Background. There is a continued need for therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19, including intramuscular (IM) agents, which will enable broader use across a variety of healthcare delivery settings. Methods. COMET-PEAK (NCT04779879) is a 3-part study evaluating the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (Part A), and viral pharmacodynamics (PD) of sotrovimab as treatment in adults >= 18 years with early mild/moderate COVID-19. In Parts B and C, the safety, tolerability and viral PD of sotrovimab administered as a 500 mg intravenous (IV) infusion or as a 500 mg or 250 mg IM injection, respectively, was evaluated. The primary objective for Parts B and C was to compare the virologic response of sotrovimab IM to IV, with an endpoint of mean area under the curve (AUC) of SARS-CoV-2 viral load as measured by qRT-PCR from Day 1 to Day 8 (AUCD1-8) in nasopharyngeal swabs and predefined 90% confidence interval (CI) limits of 0.5-2.0 indicating equivalence. Results. A total of 167 and 157 participants were enrolled in Part B and C, respectively, from February-July 2021. The median age of participants was 47 and 42 years in Part B and C, respectively, and ~50% had >= 1 risk factor for progression to severe disease. The viral load at baseline and through Day 29 of follow-up for each arm is shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. The primary objective was met for both study parts: the ratio of the least square geometric mean viral load AUC(D1-8) of sotrovimab IM vs IV was 1.04 (90% CI, 0.98, 1.09) and 1.02 (90% CI, 0.94, 1.11), for Part B and C, respectively. Through Day 29 of follow-up, the most common adverse event was injection site reactions (ISRs) in the IM arms. A total of 10 (12%) participants in the 500 mg IM group and 4 (5%) participants in the 250 mg IM group experienced an ISR, all Grade 1. Serious adverse events were uncommon, and related to COVID-19 progression, including one death in the 250 mg IM arm (Table 2). ISRs aside, there were few treatment-related AEs (2/84 IV, 1/82 IM) in Part B, none serious. Conclusion. IM administration of sotrovimab 500 mg and 250 mg each demonstrated equivalence to 500 mg sotrovimab IV in viral load assessments. Overall, there were no treatment-related serious AEs and sotrovimab was well tolerated. An 500 mg IM formulation will allow for expanded treatment potential with sotrovimab.

7.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 19:19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior observation has shown differences in COVID-19 hospitalization risk between SARS-CoV-2 variants, but limited information describes hospitalization outcomes.

8.
Dalton Transactions ; 19:19, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186144

ABSTRACT

The highly contagious COVID-19, caused by the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is commonly diagnosed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, despite being highly sensitive, RT-PCR is also time consuming and quite complex, which limits its use for point-of-care (POC) testing. We have developed a simple single-step fluorescence assay for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection based on the principle of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) using iridium complexes. Our smartly designed iridium probes fluorescently "turn-on" in the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and give specific results at room temperature within 10 min. The lower limit of detection (LOD) is 1.84 genome copies per reaction, and the sensitivity and specificity of the assay in 20 clinical samples are found to be 90% and 80%, respectively.

9.
Pediatric Hematology Oncology Journal ; 7(4 Supplement):S3, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2182284

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) in maintenance phase of chemotherapy. Teleconsultation was introduced to ensure continuity of care for these patients during the lock-down phase of the pandemic and was continued well after its end. Hence, we decided to analyze the impact of teleconsultation in a cohort of ALL patients. Method(s): Our study was a single-centre retrospective analysis of patients with ALL on maintenance chemotherapy. Thirty-five patients records were analyzed, comparison was made between absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) and frequency of consultations before and after the start of teleconsultation, which included 2-weekly phone calls, necessitating visit only once in 3 months as opposed to a monthly visit as required before. Hemograms were done twice a month and sent on WhatsApp. Consultations were done via phone calls and prescriptions sent via WhatsApp. Result(s): The median [IQR] age of our cohort was 7.5 [4.2;9.3] years and age at diagnosis was 5.4 [2.3;7.5] years;23/35 (66%) were male and 30/35 (88%) were phenotypically B-ALL;rest T-ALL/Lymphoma. All patients received chemotherapy as per the ICiCLE (Indian Collaborative Childhood Leukaemia group) protocol. A total of 437 teleconsultations were done (73/month). Before teleconsultation, the mean (SD) ANC was 2272 (644)//microL, and after teleconsultation it was 1754 (461)/microL (p value=0.0001). Teleconsultation improved target ANC (<2000/microL) attainment in our cohort of patients (31% vs 80%, p value=0.0002). Prior to teleconsultation, majority (27/35, 77%) visited the hospital once a month which reduced to once in 3 months, after teleconsultation. Conclusion(s): Teleconsultation is time saving, economical and reduces the gap in schooling in a child with ALL. It also helps optimize compliance during this maintenance phase of chemotherapy, a key in management of leukemia patients, contributing to the continuum of care and improvement in overall survival of these patients. Copyright © 2022

10.
Soc Netw Anal Min ; 13(1):12, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2175221

ABSTRACT

The world witnessed the emergence of a deadly virus in December 2019, later named COVID-19. The virus was found to be highly contagious, and so people across the world were highly prone to be affected by the virus. Being a virus-borne disease, developing a vaccine was one of the most promising remedies. Thus, research organizations across the globe started working on developing the vaccine. However, it was later found by many researchers that a large number of people were hesitant to receive the vaccine. This paper aims to study the acceptance and hesitancy levels of people in India and compares them with the acceptance and hesitancy levels of people from the UK, the USA, and the rest of the world by analyzing their tweets on Twitter. For this study, 2,98,452 tweets were fetched from January 2020 to March 2022 from Twitter, and 1,84,720 tweets from 1,22,960 unique users were selected based on their country of origin. Machine learning based Sentiment analysis is then used to evaluate and analyze the tweets. The paper also proposes an NLP-based algorithm to perform opinion mining on Twitter data. The study found the public sentiment of the Indian population to be 63% positive, 28% neutral, and 9% negative. While the worldwide sentiment distribution is 45% positive, 34% neutral, and 21% negative, the USA has 42% positive, 34% neutral, and 23% negative and the UK has 50% positive, 29% neutral, and 21% negative. Also, sentiment analysis for individual vaccines in Indian context resulted in "Covaxin" with the highest positive sentiment at 43% followed by "Covishield" at 36%. The outcome of this work yields an insight into the public perception of the COVID-19 vaccine and thus can be used to formulate policies for existing and future vaccine campaigns. This study becomes more relevant as it is the consolidated opinion of Indian people, which is versatile in nature.

11.
Neurological Sciences ; 43(Supplement 1):S63-S64, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2174314

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the long-term safety and tolerability of of atumumab treatment in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). Background(s): Of atumumab, a fully-human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with a 20 mg subcutaneous monthly dosing regimen, is approved for treating RMS in adults. Previously published data demonstrated that of atumumab treatment up to 30months had a favorable safety profile and was generally well-tolerated. Longer-term safety of of atumumab in RMS patients continues to be monitored. Design/Methods: Patients completing the core ASCLEPIOS I/II, APOLITOS and APLIOS clinical trials could enter ALITHIOS, an ongoing, open-label, umbrella extension trial. Here, we analyze the cumulative data for up to 4 years of of atumumab treatment (data cutoff: 25- Sep-2021) in the overall (N=1969), continuous (of atumumab in core + extension;N=1292) and newly-switched (teriflunomide core and of atumumab extension;N=677) groups. The proportion of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, serious infections including opportunistic infections, and malignancies will be assessed. Laboratory parameters including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM levels will be analyzed. Result(s): In data reported from ALITHIOS with a cut-off of 29-Jan- 2021, representing of atumumab treatment for up to ~3.5years, 83.8% of patients had >=1 AEs (exposure-adjusted incidence rate [EAIR], 148.7) and 9.7%had >=1 serious AEs (EAIR, 4.8) with a low incidence of serious infections (2.9%;EAIR, 1.4) and malignancies (0.6%;EAIR, 0.3). Across 4 years of Treatment in the Overall Safety Population, the overall rate of AEs and SAEs remained consistent with the rates observed during the core trials. The most common AEs were infections;the most frequent infections in the overall safety population were nasopharyngitis (17.5%), upper respiratory tract infections (11.1%), urinary tract infections (10.9%), and COVID-19 (10.6%). No new safety signals were identified. The overall rate of serious infections was consistent with Phase 3 ASCLEPIOS I/II trials (2.5%, EAIR: 1.44) and did not increase with treatment up to 4 years despite COVID-19 pandemic. Most COVID-19 cases were non-serious, mild-to-moderate in severity and the majority of patients recovered. IgG levels remained stable up to 4 years of treatment, while IgM levels decreased but remained above the LLN. Lymphocyte and neutrophils level remained stable throughout 4 years of treatment. Incidence rates of malignancy did not increase over time in the overall patient population. Conclusion(s): Safety findings for up to 3.5 years showed of atumumab treatment to be well-tolerated with no new safety risks identified. This additional safety data will help confirm of atumumab's longer-term safety profile and provide further confidence to the MS community.

12.
6th International Conference on Advanced Production and Industrial Engineering , ICAPIE 2021 ; : 244-252, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173869

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus has led to several countries establishing guidelines asking citizens to stay secluded and at their homes as much as possible. This has a profound impact on the working lives in almost all professions. Hence, people have been advised to work from home. However, working from home has several limitations and on average will cause financial losses to an individual. This has given rise to a dilemma where each person has the choice of working from home or going outside with the incentive of earning more capital but also increasing the risk of capturing the virus. We have modeled this situation using an n-player game where each player is trying to maximize their payoff, i.e., trying to make as much money as possible but limiting the risk of catching the virus. We aim to predict the proportion of a population cooperating, i.e., the following work from home guidelines at a particular stage of spread. This project presents an algorithm to model the n-player game and has used actual COVID-19 case numbers from various Indian states to simulate the situation. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

13.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 10(1):660-672, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2169328

ABSTRACT

There are lots of social media tools that are accessible for medical or healthcare professionals, which include different social networking blogs, microblogs, media-sharing sites, wikis, virtual reality. All these different media tools can be utilized to develop or improve specialized networking and organiza tional promotion, education, patient education, patient care, and different public health agendas. But they also can perpetuate the risks to patients and healthcare professionals regarding the circulation of low-quality information, violate the patient privacy, and also have legal issues. To prevent all these risks, professional organizations and healthcare institutions have introduced a few guidelines. These guidelines were established to deliver emergency medicine residency programs control with leadership and best perform in the suitable practice and guidelines of social media but are valid to all residency programs that desire to create a social media presence. In this chapter, the authors describe how socialmedia made their impact on this pandemic COVID-19 situation. Copyright © 2023 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

14.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(7):3930-3936, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168431

ABSTRACT

Aim: Prevalence of low back pain and osteoporosis in health care workers after the COVID 19 pandemic. Material(s) and Method(s): The present prospective study was conducted among 300 apparently healthy adults who are working as a health care individual in the institute. A questionnaire addressing known risk factors for osteoporosis was made. The severity of the LBP was graded using a visual analogue scale for pain (VAS). The VAS is a reliable scale used to register the intensity of chronic pain where 0 signifies no pain and 10 signifies the worst pain imaginable. Those who had chronic LBP were also questioned on whether the onset of LBP preceded the Covid-19 pandemic, and whether the severity of the LBP had increased during the pandemic. Result(s): Light, moderate, sedentary and vigorous physical activity was revealed in 50.1%, 33.6%, 11.1% and 5.2% of the subjects respectively. >1 hour sun exposure in a day was reported among 15.4% of the subjects.In this study, low back was found among 42.7% of the subjects. Mean BMD level was -0.49+/-2.40. Mean BMD level was lower in subjects having back pain, sedentary/vigorous physical activity and no sun exposure as compared to counterparts. Conclusion(s): The confinement decreed due to the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant increase in LBPintensity among health care workers. Copyright © 2022 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

15.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(21):96-102, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206903

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of migration during the Covid-19 pandemic. Migration has been affected by the pandemic in various ways. For instance, the mobility restrictions imposed by governments have led to a decrease in both legal and irregular migration, and this has caused economic hardship for those who rely on remittances from family members abroad. Furthermore, the pandemic has created a new set of challenges for migrant workers, such as increased exposure to health risks and exploitation. The paper will also discuss the potential opportunities for migrants that have arisen due to the pandemic, such as the need for skilled labour in certain sectors and the development of digital technologies to facilitate remote work. Finally, the paper will examine some of the initiatives that have been taken to address the challenges faced by migrants, such as the establishment of temporary residence permits and the provision of financial aid. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of migration during the pandemic. We will examine how the pandemic has affected migration, both human and economic, and what strategies have been used to reduce its negative impacts. We will also discuss the implications of migration for both developed and developing countries, and how it has impacted the global economy. Finally, we will explore the potential for future migration and the implications for global governance. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

16.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(15):7363-7376, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206872

ABSTRACT

Garlic Vein (Lamiaceae) was used to treat multiple human afflictions. Literary works demonstrated that it has many biological activities. Today's research aims to recognise Garlic Veinphyto-derived anti-viral compounds against main protease and spike protein of COVID-19, to gain insight into the molecular interactions. In the current study, 12 molecules taken from Garlic Veinwere analysed through docking, which is derived from the PubMed database. Docking experiments were conducted with Autodock tool. AdmetSAR and Data warrior servers were eventually used for drug-like prediction. Our research shows that three phytoconstituents from Melissa officinalis, namely, Luteolin-7-glucoside- 3'-glucuronide, Melitric acid-A and Quadranoside-III have exhibited better binding affinity and stability with the targets of COVID-19 main protease and spike protein. The identified substances can be further extended for in vitro and in vivo studies to assess their effectiveness against COVID-19. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

17.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:3258-3264, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206715

ABSTRACT

Simulation is a technique where the situation or a process is imitated. This process makes one to pretend the scenario. Aviation industry is one of the oldest industry which uses simulation technique to simulate the aviation technique. The main aim of having simulation lab is to make students acquire psychomotor skills before they actually treat the patients. Presently the National Medical Council of India has made it mandatory to have a skill lab but desirable to have a simulated mannequin for the training of medical students before actually treating the patients. Various advantages and disadvantages are appreciated in simulation technique. It is not very far that Dental council of India may make compulsory training of certain simulated modules in dentistry before treating the patient. Simulation lab in the pandemic like COVID has really helped people to undergo extensive training before treating patients, especially one who were catering the COVID ward or intensive care units. The simulation in dentistry is not a very old technique, certain technique are already in practice, but this article tries to highlight the necessity and gray areas where simulation can be improved for the benefit of students to learn and for the benefit of patients in view of safety. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

18.
Cureus ; 15(1):e33596, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203441

ABSTRACT

The whole world got threatened by COVID-19, which made a significant loss in various sectors and pushed the world into a deep valley. Now a new threat, the emerging outbreak of monkeypox is rapidly spreading across the globe and is currently being observed in more than 110 countries with 79,473 confirmed cases and 50 deaths. Data were collected from PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus database, African Journals OnLine, internet library sub-Saharan Africa, and Google Scholar. Most data were taken from the democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of Congo, Liberia, Nigeria, the US, and the UK. Case reports, outbreak investigations, epidemiological studies, and surveillance studies were reviewed to find epidemiological details about the outbreak. A total of 50 peer-reviewed articles and 20 grey literature articles, including 9050 cases, were identified for data extraction. Our systematic review revealed that the group most affected is male (95.5%), with a median age of 33.8 years. A total of 55% of the transmission was sexually transmitted. The most commonly reported symptoms such as vesicular-pustular rashes (97.54%), fever (55.25%), inguinal lymphadenopathy (53.6%), exanthema (40.21%), fatigue, headache, asthenia (26.32%), myalgia (16.33%), vesicles and ulcers (30.61%) in the anogenital regions were some of the significant findings. The case fatality rate was observed to be up to 8.65%. The most affected country was the USA, which has the most fatalities in younger ages involved in homosexuality, suffering from HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

19.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research ; 77(1):40-43, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164798

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 virus can leave long-lasting, lingering side effects even after the viral load has depleted. Most of the people they get better within few weeks. But in some people, especially those who got critically ill, needed to stay in the ICU, be put on a ventilator, or have other types of breathing support, in them the virus can impact many vital organs of the body, either directly or sometimes very badly hamper immune response. So, special precautions, some tests and scans might be worth taking it. Our study adds some novelty about the identification of effective biomarkers of progressive disease, and which might be helpful for diagnosis, prevention of complications, and effective therapy. Copyright © The Authors.

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