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1.
COVID-19 in the Environment: Impact, Concerns, and Management of Coronavirus ; : 277-294, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075803

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 Pandemic has greatly influenced waste management sector due to large-scale patient care, diagnosis, treatment and isolation. COVID-19 waste could comprise of both municipal waste as well as bio-medical waste depending on the source of its generation. Such waste could be potentially infected with the virus. If not managed and treated scientifically, the risk of secondary transmission of the virus increases. The existing waste management systems are not designed to handle such surge of waste and therefore, safe handling and disposal of such waste is viewed as one of the biggest challenges. There could be multiple sources of COVID-19 waste, which includes hospitals, COVID-19 wards, testing centers, laboratories, home quarantine, temporary medical establishments, ambulances, graveyards and commercial establishments. Guidelines and procedures for management of the COVID-19 waste have been prescribed by WHO and by governments by countries across the globe. Selection of appropriate technology to treat and dispose potentially infectious COVID-19 waste is critical but depends on economic, environmental and social factors of a country or region. Looking at the quantum of waste that would be generated from the used PPEs, it is quite apparent that the existing waste management systems are going to be overburdened. The pandemic is also going to adversely impact the waste recycling sector, including the informal sector. To minimize the risk of transmission of the virus through sewage, proper treatment followed by disinfection is necessary. An ideal waste management policy during this pandemic should safely tackle the waste generated such that there are no chances of transmission due to the waste, ensure that the waste causes least possible damage to the environment, and strive to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs) and other international obligations. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P45, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064503

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Early detection of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is critical for accurate staging and optimal treatment. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) reconstruction of the face has recently come up as a newer diagnostic tool in CAM. Method(s): This clinical study was done to evaluate the efficacy of 3D CT in diagnosing and managing CAM. We compared 3D CT reconstruction with conventional 2D CT. One hundred twenty-three confirmed cases of mucor were subjected to 3D CT reconstruction in addition to contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging after comprehensive clinical workup. The involvement of maxillary walls, alveolus, palate, orbital floor, zygomatic process, and other facial skeleton were noted. The plan of management was decided after assessing the extent in 3D CT. Result(s): Anterior maxillary wall was found to be the commonly involved (9.7%). Involvement of the lateral maxillary wall was noted in 8.1% of subjects. Sixty-seven subjects underwent endoscopic endonasal debridement, 19 underwent total maxillectomy, 3 had infrastructure maxillectomy, 8 had orbital exenteration, and 12 had combined endoscopic and open surgeries. In 21 patients (17%), open surgery was done based on additional 3D CT findings at the first instance and revision surgeries were avoided. Conclusion(s): 3D CT face was found to be superior to conventional CT in diagnosing the extent of disease and plays an important role in preoperative surgical planning of CAM. Minor cortex erosions are not picked up by conventional CT;it also does not show finer details and leaves the surgeon imagining the disease extent. 3D CT decreases delay in diagnosis, facilitates the surgical plan, and reduces the need for multiple surgeries. It is a valuable tool in the assessment of revision cases and follow-up.

3.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):570, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063350

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Data shows COVID vaccine response after 2 doses in patients on Belatacept immunosuppression (IS) is low, with reported rates of seroconversion (as measured by COVID spike IgG antibody (IgG Ab) detection) of <10%. It is suggested that T cell immunity provides more nuanced marker of immunity. We seek to describe immune response with third dose of vaccine using T cell immunity and spike Ab as surrogate markers. Method(s): 12 kidney transplant patients on long term belatacept maintenance therapy were included. All patients received induction rabbit anti thymocyte globulin at transplant and were maintained on triple IS with mycophenolate and steroids. All patients received 3 doses of the Pfizer BioNTech SARS CoV2 mRNA vaccine. IgG Ab and T cell immunity response were monitored after 2 doses of vaccine, on the date of 3rd dose with repeat testing done about 4 weeks after 3rd dose. Due to small sample size, T cell response detection was treated qualitatively as "detected" and "negative" results based upon manufacturer instructions (Eurofins Viracor). IgG Ab response was treated qualitatively as "detected" and "negative", as many responses were too low to be reliably quantifiable. Result(s): Of the 12 included patients, 58% were female, 50% were African American, at mean of 77 months post transplant. After 2 vaccine doses, immunity was detected using the T cell based assay in 6/12 [50.0%, 95% CI: (21.1%-78.9%)];after 3 doses, T cell immunity detection remained the same (6/12). After 2 doses, IgG was detected in 2/12 patients [16.7%, 95% CI: (2.1%-48.4%)]. After 3 doses, this rate doubled to 4/12 [33.3%, 95% CI: (9.9%-65.1%)]. All IgG Ab detected patients were within the T Cell detected patients. There were statistically significant differences between patients that showed a response vs those that did not although patients with no response had been on a numerically higher duration of belatacept (mean=56 months) vs those with any response (mean=34 months;p=0.23). No patients developed a COVID 19 infection during the study period. Conclusion(s): In this cohort, T cell response identified a bigger subset of patients with vaccine response with 2 mRNA vaccine doses compared with those identified with an IgG response only. However, both T cell immunity and IgG Ab response remained low after 2 or 3 doses, and no patient in in the 2 dose group developed new T cell immunity response after third vaccination. IgG Ab response increased in half of the patients, but these were patients who already had developed a T cell immune response after second dose of vaccine. Total change in COVID spike IgG response after the third dose was up to 33% from an initial 16%, which may demonstrate improved total response to 3 doses. Further research is needed to assess if response rates improve with additional (fourth) doses of COVID vaccine or 'mix and match' strategies.

4.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):403-404, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063346

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Expansion of the donor pool remains a major unmet need for solid organ transplants (SOT). Early data suggests that at least some severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID) nucleic acid test positive (NAT+) organs could be transplanted safely although there is substantial controversy about this topic. Method(s): A retrospective analysis of the national United States Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database was performed, demonstrating initial experience with COVID NAT+ deceased donor organs with a focus on kidney transplants, from August 8, 2020, to Sep 29, 2021. Result(s): During this time period, 17,143 COVID NAT negative (NAT-) deceased donors and 150 COVID NAT+ deceased donors were assessed for organ donation (Figure 1) (Table 1). When compared to COVID NAT- donors, there was a higher (p<0.001 for all) non-recovery rate for COVID NAT+ hearts (35% vs 87%), lungs (71% vs 99%), livers (24% vs 53%), and pancreas (89% vs 98 %). Of a total of 385 recovered organs from 150 COVID NAT+ donors, 276 (72%) organs were transplanted into 262 recipients. Majority of donors had a COVID NAT+ <=7 days prior to procurement (94;62.7%). While only a minority of pancreases, hearts, lungs, and livers were procured, almost all were transplanted post-procurement. In contrast, there was a high discard rate for kidneys post-procurement (102/295;34.6%) with the most common reason (~70%) for discards being 'exhaustion of the wait list'. Presumably superior quality COVID NAT+ kidneys were discarded compared with COVID NAT- kidneys (mean KDPI: 67% vs 76%;p=0.04). Limited outcome data was available with a median post-transplant follow-up of 75 days (range: 23-243 days). Three kidney allograft losses (2 due to allograft thrombosis) and five deaths (2 kidneys, 3 livers) were reported, of which, one was due to respiratory failure and one due to sepsis. Conclusion(s): These data provide early reassuring evidence on the utilization of non-lung COVID NAT+ organs. However, a substantially lower procurement rate for non-kidney transplantable organs and a high discard rate for kidneys were noted. (Table Presented).

5.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(12): 1304-1308, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062086

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction of the face has recently been presented as a newer diagnostic tool in coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis. This study was conducted to compare three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction with conventional two-dimensional computed tomography in coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis. METHODS: A total of 123 mucormycosis patients underwent three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction after a comprehensive clinical investigation. The involvement of the facial skeleton was noted. RESULTS: The anterior maxillary wall was most commonly involved (9.8 per cent). Involvement of the lateral maxillary wall was noted in 6.5 per cent of patients. Sixty-seven patients (54.5 per cent) underwent endoscopic surgery, 22 (17.9 per cent) underwent open surgical procedures, and 12 (9.8 per cent) had combined endoscopic and open surgical procedures. In 21 patients (17.1 per cent), open surgery was performed in the first instance based on additional three-dimensional computed tomography findings, and revision surgical procedures were avoided. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional computed tomography of the face was found to be superior in determining the extent of disease. It reduces delays in diagnosis, facilitates surgical planning and minimises the need for multiple surgical procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Maxilla , Endoscopy
6.
Frontline Workers and Women as Warriors in the Covid-19 Pandemic ; : 121-132, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055937
7.
Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 12(2), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040068

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: We present a study on the earliest cohort of patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus who were admitted to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. The primary objective of the study was to find the difference in the rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients based on BCG vaccination status. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors for ICU admission and clinical course of patients with COVID-19.

8.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 2022 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029008

ABSTRACT

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), lipoprotein lipase activators (PPARα agonists) or fibrates are commonly used for controlling increased lipid levels in hyperlipidemia. Fenofibrate (FEN) belongs to the second generation prodrug fibric acid (isobutyric acid) derivative belonging to lipoprotein lipase activator class of drug. Results of clinical studies suggest that FEN can substantially reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. alpha and beta variant infection in human cell efficiently. This review article provides an in-depth examination of critical analytical methodologies used in the pharmaceutical analysis of FEN in pure forms, biological samples and pharmaceuticals. According to literature study reports several analytical techniques have been used for determination of FEN alone or in the combined dosage forms. Based on the literature, it was determined that high-performance liquid chromatography and UV/vis-spectrophotometry are the most widely used methods for FEN analysis. Sahoo et al. have developed the best HPLC method in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form with the retention time of 19.268 min using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0): acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:70 (% v/v) as mobile phase. The information presented here may provide a solid foundation for future research on FEN in the field of drug analysis.

9.
Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery ; 14:A47-A48, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005437

ABSTRACT

Background The mechanisms and outcomes in COVID-19- associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. Objectives The purpose of this study is to describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. Methods We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients with concomitant acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a MT between January 2018 to December 2020.Results: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO, 194 had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs. 71.2;p<0.001), and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs. 54, 14.2%;p =0.001). mTICI 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs. 252, 67.2%;p < 0.001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as mRS 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs.132, 66.7%;p =0.004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving mTICI 3 (OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2 -0.7;p<0.001), and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4 - 4.5;p=0.002). Conclusion COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. COVID-19 patients with LVO patients were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates. (Figure Presented).

10.
Inflammation ; 45(6): 2091-2123, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942225

ABSTRACT

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a terminating enzyme in the metabolic pathway of anaerobic glycolysis with end product of lactate from glucose. The lactate formation is crucial in the metabolism of glucose when oxygen is in inadequate supply. Lactate can also be formed and utilised by different cell types under fully aerobic conditions. Blood LDH is the marker enzyme, which predicts mortality in many conditions such as ARDS, serious COVID-19 and cancer patients. Lactate plays a critical role in normal physiology of humans including an energy source, a signaling molecule and a pH regulator. Depending on the pH, lactate exists as the protonated acidic form (lactic acid) at low pH or as sodium salt (sodium lactate) at basic pH. Lactate can affect the immune system and act as a signaling molecule, which can provide a "danger" signal for life. Several reports provide evidence that the serum lactate represents a chemical marker of severity of disease similar to LDH under inflammatory conditions. Since the mortality rate is much higher among COVID-19 patients, associated with high serum LDH, this article is aimed to review the LDH as a therapeutic target and lactate as potential marker for monitoring treatment response of inflammatory diseases. Finally, the review summarises various LDH inhibitors, which offer potential applications as therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases, associated with high blood LDH. Both blood LDH and blood lactate are suggested as risk factors for the mortality of patients in serious inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Humans , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Risk Factors
11.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):OR04-OR07, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928870

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection with associated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused modified and compromised immune system that gave rise to various immune mediated disease. Various studies on both central and peripheral nervous system involvement has been reported. The common syndromes reported are meningoencephalitis, myelitis and Guillain- Barre syndrome ( GBS) etc. This case series reports four cases (45 years old male, 35 years old female, 50 years old male and 65 years old male patients) presenting with the duration from onset of viral illness to neurologic manifestations ranging from 4 days to 60 days. One patient had a typical course of viral symptoms preceding GBS findings and two patient presented with GBS later. A patient was found to be IgG seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 and presented 2 months later of recovery from infection while one case had onset of weakness while having respiratory symptoms. These cases had Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) who presented with acute flaccid paralysis two to three weeks following COVID-19 infection. All the patients received Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) as treatment and showed significant improvement. It can be concluded that COVID-19 viral infection is probably related as a causal factor for immune mediated illness like GBS and early identification and treatment has good recovery.

12.
Strategic Management During a Pandemic ; : 1-246, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893127

ABSTRACT

The COVID- 19 pandemic changed world dynamics, working scenarios, as well as professional and emotional dimensions. The virus has emerged as a significant threat for the continuity of business. Keeping the gravity of the problem in mind, companies must understand the need for change and must now update their strategy to account for pandemics. The next pandemic may be more severe than the current one, meaning that organizations need to devise mechanisms and business models to fight with these situations and maintain business continuity. They should not only look forward to saving plants, machinery and infrastructure, but also concentrate on employee welfare, customer engagement and satisfaction during this crisis time. The book will not only present the evidence of various effective solutions to run a business in the time of a pandemic, but also put forward the new models and practices of business being followed by people at the time of crisis. It aims to create a bridge between existing business models and proposed business solutions, focusing on existing theories and most importantly case studies from the recent happenings. This rich collection of chapters will provide insights regarding the business challenges, opportunities and practices during pandemic situations like COVID- 19, making it particularly valuable to researchers, academics and students in the fields of strategic management, leadership and disaster management. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Vikas Kumar and Gaurav Gupta.

13.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(3):1907-1915, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812734

ABSTRACT

Introduction:COVID-19 usually manifests clinically as pneumonia with predominant imaging findings of an atypical or organizing pneumonia. The standard technique for confirming COVID-19 is molecular testing by RT-PCR however chest imaging by CT scan can show signs of pneumonia in patients with negative RT-PCR and results can be achieved significantly faster, thus offering a potential role in supporting rapid decision making. CT scan has been shown to have more sensitivity than RT-PCR and Chest X-ray. CT Severity scoring also helps in better assessment of severity of disease. Aim:To estimate typical and atypical chest CT findings in COVID-19 RTPCR positive patients for better assessment of the role of chest CT in COVID-19 management. Materials andMethods:100 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included in study. Findings like ground glass haze (GGO), reticulations, crazy paving appearance, consolidation, subpleural curvilinear line, bronchiectasis, subpleural transparent line, vascular enlargement, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, nodules, pleural effusion, Inverted halo sign, Halo sign and pericardial effusion were documented in them and analysis was done. Results:The typical Chest CT features present in our COVID-19 cases were GGO in 93 patients (93%), reticulations in 71 patients (71%), crazy paving appearance in 59 patients (59%), consolidation in 47 patients (47%), subpleural curvilinear line in 39 patients (39%), bronchiectasis in 37 patients (37%) and subpleural transparent line in 30 patients (30%). Most cases had bilateral (98%), peripheral (57%) and patchy involvement (86%) by GGO and lower lobe predominance (55%) by consolidation. Conclusion:GGO, reticulations, crazy paving and consolidation involving bilateral lung, in a peripheral and patchy distribution with lower lobe predilection are the typical findings on chest CT in COVID-19. Chest CT scan may act as a quick diagnostic tool with high sensitivity taking into consideration that almost all COVID-19 patients demonstrate typical features.

14.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(3):130-133, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1772052

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to find out interrelationship of economic burden and dependency profile of families with COVID-19 mortalities and to make related recommendations. Methods: A mixed method research was conducted to understand the interwoven mechanisms of COVID-19 mortalities for the study of variables including level of education, type of family, and economic burden to guide and direct public health strategies among research vulnerable groups of population in the present and in the future. Results: The dependency has been high in nuclear and joint family combined (160) as compared to three-generation family (21). The gender-wise distribution shows females having two children in family in higher numbers (46.0%) as compared to males in the same age group (35.5%). There is observed high number of COVID-19 mortalities among graduate and above (79) followed by literate up to higher secondary (60). Mean annual income has been highest in the COVID-19 mortalities for subgroup of a number of children being 4 (5.58%), followed by one child (3.79 lacs), no child (3.11 lacs), two children (2.95 lacs), three children (2.90 lacs), and five and more children (2.79 lacs). Conclusion: Although there is observed intergroup difference in the gender vulnerabilities and varying threshold of dependencies including social, demographic, economic, and developmental areas, there is an appreciable public health need to achieve social gains and avert possible disparities of existence through intersectoral and envisioned strategic reform-based initiatives leading to gainful coexistence of deprived with other social masses to achieve the set target of social developmental goals as per international health actions.

15.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1710409

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Lymphopenia has been frequently documented and linked to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) attack. A decrease in the T-lymphocyte count has shown promise as a clinical indicator and predictor of COVID-19 severity. OBJECTIVE: The review intended to examine the relationship of COVID-19 infections in individuals to lost expression of CD28 on naive CD4+/CD8+-mediated, vaccine-specific, neutralizing antibody responses. DESIGN: The research team performed a narrative review by searching eight databases: Medline, Elsevier, Cochrane, PubMed, Google Scholar, Mendeley, and Springer Nature. The search used the following key terms: SARS CoV-2, clinical aspects and pathology of SARS CoV-2, involvement of viral spike (S) protein in SARS CoV-2, immunological changes in COVID-19 infection, basic overview of CD28 immuno-molecule ligand, reduction of vaccine therapeutic efficacy in COVID-19 infection, and immunomodulatory response of lost CD28 ligand. SETTING: This study was done in a Maharishi Arvind College of Pharmacy, Jaipur, India. RESULTS: In COVID-19 patients, particularly those with severe disease, had increased levels of IL-2 or IL-2R. Given IL-2's supportive role in the expansion and differentiation of T cells, the authors exhibiting that lymphopenia, particularly in severe COVID-19, could be attributed to nonfunctional and dysfunctional differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as a result of low CD28 immuno-molecule expression on naive T cells. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review found that independent, early immunological prognostic markers for a poor prognosis, in addition to higher levels of IL-6, include a substantial proportion of large inflammatory monocytes and a small proportion of chronic CD28+ CD4+T cells. The current findings suggest that a combination of COVID-19 vaccination with SARS CoV-2-reactive naive T cells with the CD28 immune-molecule may be a viable method for establishing T-cell-based, adaptive cellular immunotherapy against COVID-19 infection. Further research is needed, especially larger studies to confirm the current findings, to improve early clinical treatment.

16.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India ; 69(12):15-20, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695617

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to describe the epidemiology, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome of post-COVID rhino-cerebralorbital mucormycosis. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of patients with post-COVID RCOM conducted tertiary care hospital during May-June 2021. Results: The mean age of patients was 49.58±15.12 years and majority (64.80%) were male. The majority of patients were rural, Hindu and illiterate. Diabetes was present 78.10% patients, glucocorticoids were required in 66.30%, and supplemental oxygen was used in 27.60% of patients. Most of the patients developed symptoms of RCOM within 15 days of COVID-19. Majority of patients (46.67%) had stage 3 disease and orbit was involved in 60% of patients. All patients received intravenous antifungal drugs and combined antifungal drugs and surgical debridement was performed in 77.10% patients. Predictor associated with poor outcome were RCOM stage 3c or above and qSOFA score ≥2 at presentation. Conclusion: Diabetes and glucocorticoids are the most important risk factors for post-COVID RCOM. COVID-19 patients must be followed closely for 2-4 weeks to detect mucormycosis as earlier as possible. Antifungal drugs should be started immediately if clinico-radiological feature suggest RCOM before microbiological confirmation. Combined medical and surgical treatment significantly reduces mortality. © 2021 Journal of Association of Physicians of India. All rights reserved.

17.
Journal of Materials Chemistry C ; 10(5):1573-1593, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1700093

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and emergence of different variants worldwide have caused a pandemic. With the sudden outbreak of this virus, ultraviolet-C (UV-C) sterilizing devices are significantly employed to destroy around 99% of these viruses. However, continuous exposure to UV-C may harm the environment and humans, leading to an increased risk of skin cancer, DNA damage, cataracts and many more severe health complications, which may result in another pandemic situation. Thus, it is highly necessary to monitor the intensity of UV-C exposure and limit the radiation in the environment. It is advisable to employ a highly sensitive solar-blind (SB) UV photodetector (PD) together with UV-C radiation devices. Among the various ultra-wide bandgap semiconductors, AlGaN and Ga2O3 have emerged as the most suitable materials for application in solar-blind photodetection devices due to their high radiation hardness and high chemical and thermal stability. In lieu of exploring efficient SB UV detection systems, herein, we present a comprehensive review of the latest progress in solar-blind UV PDs based on the device architecture and the accompanying physical mechanisms. Further, the technical issues related to material synthesis and device fabrication, which limit the large-scale implementation of these detectors, are also addressed. Finally, a perspective for the future integration of these semiconducting materials with emerging two-dimensional materials towards highly sensitive SB detection devices is given. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

18.
Journal of Materials Chemistry C ; : 21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1617008

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and emergence of different variants worldwide have caused a pandemic. With the sudden outbreak of this virus, ultraviolet-C (UV-C) sterilizing devices are significantly employed to destroy around 99% of these viruses. However, continuous exposure to UV-C may harm the environment and humans, leading to an increased risk of skin cancer, DNA damage, cataracts and many more severe health complications, which may result in another pandemic situation. Thus, it is highly necessary to monitor the intensity of UV-C exposure and limit the radiation in the environment. It is advisable to employ a highly sensitive solar-blind (SB) UV photodetector (PD) together with UV-C radiation devices. Among the various ultra-wide bandgap semiconductors, AlGaN and Ga2O3 have emerged as the most suitable materials for application in solar-blind photodetection devices due to their high radiation hardness and high chemical and thermal stability. In lieu of exploring efficient SB UV detection systems, herein, we present a comprehensive review of the latest progress in solar-blind UV PDs based on the device architecture and the accompanying physical mechanisms. Further, the technical issues related to material synthesis and device fabrication, which limit the large-scale implementation of these detectors, are also addressed. Finally, a perspective for the future integration of these semiconducting materials with emerging two-dimensional materials towards highly sensitive SB detection devices is given.

19.
Pharmacologyonline ; 2:277-285, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1602500

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) stated the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11th March 2020. The virus-infected patients suffered from a respiratory disease called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SAR-CoV-2). A proteinaceous exudate, alveolar edema, and hyperplasia associated with monocytes and lymphocytes alveolar inflammatory infiltration was observed in the affected patient’s lungs. Virus broadens a systemic inflammatory reaction with a cytokine release syndrome which is characterized with the aid of using unexpected growth in many pro-inflammatory cytokines especially IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α through activated M1 macrophage phenotype. Virus block IL-6 with tocilizumab and the usage of respirator device appears to be very vital. Radioactivity is the process by which unstable atomic nucleus losses energy by radiation, mainly using alpha, beta, and gamma rays. SARS-CoV-2 affected lungs can be treated by a low dose of radiotherapy. It was found that minute dose chest radiation therapy can be able to wean patients off a ventilator as it can reduce inflammation inside the lungs of severely infected COVID-19 patients. Numerous such clinical trials are underway and researchers may work to cure the COVID-19 lung infections by radiotherapy. © 2021, SILAE (Italo-Latin American Society of Ethnomedicine). All rights reserved.

20.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine ; 27:18-23, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576552

ABSTRACT

Context . Inflammation is a significant factor driving the rise of multiple cases of viral pneumonia, including COVID-19 infection. Peripheral white blood cells (WBCs), the neutrophil (NEU)-to-lymphocyte (LYM) ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR) ratio, and hemoglobin (Hb) are markers of systematic inflammatory reaction and often predict disease severity. Objective . The current study intended to examine the prognostic importance of hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count (TLC), absolute neutrophile count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), NLR, d-NLR [derived NLR = ANC/(WBC-ANC)], absolute platelet count (APC), and PLR, based on complete blood counts (CBCs) for COVID-19 patients. Design . The research team designed a retrospective that was conducted between March 27 and June 5, 2020, after the first COVID-19 case was reported in Ajmer, Rajasthan, India on March 27. Setting . The study took place at Jawaharlal Nehru ( JLN) Medical College in Ajmer, Rajasthan, India. Participants . The study included 364 participants who were all COVID-positive patients who came to the hospital during the study's period, including patients from various age groups and of both genders. Outcome Measures . Using the results of the CBC, the research team measured: (1) Hb in g/dl, (2) ANC, (3) ALC, and (4) APC. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet- lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were calculated from measurements of the levels of the circulating biomarkers, as cells x 10(3)/mu l. Result . For participants who were severely symptomatic, the mean age was 57.86 +/- 8.92. Males were more likely to experience severe symptoms. Participants' Hb values were significantly different between groups, and TLC, ANC, NLR, d-NLR, and PLR were highest in the severely symptomatic group and lowest in the asymptomatic group. NLR was positively associated with a risk of COVID-19 pneumonia, while Hb was negatively associated with development of pneumonia. Conclusions . Disease severity and age are independent predictors of poor outcomes. The NLR should be used as a routine blood test that can help in the diagnosis of disease severity in COVID-19. NLR is very simple tool that can be used as a fast and low-cost test that is easily available, even in small centers where the facilities for other tests, such as tests of LDH, CRP, and IL-6, and high resolution CT scans aren't available. Thus, NLR can be used as single independent predictor of COVID-19 disease severity.

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