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4.
Chest ; 160(4): 1192-1199, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509657

ABSTRACT

Children with asthma grow to become adults with asthma. Adolescents are not simply older children and do not automatically transform into independent adults, nor do they become proficient in self-management of their condition overnight. Adolescence is a high-risk time for many people with asthma, with increased risk of asthma-related morbidity and mortality. Children with high-risk asthma attend hospital-based asthma clinics with their parents until they reach young adulthood, and parents usually take on the significant burden of disease management on behalf of their children. Once patients are transferred to adult medical teams, many will continue to have limited knowledge about their asthma, limited understanding of how to manage their symptoms and comorbidities, and limited comprehension of how and why to take their regular medication. Adolescence is a critical time of change during which young people yearn for autonomy. Effective transition gives young people the skills and knowledge necessary to manage their health independently and provides the substrate for autonomous care, the bed rock of long-term conditions. This review focuses on the challenges of adolescent health care and provides guidance on how to take a planned, patient-centered approach to ensure each transition is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Asthma/therapy , Transition to Adult Care , Adolescent , Adolescent Health Services , Humans , Medication Adherence , Patient-Centered Care , Severity of Illness Index
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292306

ABSTRACT

Post-acute COVID-19 causes long term sequalae in adults. This is less well described in children. We performed clinical assessments on a large cohort of children and young people admitted with a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA swab. We assessed for symptoms of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome after 4 weeks or more. We found that most (85%) of children made a full recovery following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A small number had symptoms which lasted for more than 4 weeks, most of which had resolved at 3 months. Symptoms included dry cough, fatigue and headache. One patient suffered from anosmia. We conclude that most children and young people do not suffer from past-acute COVID-19 syndrome, and make a full recovery from infection.

10.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(6): 1975-1979, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083097

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-COV-2 virus fortunately resulted in few children suffering from severe disease. However, the collateral effects on the COVID-19 pandemic appear to have had significant detrimental effects on children affected and young people. There are also some positive impacts in the form of reduced prevalence of viral bronchiolitis. The new strain of SARS-COV-2 identified recently in the UK appears to have increased transmissibility to children. However, there are no large vaccine trials set up in children to evaluate safety and efficacy. In this short communication, we review the collateral effects of COVID-19 pandemic in children and young people. We highlight the need for urgent strategies to mitigate the risks to children due to the COVID-19 pandemic. What is Known: • Children and young people account for <2% of all COVID-19 hospital admissions • The collateral impact of COVID-19 pandemic on children and young people is devastating • Significant reduction in influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the southern hemisphere What is New: • The public health measures to reduce COVID-19 infection may have also resulted in near elimination of influenza and RSV infections across the globe • A COVID-19 vaccine has been licensed for adults. However, large scale vaccine studies are yet to be initiated although there is emerging evidence of the new SARS-COV-2 strain spreading more rapidly though young people. • Children and young people continue to bear the collateral effects of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(3): 393-401, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059747

ABSTRACT

Children and young people with asthma need regular monitoring to maintain good asthma control, prevent asthma attacks and manage comorbidities. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in healthcare professionals making fundamental changes to the way healthcare is delivered and for patients and families adapting to these changes. Comprehensive remotely delivered, technology-based healthcare, closer to the patients home (reducing hospital footfall and possibly reducing carbon footprint) is likely to be one of the important collateral effects of the pandemic. Telemedicine is anticipated to impact everyone involved in healthcare - providers and patients alike. It is going to bring changes to organization, work areas and work culture in healthcare. Healthcare providers, policymakers and those accessing healthcare services will experience the impact of technology-based healthcare delivery. Telemedicine can play an exciting role in the management of childhood asthma by delivering high-quality care closer to the child's home. However, unlike adults, children still need to be accompanied by their carers for virtual care. Policymakers will need to take into account potential additional costs as well as the legal, ethical and cultural implications of large scale use of telemedicine. In this narrative review, we review evidence regarding the role of telemedicine and related emerging technologies in paediatric and adolescent asthma. Although there are gaps in the current knowledge, there is evidence demonstrating the important role of telemedicine in management of childhood and adolescent asthma. However, there is an urgent need for healthcare researchers and policymakers to focus on improving the technologies and address the disparities in accessing novel technology-based management strategies to improve asthma care.


Subject(s)
Asthma/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Child , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Patient Education as Topic , Spirometry
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(3): 689-697, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754537

ABSTRACT

Data show that children are less severely affected with SARS-Covid-19 than adults; however, there have been a small proportion of children who have been critically unwell. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify and describe which underlying comorbidities may be associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 disease and death. The study protocol was in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 1726 articles were identified of which 28 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The 28 studies included 5686 participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from mild to severe disease. We focused on the 108 patients who suffered from severe/critical illness requiring ventilation, which included 17 deaths. Of the 108 children who were ventilated, the medical history was available for 48 patients. Thirty-six of the 48 patients (75%) had documented comorbidities of which 11/48 (23%) had pre-existing cardiac disease. Of the 17 patients who died, the past medical history was reported in 12 cases. Of those, 8/12 (75%) had comorbidities.Conclusion: Whilst only a small number of children suffer from COVID-19 disease compared to adults, children with comorbidities, particularly pre-existing cardiac conditions, represent a large proportion of those that became critically unwell. What is Known: • Children are less severely affected by SARS-CoV-2 than adults. • There are reports of children becoming critically unwell with SARS-CoV-2 and requiring intensive care. What is New: • The majority of children who required ventilation for SARS-CoV-2 infection had underlying comorbidities. • The commonest category of comorbidity in these patients was underlying cardiac disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Global Health , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 38: 51-57, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706771

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a new phenomenon reported worldwide with temporal association with Covid-19. The objective of this paper is to evaluate reported cases in children and adolescents. From 1726 papers, 35 documented papers related to MIS-C cases identified 783 individual cases of MIS-C between March-June 2020; with 55% being male (n = 435) and a median age of 8.6 years (IQR, 7-10 years; range 3 months-20 years). Patients with MIS-C were noted to have a high frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms (71%) including abdominal pain (34%) and diarrhea (27%). Cough and respiratory distress were reported in 4.5% and 9.6% cases respectively. Blood parameters showed neutrophilia in 345/418 (83%) of cases and a high CRP in 587/626 (94%). 362/619 (59%) cases were SARS-CoV-2 infection positive (serology or PCR) however only 41% demonstrated pulmonary changes on chest imaging. Severity of illness was high with 68% cases requiring intensive care admission; 63% requiring inotropic support; 244/783 (28%) cases needing some form of respiratory support (138 mechanically ventilated), and 31 required extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation. Treatment strategies included intravenous immunoglobulin (63%) and intravenous steroids (44%). 29 cases received Infliximab, 47 received IL1 (interleukin) receptor antagonist, and 47 received IL6-receptor antagonist. 12/783 (1.5%) children died. In summary, a higher incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms were noted in MIS-C. In contrast to acute Covid-19 infection in children, MIS-C appears to be a condition of higher severity with 68% of cases having required critical care support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
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