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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(8): 106589, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To derive models that identify patients with COVID-19 at high risk for stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from the AHA's Get With The Guidelines® COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry to generate models for predicting stroke risk among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 at 122 centers from March 2020-March 2021. To build our models, we used data on demographics, comorbidities, medications, and vital sign and laboratory values at admission. The outcome was a cerebrovascular event (stroke, TIA, or cerebral vein thrombosis). First, we used Cox regression with cross validation techniques to identify factors associated with the outcome in both univariable and multivariable analyses. Then, we assigned points for each variable based on corresponding coefficients to create a prediction score. Second, we used machine learning techniques to create risk estimators using all available covariates. RESULTS: Among 21,420 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 312 (1.5%) had a cerebrovascular event. Using traditional Cox regression, we created/validated a COVID-19 stroke risk score with a C-statistic of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.60-0.72). The CANDLE score assigns 1 point each for prior cerebrovascular disease, afebrile temperature, no prior pulmonary disease, history of hypertension, leukocytosis, and elevated systolic blood pressure. CANDLE stratified risk of an acute cerebrovascular event according to low- (0-1: 0.2% risk), medium- (2-3: 1.1% risk), and high-risk (4-6: 2.1-3.0% risk) groups. Machine learning estimators had similar discriminatory performance as CANDLE: C-statistics, 0.63-0.69. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a practical clinical score, with similar performance to machine learning estimators, to help stratify stroke risk among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1073, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933114

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases are a growing threat in sub-Saharan African countries, but the human and technical capacity to quickly respond to outbreaks remains limited. Here, we describe the experience and lessons learned from a joint project with the WHO Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) to support the sub-Saharan African COVID-19 response.In June 2020, WHO AFRO contracted a number of consultants to reinforce the COVID-19 response in member states by providing actionable epidemiological analysis. Given the urgency of the situation and the magnitude of work required, we recruited a worldwide network of field experts, academics and students in the areas of public health, data science and social science to support the effort. Most analyses were performed on a merged line list of COVID-19 cases using a reverse engineering model (line listing built using data extracted from national situation reports shared by countries with the Regional Office for Africa as per the IHR (2005) obligations). The data analysis platform The Renku Project ( https://renkulab.io ) provided secure data storage and permitted collaborative coding.Over a period of 6 months, 63 contributors from 32 nations (including 17 African countries) participated in the project. A total of 45 in-depth country-specific epidemiological reports and data quality reports were prepared for 28 countries. Spatial transmission and mortality risk indices were developed for 23 countries. Text and video-based training modules were developed to integrate and mentor new members. The team also began to develop EpiGraph Hub, a web application that automates the generation of reports similar to those we created, and includes more advanced data analyses features (e.g. mathematical models, geospatial analyses) to deliver real-time, actionable results to decision-makers.Within a short period, we implemented a global collaborative approach to health data management and analyses to advance national responses to health emergencies and outbreaks. The interdisciplinary team, the hands-on training and mentoring, and the participation of local researchers were key to the success of this initiative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , Workforce
3.
BJPsych Open ; 8(S1):S60, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1902477

ABSTRACT

AimsTo examine the relationship between self-reported level of workplace support (WS) and various mental health outcomes in HCPs and non-HCPs at different time-points during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to examine whether improved WS is associated with improved mental health outcomes over time. Lastly, to identify what support healthcare professionals (HCPs) perceive to be most helpful.MethodsCohort survey study at baseline (July-September 2020) and follow-up (approximately four months later).SettingHCPs working in primary or secondary care, from UK and other countries, and non-HCP controls from primarily London-based universities.Participants1574 HCPs and 147 non-HCPs (academic and research staff at London-based universities). The inclusion criteria for the study were: 1) aged 18 or older, 2) electronic consent given, and 3) identified as HCP or non-healthcare academic staff or self-declared non-HCPs.Main outcome measuresPresence of generalized anxiety disorder (assessed using the GAD-7), clinical insomnia (ISI), major depressive disorder (PHQ-9), well-being (SWEMWBS), and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization;EEDP2Q). Qualitative data exploring what support HCPs perceive as most useful was gathered using free-text inputs.ResultsAt baseline and follow-up, consistently, compared to those who felt unsupported, those who felt supported had significantly reduced risk (odds) of generalized anxiety disorder (baseline: 59% [95% CI of OR, 0.29 to 0.57], follow-up: 41% [0.38 to 0.92]), clinical insomnia (51% [0.34 to 0.69], 66% [0.20 to 0.55]), major depressive disorder (58% [0.31 to 0.58], 54% [0.31 to 0.74]), emotional exhaustion (65% [0.26 to 0.46], 61% [0.27 to 0.56]) and depersonalization (58% [0.28 to 0.61], 68% [0.21 to 0.50]).At follow-up, self-reported improved WS (vs. baseline) was associated with significantly improved GAD-7 (adjusted difference. −1.73 [-2.54 to −0.91]), ISI (-0.96 [-1.88 to −0.04]), PHQ−9 (-1.32 [-2.16 to −0.49]), SWEMWBS (0.97 [0.37 to 1.57]) and EEDP2Q (burnout) (-1.30 [-1.82 to −0.79]) scores, independent of baseline level of support.Five themes were identified constituting WS: ‘managerial support’ was the largest sub-theme.ConclusionA consistent association was observed between level of WS and the mental health of HCPs and non-HCPs. Improved WS was associated with improved mental health scores over a four-month period during the pandemic.

4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 871151, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869356

ABSTRACT

Background: More than 80% of individuals in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are unvaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In contrast, the greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is seen in LMIC populations. Hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial injury have been variably associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. A systematic comparison of their impact on specific COVID-19 outcomes is lacking. We quantified the impact of DM, HTN, IHD and myocardial injury on six adverse COVID-19 outcomes: death, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), admission to intensive care (ITUadm), acute kidney injury (AKI) and severe COVID-19 disease (SCov), in an unvaccinated population. Methodology: We included studies published between 1st December 2019 and 16th July 2020 with extractable data on patients ≥18 years of age with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Odds ratios (OR) for the association between DM, HTN, IHD and myocardial injury with each of six COVID-19 outcomes were measured. Results: We included 110 studies comprising 48,809 COVID-19 patients. Myocardial injury had the strongest association for all six adverse COVID-19 outcomes [death: OR 8.85 95% CI (8.08-9.68), ARDS: 5.70 (4.48-7.24), IMV: 3.42 (2.92-4.01), ITUadm: 4.85 (3.94-6.05), AKI: 10.49 (6.55-16.78), SCov: 5.10 (4.26-6.05)]. HTN and DM were also significantly associated with death, ARDS, ITUadm, AKI and SCov. There was substantial heterogeneity in the results, partly explained by differences in age, gender, geographical region and recruitment period. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury are at substantially greater risk of death, severe disease and other adverse outcomes. Weaker, yet significant associations are present in patients with HTN, DM and IHD. Quantifying these associations is important for risk stratification, resource allocation and urgency in vaccinating these populations. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, registration no: CRD42020201435 and CRD42020201443.

6.
Nutr Health ; 28(2): 199-206, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714561

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has put millions of people, especially children at risk of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) by pushing them into poverty and disrupting the global food supply chain. The thymus is severely affected by nutritional deficiencies and is known as a barometer of malnutrition. Aim: The present commentary provides a novel perspective on the role of malnutrition-induced thymic dysfunction, involution and atrophy on the risk and severity of disease in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A review of pertinent indexed literature including studies examining the effects of malnutrition on the thymus and immune dysfunction in COVID-19. Results: Protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies of zinc, iron and vitamin A are known to promote thymic dysfunction and thymocyte loss in children. Malnutrition- and infection-induced thymic atrophy and immune dysfunction may increase the risk of first, progression of COVID-19 disease to more severe forms including development of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); second, slow the recovery from COVID-19 disease; and third, increase the risk of other infections. Furthermore, malnourished children may be at increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection due to socioeconomic conditions that promote viral transmission amongst contacts and create barriers to vaccination. Conclusion: National governments and international organizations including WHO, World Food Program, and UNICEF should institute measures to ensure provision of food and micronutrients for children at risk in order to limit the health impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Protein-Energy Malnutrition , Atrophy/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cachexia/complications , Cachexia/etiology , Child , Humans , Inflammation , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Micronutrients , Pandemics , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/complications , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
IJID Reg ; 3: 44-53, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708321

ABSTRACT

Objective: To gain better insight into the extent of secondary bacterial and fungal infections in hospitalized patients in India, and to assess how these alter the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) so that control measures can be suggested. Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre study, the data of all patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), admitted to hospital between March 2020 and July 2021, were accessed from the electronic health records of a network of 10 hospitals across five states in North India. Results: Of 19,852 patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR and admitted to the study hospitals during the study period, 1940 (9.8%) patients developed secondary infections (SIs). Patients with SIs were, on average, 8 years older than patients without SIs (median age 62.6 vs 54.3 years; P<0.001). The risk of SIs was significantly (P<0.001) associated with age, severity of disease at admission, diabetes, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and ventilator use. The most common site of infection was urine (41.7%), followed by blood (30.8%) and sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage/endotracheal fluid (24.8%); the least common was pus/wound discharge (2.6%). Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were the most common organisms (63.2%), followed by Gram-positive cocci (GPC) (19.6%) and fungi (17.3%). Most patients with SIs were on multiple antimicrobials. The most commonly used antibiotics against GNB were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (76.9%), carbapenems (57.7%), cephalosporins (53.9%), and antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (47.1%). Empirical use of antibiotics against GPC was seen in 58.9% of patients with SIs, and empirical use of antifungals was observed in 56.9% of patients with SIs. The average length of hospital stay for patients with SIs was almost twice as long as that of patients without SIs (median 13 vs 7 days). Overall mortality among patients with SIs (40.3%) was more than eight times higher than that among patients without SIs (4.6%). Only 1.2% of patients with SIs with mild COVID-19 at admission died, compared with 17.5% of those with moderate COVID-19 at admission and 58.5% of those with severe COVID-19 at admission (P<0.001). The mortality rate was highest in patients with bloodstream infections (49.8%), followed by those with hospital-acquired pneumonia (47.9%), urinary tract infections (29.4%), and skin and soft tissue infections (29.4%). The mortality rate in patients with diabetes with SIs was 45.2%, compared with 34.3% in those without diabetes (P<0.001). Conclusions: SIs complicate the course of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These patients tend to have a much longer hospital stay, a higher requirement for oxygen and ICU care, and a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those without SIs. The groups most vulnerable to SIs are patients with more severe COVID-19, elderly patients and patients with diabetes. Judicious empirical use of combination antimicrobials in these groups of vulnerable patients can save lives. It is desirable to have region- or country-specific guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics and antifungals to prevent their overuse.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311739

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19−related deaths are significantly higher in countries with higher quality of life. A strong negative correlation is reported between the BCG index and COVID- 19 mortality. The present study explored if a high Th1immunity due to frequent exposure to strong Th1 antigens like Mycobacteria or Salmonella could be the cause for lesser COVID-19−related deaths in Indian population. Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted with 3 groups of twenty patients each of mildly symptomatic (A), severely ill (S) Covid patients and healthy volunteers with a Covid Negative report (H). Results: All severely ill patients showed increased leucocyte counts, lymphopenia and raised D-dimer. A gross reversible unresponsiveness of T cells was seen among all patients in S group with absolutely no response even to the mitogen stimulus. Quantiferon TB test value and distribution of test positivity was significantly lower in group S. Three out of 6 survived patients in S group had positive Quantiferon TB test while 2 patients turned positive on repeat test and the sixth patient showed high TH titre on widal test. Conclusion: Altered Th1 immunity associated with frequent community exposure of tuberculosis and typhoid antigen in Indian population might be responsible for its relatively lesser prevalence and mortality following Covid-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308386

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease is associated with respiratory and vascular injury and microvascular immunothrombosis mediated by complement activation, inflammatory lipid storm, platelet activation, platelet-leukocyte adhesion and activation of coagulation cascade. Amongst the inflammatory lipids, thromboxane A2 (TxA2) is a known key mediator of microvascular thrombosis. The levels of TxB2, a stable metabolite of TxA2 are markedly increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma in severe COVID-19 patients. Low-dose aspirin mitigates the generation of prostanoids including TxA2 by irreversible inactivation of the constitutive enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. The anti-thrombotic action of aspirin is currently being investigated in outpatient and hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the global RECOVERY and ACTIV-4 clinical trials. Several lines of investigations suggest that COX-2 plays an important and critical role in the immunothrombotic effects mediated by COVID-19. Pharmacologic inhibition of either COX-1 or COX-2 can prevent a plethora of lipid mediators of inflammation that are both pro- and anti-inflammatory in function. Thus, a more definitive approach to prevent immunothrombotic events in COVID-19 will be to directly block the prothrombotic effects of TxA2. Although thromboxane synthase (TS) inhibitors suppress TxA2 formation, accumulation of the substrate PGH2 is known to interact with the platelet and vessel wall TxA2 prostanoid receptor (TPR), thus reducing the antiplatelet effects of TS inhibitors. TPR antagonists block the activity of both TxA2 and PGH2 on platelets and vessels but do not block TxA2 production, which leads to increased generation of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2, a stable metabolite of TxA2, and a potent agonist of the DP2 (CRTH2) receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2/DP2 receptor signaling has been implicated in immune dysregulation in viral infections including COVID-19. Ramatroban, an orally bioavailable, potent, dual TxA2/TP and PGD2/DP2 receptor antagonist, has demonstrated efficacy in a variety of animal models of atherosclerosis, thrombosis and sepsis. Ramatroban has a proven safety profile, having been used in Japan over the past 20 years as a treatment of allergic rhinitis and therefore, merits investigation as a promising antithrombotic and immunomodulator agent for chemoprophylaxis and treatment in COVID-19 patients.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307429

ABSTRACT

Background: Convalescent plasma (CP) is being used as a treatment option in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Till date, there is conflicting evidence on efficacy of CP in reducing COVID-19 related mortality.Objective: to evaluate the effect of CP on 28-day mortality reduction in patients with COVID-19.Methods: We did a multi-center, retrospective case control observational study from 1st May 2020 to 31st August 2020. A total of 1079 adult patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 requiring oxygen, were reviewed. Of these, 694 patients were admitted to ICU. Out of these, 333 were given CP along with best supportive care and remaining 361 received best supportive care only.Results: In the overall group of 1079 patients, mortality in plasma vs no plasma group was statistically not significant (22.4% vs 18.5%;p = 0.125). However, in patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU, mortality was significantly lower in plasma group (25.5% vs 33.2%;p = 0.026). This benefit of reduced mortality was most seen in age group 60 to 74 years (26.7% vs 43.0%;p = 0.004), driven mostly by females of this age group (23.1% vs 53.5%;p = 0.013). Significant difference in mortality was observed in patients with one comorbidity (22.3% vs 36.5%;p = 0.004). Moreover, patients on ventilator had significantly lower mortality in the plasma arm (37.2% vs 49.3%;p = 0.009);particularly so for patients on invasive mechanical ventilation (63.9% vs 82.9%;p = 0.014).Conclusion: The use of CP reduced mortality in COVID-19 elderly patients admitted in ICU, above 60 years of age, particularly females, those with comorbidities and especially those who required some form of ventilation.Funding Statement: None to declare.Declaration of Interests: None to declare. Ethics Approval Statement: The manuscript has ethical clearance and approval from the ethics committee of the institute . A copy of the approval letter is attached. (Reference number isRS/MSSH/GMRCHS/IEC/IM/20-16).

11.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 26(1): 13-28, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650476

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In COVID-19 pneumonia, there is a massive increase in fatty acid levels and lipid mediators with a predominance of cyclooxygenase metabolites, notably TxB2 ≫ PGE2 > PGD2 in the lungs, and 11-dehydro-TxB2, a TxA2 metabolite, in the systemic circulation. While TxA2 stimulates thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors, 11-dehydro-TxB2 is a full agonist of DP2 (formerly known as the CRTh2) receptors for PGD2. Anecdotal experience of using ramatroban, a dual receptor antagonist of the TxA2/TP and PGD2/DP2 receptors, demonstrated rapid symptomatic relief from acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia while avoiding hospitalization. AREAS COVERED: Evidence supporting the role of TxA2/TP receptors and PGD2/DP2 receptors in causing rapidly progressive lung injury associated with hypoxemia, a maladaptive immune response and thromboinflammation is discussed. An innovative perspective on the dual antagonism of TxA2/TP and PGD2/DP2 receptor signaling as a therapeutic approach in COVID-19 is presented. This paper examines ramatroban an anti-platelet, immunomodulator, and antifibrotic agent for acute and long-haul COVID-19. EXPERT OPINION: Ramatroban, a dual blocker of TP and DP2 receptors, has demonstrated efficacy in animal models of respiratory dysfunction, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and sepsis, as well as preliminary evidence for rapid relief from dyspnea and hypoxemia in COVID-19 pneumonia. Ramatroban merits investigation as a promising antithrombotic and immunomodulatory agent for chemoprophylaxis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemoprevention , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
12.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 31(1): 36-46, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe COVID-19 disease is often complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which may transition to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Better understanding of underlying mechanisms is important in advancing therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2-induced endothelial injury initiates platelet activation, platelet-neutrophil partnership and release of neutrophil extracellular traps. The resulting thromboinflammation causes ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to end organs. Severe COVID-19 induces a lipid-mediator storm with massive increases in thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and PGD2, which promote thromboinflammation and apoptosis of renal tubular cells, respectively, and thereby enhance renal fibrosis. COVID-19-associated AKI improves rapidly in the majority. However, 15-30% have protracted renal injury, raising the specter of transition from AKI to CKD. SUMMARY: In COVID-19, the lipid-mediator storm promotes thromboinflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytotoxicity. The thromboxane A2 and PGD2 signaling presents a therapeutic target with potential to mitigate AKI and transition to CKD. Ramatroban, the only dual antagonist of the thromboxane A2/TPr and PGD2/DPr2 signaling could potentially mitigate renal injury in acute and long-haul COVID. Urgent studies targeting the lipid-mediator storm are needed to potentially reduce the heavy burden of kidney disease emerging in the wake of the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Thrombosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Humans , Inflammation , Kidney/pathology , Lipids , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292658

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 associated pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome are characterized by a lipid mediator storm with massive increases in lung and systemic thromboxane A 2 >> prostaglandin D 2 . Thromboxane A 2 is a potent vasoconstrictor of pulmonary veins >> arteries, and thereby promotes an increase in pulmonary capillary pressures, transudation of fluid into the alveolar space, pulmonary edema and ARDS. Thromboxane A 2 also increases vascular permeability, contracts bronchial smooth muscle, triggers and amplifies platelet activation, and promotes a prothrombotic state. PGD 2 promotes a Th2 immune response that is atypical for viral infections and inhibits antiviral defense by suppressing interferon λ expression. D-dimers, urinary 11-dehydro-TxB 2 , and IL-13, a Th2 cytokine, have emerged as key biomarkers of severity and organ failure in COVID-19. Ramatroban is an orally bioavailable, potent, dual antagonist of the thromboxane A 2 (TPr) and PGD 2 (DPr2) receptors. We report use of ramatroban in 4 COVID-19 outpatients, 22 to 87 years of age, with acute onset / worsening of respiratory distress and hypoxemia. All four patients experienced decrease in respiratory distress and increase in SpO 2, within hours of the first dose and thereby avoided hospitalization. By the 5 th day all 4 patients had complete resolution of respiratory distress and hypoxemia. Ramatroban (Baynas®, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd., Japan) has an established safety profile, having been indicated in Japan for the treatment of allergic rhinitis for over 20 years. As a broncho-relaxant, anti-vasospastic, anti-thrombotic and immunomodulator, ramatroban addresses the fundamental pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying respiratory and critical organ failure in COVID-19, and therefore merits urgent clinical trials that might impact the ongoing pandemic.

14.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381072
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab112, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381037
16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 666119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317218

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact leading to novel adaptations in post-graduate medical education for cardiovascular and general internal medicine. Whilst the results of initial community COVID-19 vaccination are awaited, continuation of multimodality teaching and training that incorporates telelearning will have enduring benefit to post-graduate education and will place educational establishments in good stead to nimbly respond in future pandemic-related public health emergencies. With the rise in innovative virtual learning solutions, medical educators will have to leverage technology to develop electronic educational materials and virtual courses that facilitate adult learning. Technology-enabled virtual learning is thus a timely progression of hybrid classroom initiatives that are already adopted to varying degrees, with a need for faculty to serve as subject matter experts, to host and moderate online discussions, and to provide feedback and overall mentorship. As an extension from existing efforts, simulation-based teaching (SBT) and learning and the use of mixed reality technology should also form a greater core in the cardiovascular medicine curriculum. We highlight five foundational themes for building a successful e-learning model in cardiovascular and general post-graduate medical training: (1) digital solutions and associated infrastructure; (2) equity in access; (3) participant engagement; (4) diversity and inclusion; and (5) patient confidentiality and governance framework. With digitalisation impacting our everyday lives and now how we teach and train in medicine, these five guiding principles provide a cognitive scaffold for careful consideration of the required ecosystem in which cardiovascular and general post-graduate medical education can effectively operate. With due consideration of various e-learning options and associated infrastructure needs; and adoption of strategies for participant engagement under sound and just governance, virtual training in medicine can be effective, inclusive and equitable through the COVID-19 era and beyond.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e017013, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255734

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 3.0 million people worldwide and killed more than 200,000 as of April 27, 2020. In this White Paper, we address the cardiovascular co-morbidities of COVID-19 infection; the diagnosis and treatment of standard cardiovascular conditions during the pandemic; and the diagnosis and treatment of the cardiovascular consequences of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we will also address various issues related to the safety of healthcare workers and the ethical issues related to patient care in this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Med ; 134(4): e297, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198591
20.
Nephron ; 145(3): 275-279, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127626

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Determining whether SARS-CoV-2 causes direct infection of the kidneys is challenging due to limitations in imaging and molecular tools. Subject of Review: A growing number of conflicting kidney biopsy and autopsy reports highlight this controversial issue. Second Opinion: Based on the collective evidence, therapies that improve hemodynamic stability and oxygenation, or dampen complement activation, are likely to ameliorate acute kidney injury in COVID-19. At this time, whether inhibition of viral infection and replication directly modulates kidney damage is inconclusive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Autopsy , Biopsy , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Kidney Diseases/virology , Nephritis, Interstitial/etiology
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