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1.
Indian J Surg ; : 1-9, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295956

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, first detected in Wuhan, China in 2019 has become a pandemic that has spread to nearly every country in the world. Through October 11, 2021, more than 23 billion confirmed cases and 4.8 million fatalities were reported globally. The bulk of individuals afflicted in India during the first wave were elderly persons. The second wave, however, resulted in more severe diseases and mortality in even younger age groups due to mutations in the wild virus. Symptoms may range from being asymptomatic to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In addition to respiratory symptoms, patients may present with gastrointestinal symptoms such as stomach pain, vomiting, loose stools, or mesenteric vein thrombosis. The frequency of patients presenting with thromboembolic symptoms has recently increased. According to certain studies, the prevalence of venous thromboembolism among hospitalized patients ranges from 9 to 25%. It was also shown that the incidence is significantly greater among critically sick patients, with a prevalence of 21-31%. Although the exact origin of thromboembolism is unknown, it is considered to be produced by several altered pathways that manifest as pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, limb gangrene, and acute mesenteric ischemia. Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is becoming an increasingly prevalent cause of acute surgical abdomen in both intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency room (ER) patients. Mesenteric ischemia should be evaluated in situations with unexplained stomach discomfort. In suspected situations, appropriate imaging techniques and early intervention, either non-surgical or surgical, are necessary to avert mortality. The purpose of this article is to look at the data on acute mesenteric ischemia in people infected with COVID-19.

2.
Journal of proteins and proteomics ; : 1-11, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2295957

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV-2 is the virus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic. The main protease is one of the most prominent pharmacological targets for developing anti-COVID-19 therapeutic drugs (Mpro);SARS-CoV-2 replication is dependent on this component. SARS CoV-2's Mpro/cysteine protease is quite identical to SARS CoV-1's Mpro/cysteine protease. However, there is limited information on its structural and conformational properties. The present study aims to perform a complete in silico evaluation of Mpro protein's physicochemical properties. The motif prediction, post-translational modifications, effect of point mutation, and phylogenetic links were studied with other homologs to understand the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms of these proteins. The Mpro protein sequence was obtained in FASTA format from the RCSB Protein Data Bank. The structure of this protein was further characterized and analyzed using standard bioinformatics methods. According to Mpro's in-silico characterization, the protein is a basic, non-polar, and thermally stable globular protein. The outcomes of the phylogenetic and synteny study showed that the protein's functional domain amino acid sequence is substantially conserved. Furthermore, it has undergone many changes at the motif level over time from porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus to SARS-CoV 2, possibly to achieve various functions. Several post-translational modifications (PTMs) were also observed, and the possibilities of changes in Mpro protein exhibit additional orders of peptidase function regulation. During heatmap development, the effect of a point mutation on the Mpro protein was seen. This protein's structural characterization will aid in a better understanding of its function and mechanism of action. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42485-023-00105-9.

4.
Sleep Med ; 101: 375-383, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the U.S. healthcare system, reducing the capacity available for unrelated conditions, such as sleep disordered breathing, and increasing concerns about the safety of in-lab testing. This study characterizes how the pandemic impacted the assessment of sleep disordered breathing and use of associated services. METHODS: Sleep testing claims occurring between January 2019 and June 2021 were extracted from the database of a national healthcare organization. Utilization was trended. Logistic regressions were run to assess the association between quarter of initial testing, whether testing was followed by treatment, and whether testing was followed by a clinical visit with a diagnosis related to sleep apnea, after controlling for patient-related factors. A Cox proportional hazards model assessed factors influencing time to treatment. Finally, a logistic regression assessed factors influencing the finality of home-based testing. RESULTS: In Q2 2021, home-based testing utilization was 134% of its initial level, while in-lab and split night testing were both at 61% of initial levels. Patients receiving initial home-based testing did not significantly differ in their likelihood of treatment, but were significantly less likely to have a clinical visit for sleep apnea (P < 0.01). Patients initially tested in 2021 were treated significantly more quickly than those initially tested in Q1 2019. Home-based testing occurring in Q4 2019 or later was significantly more likely to be definitive than home-based testing occurring Q1 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Home-based sleep testing increased significantly and durably in 2020, and was associated with faster time to treatment than initial in-lab testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/therapy , Polysomnography
5.
Cureus ; 15(1): e33596, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203441

ABSTRACT

The whole world got threatened by COVID-19, which made a significant loss in various sectors and pushed the world into a deep valley. Now a new threat, the emerging outbreak of monkeypox is rapidly spreading across the globe and is currently being observed in more than 110 countries with 79,473 confirmed cases and 50 deaths. Data were collected from PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus database, African Journals OnLine, internet library sub-Saharan Africa, and Google Scholar. Most data were taken from the democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of Congo, Liberia, Nigeria, the US, and the UK. Case reports, outbreak investigations, epidemiological studies, and surveillance studies were reviewed to find epidemiological details about the outbreak. A total of 50 peer-reviewed articles and 20 grey literature articles, including 9050 cases, were identified for data extraction. Our systematic review revealed that the group most affected is male (95.5%), with a median age of 33.8 years. A total of 55% of the transmission was sexually transmitted. The most commonly reported symptoms such as vesicular-pustular rashes (97.54%), fever (55.25%), inguinal lymphadenopathy (53.6%), exanthema (40.21%), fatigue, headache, asthenia (26.32%), myalgia (16.33%), vesicles and ulcers (30.61%) in the anogenital regions were some of the significant findings. The case fatality rate was observed to be up to 8.65%. The most affected country was the USA, which has the most fatalities in younger ages involved in homosexuality, suffering from HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

6.
Frontiers in radiology ; 2, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2126153

ABSTRACT

Objective: The disease COVID-19 has caused a widespread global pandemic with ~3. 93 million deaths worldwide. In this work, we present three models—radiomics (MRM), clinical (MCM), and combined clinical–radiomics (MRCM) nomogram to predict COVID-19-positive patients who will end up needing invasive mechanical ventilation from the baseline CT scans. Methods: We performed a retrospective multicohort study of individuals with COVID-19-positive findings for a total of 897 patients from two different institutions (Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, D1 = 787, and University Hospitals, US D2 = 110). The patients from institution-1 were divided into 60% training, Results: The three out of the top five features identified using Conclusion: The novel integrated imaging and clinical model (MRCM) outperformed both models (MRM) and (MCM). Our results across multiple sites suggest that the integrated nomogram could help identify COVID-19 patients with more severe disease phenotype and potentially require mechanical ventilation.

7.
JMIR Diabetes ; 7(4): e41401, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) having elevated levels of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) are at higher risk of macro- and microvascular complications. Nonetheless, the goal of achieving glycemic control cannot be met with the use of pharmacotherapy alone. The recent emergence of digital therapeutic tools has shown the possibility of improving the modifiable risk factors and self-management of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the clinical utility of a digital therapeutic intervention as an add-on therapy to achieve glycemic control in patients with T2DM. METHODS: This was a 12-week prospective, single-arm digital intervention study in patients with T2DM receiving regular antidiabetic treatment. The eligibility criteria included male and female patients with HbA1c≥6.5%, functional English literacy, and a mobile phone capable of running the intervention app. Outcome measures of the study were mean changes in HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), BMI, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index at the end of 12 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 128 participants completed the study period of 12 weeks. There were 54.7% (70/128) men and 45.3% (58/128) women with a mean age of 48.48 years (SD 10.27). At the end of 12 weeks, the mean change in HbA1c, FBG, PPBG, and BMI for the overall study population was -0.84% (P<.001), -8.39 mg/dl (P=.02), -14.97 mg/dl (P<.001), and -0.24 kg/m2 (P=.06), respectively. Among the participants showing improvement in the HbA1c value at the end of 12 weeks (responders), the mean change in HbA1c, FBG, PPBG, and BMI was -1.24% (P<.001), -12.42 mg/dl (P=.003), -21.45 mg/dl (P<.001), and -0.34 kg/m2 (P=.007), respectively. There was an increase in HOMA-IR values for the overall study population (0.54, P=.29). HbA1c response showed a significant association with a baseline HbA1c level ≥7.5%, no prior history of smoking, and no prior COVID-19 infection, as well as with higher levels of program engagement. CONCLUSIONS: A digital therapeutic intervention when used alongside standard medications significantly reduces HbA1c, FBG, and PPBG levels in patients with T2DM.

8.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(12): 6386-6406, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971833

ABSTRACT

In the year 2019-2020, the whole world witnessed the spread of a disease called COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. A number of effective drugs and vaccine has been formulated to combat this outbreak. For the development of anti-COVID-19 drugs, the main protease (Mpro) is considered a key target as it has rare mutations and plays a crucial role in the replication of the SARS CoV-2. In this study, a library of selected lichen compounds was prepared and used for virtual screening against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using molecular docking, and several hits as potential inhibitors were identified. Remdesivir was used as a standard inhibitor of Mpro for its comparison with the identified hits. Twenty-six compounds were identified as potential hits against Mpro, and these were subjected to in silico ADMET property prediction, and the compounds having favorable properties were selected for further analysis. After manual inspection of their interaction with the binding pocket of Mpro and binding affinity score, four compounds, namely, variolaric acid, cryptostictinolide, gyrophoric acid, and usnic acid, were selected for molecular dynamics study to evaluate the stability of complex. The molecular dynamics results indicated that except cryptostictinolide, all the three compounds made a stable complex with Mpro throughout a 100-ns simulation time period. Among all, usnic acid seems to be more stable and effective against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. In summary, our findings suggest that usnic acid, variolaric acid, and gyrophoric acid have potential to inhibit SARS-Cov-2 Mpro and act as a lead compounds for the development of antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lichens , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Lichens/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Ligands , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry
9.
Clin Imaging ; 90: 97-109, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956103

ABSTRACT

Globally, many hospitalized COVID-19 patients can experience an unexpected acute change in status, prompting rapid and expert clinical assessment. Superimposed infections can be a significant cause of clinical and radiologic deviations in this patient population, further worsening clinical outcome and muddling the differential diagnosis. As thrombotic, inflammatory, and medication-induced complications can also trigger an acute change in COVID-19 patient status, imaging early and often plays a vital role in distinguishing the cause of patient decline and monitoring patient outcome. While the common radiologic findings of COVID-19 infection are now widely reported, little is known about the clinical manifestations and imaging findings of superimposed infection. By discussing case studies of patients who developed bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral co-infections and identifying the most frequently reported imaging findings of superimposed infections, physicians will be more familiar with common infectious presentations and initiate a directed workup sooner. Ultimately, any abrupt changes in the expected COVID-19 imaging presentation, such as the presence of new consolidations or cavitation, should prompt further workup to exclude superimposed opportunistic infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fungi , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences & Cryptography ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1921996

ABSTRACT

The entire world is enmeshing the pandemic COVID-19, which affected the public health and it is spread all over the world. Every country’s authority is making more and more efforts towards maintaining the public health as well as mental health and are developing the vaccination to control the COVID-19. As COVID-19 is an infected disease for which a sanitized environment must be chosen at top most priority to prevent infection. Most of the countries are facing the problem of incrementing the infection rate of COVID due to griminess problems. Most healthcare industries are also working to create a sanitized environment with incorporation of the Internet of Things (IoT) which is resulting in the smart health care appliances for generating the sanitized environment. In this paper the researchers have developed an IoT- Galvanized Pandemic Special E-Toilet for generation of sanitized environment which resolves the issues of griminess problem. The proposed architecture has been comprising with three levels of working methodology as Occupancy Check, Auto Flush and Auto control of Appliances using Mobile Application. It is implemented using a raspberry pi board, Arduino Uno as a core unit of the system with interfacing the peripherals: IR sensor, Ultrasonic sensor and HC05 Bluetooth module, servo motor, Relay module, CFL lamp and LED. The proposed architecture has been simulated individually using single piece of sensor, then later assembled all the peripheral together and simulated. The proposed architecture can be used in field of education, industries, corporate offices, multiplexes, hospitals etc. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences & Cryptography is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 867, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Effective use of personal protective equipment (PPE) reduces this risk. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of self-reported access to appropriate PPE (aPPE) for HCWs in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted cross sectional analyses using data from a nationwide questionnaire-based cohort study administered between December 2020-February 2021. The outcome was a binary measure of self-reported aPPE (access all of the time vs access most of the time or less frequently) at two timepoints: the first national lockdown in the UK in March 2020 (primary analysis) and at the time of questionnaire response (secondary analysis). RESULTS: Ten thousand five hundred eight HCWs were included in the primary analysis, and 12,252 in the secondary analysis. 35.2% of HCWs reported aPPE at all times in the primary analysis; 83.9% reported aPPE at all times in the secondary analysis. In the primary analysis, after adjustment (for age, sex, ethnicity, migration status, occupation, aerosol generating procedure exposure, work sector and region, working hours, night shift frequency and trust in employing organisation), older HCWs and those working in Intensive Care Units were more likely to report aPPE at all times. Asian HCWs (aOR:0.77, 95%CI 0.67-0.89 [vs White]), those in allied health professional and dental roles (vs those in medical roles), and those who saw a higher number of COVID-19 patients compared to those who saw none (≥ 21 patients/week 0.74, 0.61-0.90) were less likely to report aPPE at all times. Those who trusted their employing organisation to deal with concerns about unsafe clinical practice, compared to those who did not, were twice as likely to report aPPE at all times. Significant predictors were largely unchanged in the secondary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Only a third of HCWs in the UK reported aPPE at all times during the first lockdown and that aPPE had improved later in the pandemic. We also identified key determinants of aPPE during the first UK lockdown, which have mostly persisted since lockdown was eased. These findings have important implications for the safe delivery of healthcare during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
OMICS ; 26(7): 372-381, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908720

ABSTRACT

Viral genomics has become crucial in clinical diagnostics and ecology, not to mention to stem the COVID-19 pandemic. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is pivotal in gaining an improved understanding of viral evolution, genomic epidemiology, infectious outbreaks, pathobiology, clinical management, and vaccine development. Genome assembly is one of the crucial steps in WGS data analyses. A series of different assemblers has been developed with the advent of high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS). Various studies have reported the evaluation of these assembly tools on distinct datasets; however, these lack data from viral origin. In this study, we performed a comparative evaluation and benchmarking of eight de novo assemblers: SOAPdenovo, Velvet, assembly by short sequences (ABySS), iterative De Bruijn graph assembler (IDBA), SPAdes, Edena, iterative virus assembler, and VICUNA on the viral NGS data from distinct Illumina (GAIIx, Hiseq, Miseq, and Nextseq) platforms. WGS data of diverse viruses, that is, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), dengue virus 3, human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis B virus, human herpesvirus 8, human papillomavirus 16, rhinovirus A, and West Nile virus, were utilized to assess these assemblers. Performance metrics such as genome fraction recovery, assembly lengths, NG50, N50, contig length, contig numbers, mismatches, and misassemblies were analyzed. Overall, three assemblers, that is, SPAdes, IDBA, and ABySS, performed consistently well, including for genome assembly of SARS-CoV-2. These assembly methods should be considered and recommended for future studies of viruses. The study also suggests that implementing two or more assembly approaches should be considered in viral NGS studies, especially in clinical settings. Taken together, the benchmarking of eight de novo genome assemblers reported in this study can inform future public health and ecology research concerning the viruses, the COVID-19 pandemic, and viral outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benchmarking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Software
13.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1004015, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs), particularly those from ethnic minority groups, have been shown to be at disproportionately higher risk of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to the general population. However, there is insufficient evidence on how demographic and occupational factors influence infection risk among ethnic minority HCWs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from the baseline questionnaire of the United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outcomes in Healthcare workers (UK-REACH) cohort study, administered between December 2020 and March 2021. We used logistic regression to examine associations of demographic, household, and occupational risk factors with SARS-CoV-2 infection (defined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), serology, or suspected COVID-19) in a diverse group of HCWs. The primary exposure of interest was self-reported ethnicity. Among 10,772 HCWs who worked during the first UK national lockdown in March 2020, the median age was 45 (interquartile range [IQR] 35 to 54), 75.1% were female and 29.6% were from ethnic minority groups. A total of 2,496 (23.2%) reported previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The fully adjusted model contained the following dependent variables: demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, migration status, deprivation, religiosity), household factors (living with key workers, shared spaces in accommodation, number of people in household), health factors (presence/absence of diabetes or immunosuppression, smoking history, shielding status, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status), the extent of social mixing outside of the household, and occupational factors (job role, the area in which a participant worked, use of public transport to work, exposure to confirmed suspected COVID-19 patients, personal protective equipment [PPE] access, aerosol generating procedure exposure, night shift pattern, and the UK region of workplace). After adjustment, demographic and household factors associated with increased odds of infection included younger age, living with other key workers, and higher religiosity. Important occupational risk factors associated with increased odds of infection included attending to a higher number of COVID-19 positive patients (aOR 2.59, 95% CI 2.11 to 3.18 for ≥21 patients per week versus none), working in a nursing or midwifery role (1.30, 1.11 to 1.53, compared to doctors), reporting a lack of access to PPE (1.29, 1.17 to 1.43), and working in an ambulance (2.00, 1.56 to 2.58) or hospital inpatient setting (1.55, 1.38 to 1.75). Those who worked in intensive care units were less likely to have been infected (0.76, 0.64 to 0.92) than those who did not. Black HCWs were more likely to have been infected than their White colleagues, an effect which attenuated after adjustment for other known risk factors. This study is limited by self-selection bias and the cross sectional nature of the study means we cannot infer the direction of causality. CONCLUSIONS: We identified key sociodemographic and occupational risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among UK HCWs, and have determined factors that might contribute to a disproportionate odds of infection in HCWs from Black ethnic groups. These findings demonstrate the importance of social and occupational factors in driving ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes, and should inform policies, including targeted vaccination strategies and risk assessments aimed at protecting HCWs in future waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was prospectively registered at ISRCTN (reference number: ISRCTN11811602).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 15(4): 527-532, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798638

ABSTRACT

AIM: To share clinical pattern of presentation, the modalities of surgical intervention and the one month post-surgical outcome of rhino-orbito-mucormycosis (ROCM) cases. METHODS: All COVID associated mucormycosis (CAM) patients underwent comprehensive multidisciplinary examination by ophthalmologist, otorhinolaryngologist and physician. Patients with clinical and radiological evidence of orbital apex involvement were included in the study. Appropriate medical and surgical intervention were done to each patient. Patients were followed up one-month post intervention. RESULTS: Out of 89 CAM patients, 31 (34.8%) had orbital apex syndrome. Sixty-six (74.2%) of such patients had pre-existing diabetes mellitus, 18 (58%) patients had prior documented use of steroid use, and 55 (61.8%) had no light perception (LP) presenting vision. Blepharoptosis, proptosis, complete ophthalmoplegia were common clinical findings. Seventeen (19.1%) of such patients had variable amount of cavernous sinus involvement. Endoscopic debridement of paranasal sinuses and orbit with or without eyelid sparing limited orbital exenteration was done in most cases, 34 (38.2%) patients could retain vision in the affected eye. CONCLUSION: Orbital apex involvement in CAM patients occur very fast. It not only leads to loss of vision but also sacrifice of the eyeball, orbital contents and eyelids. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention can preserve life, vision and spare mutilating surgeries.

15.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2395-2395, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1749990
16.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health ; 17(1): 280-286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745218

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused havoc on the health system globally and raised a lot of questions and issues. Treatment for cancer is an emergency that cannot be taken back, particularly in an era of global pandemics. Cancer treatment mainly includes chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, and palliative care, and because of the pandemic, all of these treatments are affected. The COVID-19 pandemic also had a potential effect on the quality of life and mental health of patients as well as health workers. Objective: This systematic review was intended to discuss the quality of life of people with cancer in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic in India in the light of the best available facts. Methods: An extensive literature search was done on PubMed, Medline, Embase, Clinical Key and Google Scholar databases till 3rd Feb 2021. Out of 1455 research articles, 06 research articles were included in this systematic review. Results: The results showed that cancer treatment delivery was as per standard safety protocol and the best treatment decisions were made by scheduling and setting priority. Till data, no direct research was conducted on the Indian continent to assess the quality of life of cancer patients in the COVID-19 era. The effect on the quality of life of cancer patients is very large and needs to be explored more by further research. Issues to be discussed with health care administrators and policy makers further. The tele-oncology method of cancer care delivery to patients is another rational option which is applicable as well. Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrated up-to-date evidence regarding the quality of life of cancer patients in the COVID-19 era in India. No research has been done to assess the quality of life of cancer patients. Still, the area is unrevealed, but evidence from other global studies indicates an altered quality of life for cancer patients. To maintain quality of life, cancer physicians should make evidence-based decisions and incorporate multidisciplinary management into decision making.

17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 46: 101346, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739677

ABSTRACT

Background: Several countries now have mandatory SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for healthcare workers (HCWs) or the general population. HCWs' views on this are largely unknown. Using data from the nationwide UK-REACH study we aimed to understand UK HCW's views on improving SARS-CoV-2 vaccination coverage, including mandatory vaccination. Methods: Between 21st April and 26th June 2021, we administered an online questionnaire via email to 17 891 UK HCWs recruited as part of a longitudinal cohort from across the UK who had previously responded to a baseline questionnaire (primarily recruited through email) as part of the United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity And COVID-19 outcomes in Healthcare workers (UK-REACH) nationwide prospective cohort study. We categorised responses to a free-text question "What should society do if people do not get vaccinated against COVID-19?" using qualitative content analysis. We collapsed categories into a binary variable: favours mandatory vaccination or not, using logistic regression to calculate its demographic predictors, and its occupational, health, and attitudinal predictors adjusted for demographics. Findings: Of 5633 questionnaire respondents, 3235 answered the free text question. Median age of free text responders was 47 years (IQR 36-56) and 2705 (74.3%) were female. 18% (n = 578) favoured mandatory vaccination (201 [6%] participants for HCWs and others working with vulnerable populations; 377 [12%] for the general population), but the most frequent suggestion was education (32%, n = 1047). Older HCWs (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.44-2.34 [≥55 years vs 16 years to <40 years]), HCWs vaccinated against influenza (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.11-2.01 [2 vaccines vs none]), and with more positive vaccination attitudes generally (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06-1.15) were more likely to favour mandatory vaccination, whereas female HCWs (OR= 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.96, vs male HCWs) and Black HCWs (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.85, vs white HCWs) were less likely to. Interpretation: Only one in six of the HCWs in this large, diverse, UK-wide sample favoured mandatory vaccination. Building trust, educating, and supporting HCWs who are hesitant about vaccination may be more acceptable, effective, and equitable. Funding: MRC-UK Research and Innovation grant (MR/V027549/1) and the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) via the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Core funding was also provided by NIHR Biomedical Research Centres.

18.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(12): 4611-4612, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689977
20.
Surg J (N Y) ; 7(4): e366-e373, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607952

ABSTRACT

Introduction In response to the national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all hospitals and medical institutes gave priority to COVID-19 screening and to the management of patients who required hospitalization for COVID-19 infection. Surgical departments postponed all elective operative procedures and provided only essential surgical care to patients who presented with acute surgical conditions or suspected malignancy. Ample literature has emerged during this pandemic regarding the guidelines for safe surgical care. We report our experience during the lockdown period including the surgical procedures performed, the perioperative care provided, and the specific precautions implemented in response to the COVID-19 crisis. Materials and Methods We extracted patient clinical data from the medical records of all surgical patients admitted to our tertiary care hospital between the March 24th, 2020 and May 31st, 2020. Data collected included: patient demographics, surgical diagnoses, surgical procedures, nonoperative management, and patient outcomes. Results Seventy-seven patients were included in this report: 23 patients were managed medically, 28 patients underwent a radiologic intervention, and 23 patients required an operative procedure. In total eight of the 77 patients died due to ongoing sepsis, multiorgan failure, or advanced malignancy. Conclusion During the COVID-19 lockdown period, our surgical team performed many lifesaving surgical procedures and appropriately selected cancer operations. We implemented and standardized essential perioperative measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection. When the lockdown measures were phased out a large number of patients remained in need of delayed elective and semi-elective operative treatment. Hospitals, medical institutes, and surgical leadership must adjust their priorities, foster stewardship of limited surgical care resources, and rapidly implement effective strategies to assure perioperative safety for both patients and operating room staff during periods of crisis.

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