Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 37
Filter
1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: India introduced BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines from January 2021. We estimated effectiveness of these vaccines against severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among individuals aged ≥45 years. METHODS: We did a multi-centric, hospital-based, case-control study between May and July 2021. Cases were severe COVID-19 patients and controls were COVID-19 negative individuals from 11 hospitals. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for full (2 doses ≥14days) and partial (1 dose ≥21 days) vaccination; duration between two vaccine doses and against the Delta variant. We used a random effects logistic regression model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI after adjusting for relevant known confounders. RESULTS: We enrolled 1,143 cases and 2,541 controls. The VE of full vaccination was 85% (95% CI: 79%-89%) with AZD1222/Covishield and 71% (95% CI: 57%-81%) with BBV152/Covaxin. The VE was highest for an interval of 6-8 weeks between two doses of AZD1222/Covishield (94%, 95% CI: 86%-97%) and BBV152/Covaxin (93%, 95% CI: 34%-99%). The VE estimates were similar against the Delta strain and sub-lineages. CONCLUSION: BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield were effective against severe COVID-19 among the Indian population during the period of dominance of highly transmissible Delta variant in second wave of pandemic. An escalation of two-dose coverage with COVID-19 vaccines is critical to reduce severe COVID-19 and further mitigate the pandemic in the country.

2.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24682, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924621

ABSTRACT

Background The importance of prognostication in critical care cannot be over-emphasized, especially in the context of diseases like dengue, as their presentation may vary from mild fever to critical life-threatening illness. With the help of prognostic markers, it is possible to identify patients at higher risk and thus improve their outcome with timely intervention. Basic arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters, i.e., potential of hydrogen (pH), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) and bicarbonate are useful parameters, especially in critical care medicine as they are known to vary with the severity of illness. Hyperlactatemia is often referred to as a "powerful predictor of mortality". Basic ABG parameters and lactate have been used as an essential prognostic modality in critically ill patients for decades; however, the evidence remains limited for their role as prognostic markers in patients with severe dengue. Method We carried out an observational retrospective cohort study comprising 163 patients with severe dengue, admitted between July 2021 and November 2021 at Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) of Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences (SRMS IMS), Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. Basic ABG parameters and lactate levels at the time of admission to MICU were compared between survivor and non-survivor groups of patients with severe dengue in order to evaluate their prognostic utility as predictors of mortality. Results pH (p<0.0001), PO2 (p=0.01) and bicarbonate (<0.0001) levels were significantly lower, while PCO2 (p=0.002) and lactate (p<0.0001) levels were significantly higher in non-survivor group as compared to survivor group. Lactate was found to be the best prognostic marker with Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 88.7% on Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. Conclusion Basic arterial blood gas parameters and lactate can be used as feasible prognostic markers in patients with severe dengue.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 859387, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924095

ABSTRACT

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of COVID-19 patients of European ancestry have identified genetic loci significantly associated with disease severity. Here, we employed the detailed clinical, immunological and multi-omics dataset of the Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP) to explore the physiological significance of the host genetic variants that influence susceptibility to severe COVID-19. A genomics investigation intersected with functional characterization of individuals with high genetic risk for severe COVID-19 susceptibility identified several major patterns: i. a large impact of genetically determined innate immune responses in COVID-19, with ii. increased susceptibility for severe disease in individuals with defective cytokine production; iii. genetic susceptibility related to ABO blood groups is probably mediated through the von Willebrand factor (VWF) and endothelial dysfunction. We further validated these identified associations at transcript and protein levels by using independent disease cohorts. These insights allow a physiological understanding of genetic susceptibility to severe COVID-19, and indicate pathways that could be targeted for prevention and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome-Wide Association Study , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Immunity , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
4.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(7): 1955-1960, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBG) residency program in India. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based online survey aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on the residency training program in Obstetrics and Gynecology. The questionnaire consisted of five sections: demographic details, information regarding COVID-19 status, clinical work load, teaching and research, and psychological impact. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 280 OBG trainees from different medical colleges from India. Training activity in general was reduced considerably during the pandemic, according to 79.6% (n = 223) respondents. According to 13.21% (n = 37) and 5% (n = 14) respondents, reduction in training activity were due to cancelation of elective operations and reduced patient foot fall respectively. In 74.3% (n = 208) of cases, trainees reported worry about meeting the goals of their specialty training. Logistic regression showed that the extent of training reduction was not significantly associated with residents' age (p = 0.806), gender (p = 0.982), marital status (p = 0.363), and status of their duty in COVID-19 dedicated hospitals (p = 0.110). However, year of residency was a significant predictor of the perception about degree of training reduction. CONCLUSION: The pandemic imposed a significant impact on OBG residency training in India. During the pandemic, exposure to learning opportunities, surgeries, and teaching were reduced, which may result in a decline in the quality of care offered to women in the future if training deficit is not overcome. At the same time, pandemic also gave birth to newer insights of learning and interaction by online mode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gynecology , Internship and Residency , Obstetrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gynecology/education , Humans , Obstetrics/education , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838132, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809394

ABSTRACT

The majority of COVID-19 patients experience mild to moderate disease course and recover within a few weeks. An increasing number of studies characterized the long-term changes in the specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, but how COVID-19 shapes the innate and heterologous adaptive immune system after recovery is less well known. To comprehensively investigate the post-SARS-CoV-2 infection sequelae on the immune system, we performed a multi-omics study by integrating single-cell RNA-sequencing, single-cell ATAC-sequencing, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, and functional validation experiments in 14 convalescent COVID-19 and 15 healthy individuals. We showed that immune responses generally recover without major sequelae after COVID-19. However, subtle differences persist at the transcriptomic level in monocytes, with downregulation of the interferon pathway, while DNA methylation also displays minor changes in convalescent COVID-19 individuals. However, these differences did not affect the cytokine production capacity of PBMCs upon different bacterial, viral, and fungal stimuli, although baseline release of IL-1Ra and IFN-γ was higher in convalescent individuals. In conclusion, we propose that despite minor differences in epigenetic and transcriptional programs, the immune system of convalescent COVID-19 patients largely recovers to the homeostatic level of healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Convalescence , Disease Progression , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cureus ; 14(3): e22971, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761181

ABSTRACT

Introduction Due to the nature of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, final year medical undergraduate students have had to be involved in patient management in different countries. The same was the case with India. This study was conducted with the objective to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of preparedness training to combat COVID-19 in pre-final and final-year medical students at a tertiary care institute in North India. Methods A pre-post study was conducted among final and pre-final year medical undergraduate students. Data was collected as pre-test and post-test multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and clinical vignettes. Results A total of 179 medical undergraduate students attended the training. Scores on general instructions, personal protective equipment (PPE) donning and doffing, hand hygiene, biomedical waste management, contact tracing, cleaning and disinfection, ECG, and COVID-19 management improved significantly after the training. Pre-test scores on ECG, simulation, COVID-19 management were 21.58±5.311, 17.05±4.501, and 23.84±4.067, respectively. Post-test scores on ECG, simulation, COVID-19 management were 28.01±6.826, 23.84±4.067, and 6.93±1.726, respectively. Pre-test and post-test scores were statistically significant (p=0.0001).  Discussion Our preparedness training program was effective in delivering the intended skills. The efficiency of the training program was demonstrated through simulation. We created a trained pool of medical undergraduate students to assist clinicians in COVID-19-related supportive care.

7.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health ; 17(1): 280-286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745218

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused havoc on the health system globally and raised a lot of questions and issues. Treatment for cancer is an emergency that cannot be taken back, particularly in an era of global pandemics. Cancer treatment mainly includes chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, and palliative care, and because of the pandemic, all of these treatments are affected. The COVID-19 pandemic also had a potential effect on the quality of life and mental health of patients as well as health workers. Objective: This systematic review was intended to discuss the quality of life of people with cancer in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic in India in the light of the best available facts. Methods: An extensive literature search was done on PubMed, Medline, Embase, Clinical Key and Google Scholar databases till 3rd Feb 2021. Out of 1455 research articles, 06 research articles were included in this systematic review. Results: The results showed that cancer treatment delivery was as per standard safety protocol and the best treatment decisions were made by scheduling and setting priority. Till data, no direct research was conducted on the Indian continent to assess the quality of life of cancer patients in the COVID-19 era. The effect on the quality of life of cancer patients is very large and needs to be explored more by further research. Issues to be discussed with health care administrators and policy makers further. The tele-oncology method of cancer care delivery to patients is another rational option which is applicable as well. Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrated up-to-date evidence regarding the quality of life of cancer patients in the COVID-19 era in India. No research has been done to assess the quality of life of cancer patients. Still, the area is unrevealed, but evidence from other global studies indicates an altered quality of life for cancer patients. To maintain quality of life, cancer physicians should make evidence-based decisions and incorporate multidisciplinary management into decision making.

8.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 118-122, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726355

ABSTRACT

Background: Asymptomatic carriers are responsible for the consistent spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the community. The Government of India has deputed house-to-house survey teams to aid in identifying asymptomatic individuals and their susceptible contacts. We selected door-to-door survey teams of a COVID-19 red zone in western India and determined their infectioncontrol practices and anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobin G (IgG) status. Materials and Methods: This single-day prospective cross-sectional study was conducted by the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary care hospital of Jodhpur, in collaboration with the Rajasthan State Health Services. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) use after written informed consent. Venous blood samples were collected and Kavach enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (J Mitra and Co.) was performed to determine anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG status. Results: Out of the total 39 participants, IgG antibody was detected in four. Of them, three reported mild symptoms in the past. Out of two previously real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2-positive participants, only one had detectable IgG antibodies (Ab) in serum. Cloth mask was used by 24, N95 mask by 11, and surgical masks by four. Conclusion: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Abs were detected among four members of house-to-house COVID-19 survey teams in Jodhpur. Most of the team members used cloth masks, whereas the Government of India guidelines has recommended triple-layered surgical masks as minimum essential PPE for healthcare workers in India. More such studies should be conducted to ascertain infection prevention and control practices among such vulnerable frontline workers in our country.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316396

ABSTRACT

The authors have requested that this preprint be removed from Research Square.

10.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E628-E634, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575254

ABSTRACT

The number of outbreaks have progressively increased since many years in India. In this era of globalization and rapid international travel, any infectious disease in one country can become a potential threat to the entire globe. Outbreaks of Nipah, Zika, Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever and Kyasanur Forest Disease have been reported since a decade and now we are facing COVID-19 pandemic. One of the challenges in the prevention of these outbreaks is that as the cases decrease, the felt need declines, the public demand decreases and the mitigation responses get overshadowed by the need of emergency responses elsewhere. The One Health approach is a movement to promote alliance between medicine field, veterinary medicine and environmental sciences to upgrade the health of humans, animals, and ecosystem. The data in this article is compiled from different websites and publications of World Health Organization (WHO), Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP), grey literature and media. There is an urgent need for better surveillance and disease burden assessments in the country and to gain detailed insights into vector biology, factors of environment influencing the diseases, mapping of endemic areas, strengthen intersectoral coordination, infection control practices, and ensure use of Personal Protective Equipment's (PPE) and availability of drugs and vaccines to handle the outbreaks in a better way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Ecosystem , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294850

ABSTRACT

Background Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the world began a frantic search for possible prophylactic options. While trials on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) prophylaxis are ongoing, concrete evidence is lacking. The study aimed to determine the relative efficacy of various doses of oral HCQ in prophylaxis and mitigating the severity of COVID-19 in healthcare workers. Methods This was a prospective cohort with four arms (high, medium, low dose, and control) of HCQ prophylaxis, used by healthcare workers at a tertiary care center in India. Participants were grouped as per their opting for any one arm on a voluntary basis as per institute policy under the Government guidance. The outcomes studied were COVID-19 positivity by RT-PCR and its severity assessed by WHO COVID-19 severity scale. Results Total 486 participants were enrolled, of which 29 (6%) opted for low dose, 2 (<1%) medium dose, and none for high dose HCQ while 455 (93.6%) were in the control arm. Of the 164 participants who underwent RT-PCR, 96 (58.2%) tested positive. Out of these 96 positive cases, the majority of them (79 of 96 [82.3%]) were ambulatory and were managed conservatively at home. Only 17.7% (17 of 96) participants, all of them from the control group, required hospitalization with the mild-moderate disease. None of the participants had severe disease, COVID-related complications, ICU stay, or death. The difference in the outcome assessed amongst the various arms was statistically insignificant (p value >0.05). Conclusion This single-center study demonstrated that HCQ prophylaxis in healthcare workers does not cause a significant reduction in COVID-19 as well as mitigating its severity in those infected. At present, most of the trials have not shown any benefit. The debate continues to rage, should HCQ prophylaxis be given to healthcare workers for chemoprophylaxis?

13.
Bhatnagar, Tarun, Chaudhuri, Sirshendu, Ponnaiah, Manickam, Yadav, Pragya, Sabarinathan, R.; Sahay, Rima, Ahmed, Faheem, Aswathy, S.; Bhardwaj, Pankaj, Bilimale, Anil, Muthusamy, Santhosh Kumar, Logaraj, M.; Narlawar, Uday, Palanivel, C.; Patel, Prakash, Rai, Sanjay, Saxena, Vartika, Singh, Arvind, Thangaraj, Jeromie Wesley Vivian, Agarwal, Ashwini, Alvi, Yasir, Amoghashree, Ashok, P.; Babu, Dinesh, Bahurupi, Yogesh, Bhalavi, Sangita, Behera, Priyamadhaba, Biswas, Priyanka Pandit, Charan, Jaykaran, Chauhan, Nishant Kumar, Chetak, K. B.; Dar, Lalit, Das, Ayan, Deepashree, R.; Dhar, Minakshi, Dhodapkar, Rahul, Dipu, T. S.; Dudeja, Mridu, Dudhmal, Manisha, Gadepalli, Ravisekhar, Garg, Mahendra Kumar, Gayathri, A. V.; Goel, Akhil Dhanesh, Gowdappa, Basavana, Guleria, Randeep, Gupta, Manoj Kumar, Islam, Farzana, Jain, Mannu, Jain, Vineet, Jawahar, Lanord Stanley, Joshi, Rajendra, Kant, Shashi, Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar, Kalita, Deepjyoti, Khapre, Meenakshi, Khichar, Satyendra, Kombade, Sarika Prabhakar, Kohli, Sunil, Kumar, Abhinendra, Kumar, Anil, Kumar, Deepak, Kulirankal, Kiran, Leela, K. V.; Majumdar, Triparna, Mishra, Baijayantimala, Misra, Puneet, Misra, Sanjeev, Mohapatra, Prasanta Raghab, Murthy, Narayana, Nyayanit, Dimpal, Patel, Manish, Pathania, Monika, Patil, Savita, Patro, Binod Kumar, Jalandra, Ramniwas, Rathod, Pragati, Shah, Naimesh, Shete, Anita, Shukla, Deepak, Shwethashree, M.; Sinha, Smita, Surana, Ashish, Trikha, Anjan, Tejashree, A.; Venkateshan, Mahalingam, Vijaykrishnan, G.; Wadhava, Sarita, Wig, Naveet, Gupta, Nivedita, Abraham, Priya, Murhekar, Manoj.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294258

ABSTRACT

Background: India introduced BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines from January 2021. We estimated effectiveness of these vaccines against severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among individuals aged >=45 years.<br><br>Methods: We did a multi-centric, hospital-based, case–control study between May and July 2021. Cases were severe COVID-19 patients and controls were COVID-19 negative individuals from 11 hospitals. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for full (2 doses ≥14days) and partial (1 dose ≥21 days) vaccination;duration between two vaccine doses and against the Delta variant. We used a random effects logistic regression model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI after adjusting for relevant known confounders.<br><br>Findings: We enrolled 1,143 cases and 2,541 controls. The VE of full vaccination was 80% (95% CI: 73%-86%) with AZD1222/Covishield and 69% (95% CI: 54%-79%) with BBV152/Covaxin. The VE was highest for a gap of 6-8 weeks between two doses of AZD1222/Covishield (92%, 95% CI: 82%-96%) and BBV152/Covaxin (92%, 95% CI: 26%-99%). The VE estimates were similar against the Delta strain and sub-lineages.<br><br>Interpretation: BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield were effective against severe COVID-19 among the Indian population during the period of dominance of highly transmissible Delta variant in second wave of pandemic. An escalation of two-dose coverage with COVID-19 vaccines is critical to control the pandemic in the country.<br><br>Funding Information: Indian Council of Medical Research<br><br>Declaration of Interests: None to declare. <br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: We obtained written informed consent from all the participants or their legally authorized representatives. Study procedures were approved by the Institutional Human Ethics Committees of all participating institutions.<br><br>

14.
Cureus ; 13(9), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1489506

ABSTRACT

Introduction In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the frontline around the world and categorized as a priority group for COVID-19 vaccines. Our study aimed to find out the COVID-19 vaccine awareness, attitude, and acceptance in HCWs in western India. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January 14 and January 28, 2021, at a tertiary care hospital located in western India. Data were collected anonymously using Google Forms. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the sociodemographic variables. The knowledge and attitude of HCWs were analyzed using mean and SD. Multivariate analysis was done to find out the association between participants’ attitudes with demographic characteristics. Results Of the total health care workers, 498 answered the survey. The mean age of participants was 29.8 years (SD 6.4), and 354 (71.1%) were male. Among the respondents, 445 (89.4%) would accept a COVID-19 vaccine when available. Four-hundred seventy-six (476) HCWs (95.6%) had excellent knowledge regarding COVID-19 and COVID-19-appropriate behavior. The majority of the subjects (399) had a neutral attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination. Health care professionals (doctors and nurses) had higher acceptance for vaccination against COVID-19 than non-professionals. Conclusions The higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and the excellent knowledge among HCWs will directly enhance the level and acceptability of vaccine among the general population and will definitely help in reducing the mortality and morbidity related to COVID-19.

15.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
16.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(6): 2400-2404, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328187

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The indigenously developed Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)-NIV COVID Kavach IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been recommended for seroprevalence among vulnerable populations in India, which provided essential services throughout the lockdown. The staff working in the High Court was one such group. We compared anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity among the staff of Jodhpur and Jaipur High Courts, Rajasthan, India. METHODS: Asymptomatic judiciary staff of Jodhpur and Jaipur benches of High Courts were enrolled after informed written consent. A questionnaire was filled and 3-5 ml venous blood was collected from participants. The ICMR-NIV COVID Kavach IgG ELISA and EUROIMMUN IgG ELISA were used for detection of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. RESULTS: A total of 63 samples (41 from Jodhpur and 22 from Jaipur) were collected between 28th July to 4th August 2020. The overall anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence was found to be 6.35%. Seropositivity was higher among the staff from Jaipur (13.64%) as compared to Jodhpur (2.44%). The Kavach ELISA results were in complete agreement with EUROIMMUN ELISA. The infection control measures were deemed effective. CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence among the staff of Jodhpur High Court was found to be lower than Jaipur, reflecting higher susceptibility to COVID-19 in the former. Many offices worldwide are closed till mid 2020 but need to come up with pre-emptive policies eventually. This study may help to anticipate the possible challenges when other government/private offices start functioning. The infection control practices of one workplace may help formulate guidelines for other offices.

17.
Respir Med ; 186: 106531, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300990

ABSTRACT

The covid-19 pandemic has been affecting many countries across the world and lost precious lives. Most patients suffer from respiratory disease which progresses to the severe acute respiratory syndrome, termed as SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. A systemic inflammatory response occurs in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severely ill patients, The inflammation process if uncontrolled has a detrimental effect, and the release of cytokines play an important role leading to lung fibrosis. Radiation therapy used in low doses has an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect. Its low cost, wider availability, and decreased risk of acute side effects can reduce the burden on the health care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy/methods , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/radiotherapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Macrophages , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021024, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak ofsevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted inexponential rise in the number of patients getting hospitalised with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a paucity of data from South East Asian Region related to the predictors of clinical outcomes in these patients. This formed the basis of conducting our study. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. Demographic, clinical, radiological and laboratory data of 125 patients was collected on admission. The study outcome was death or discharge after recovery. For univariate analysis, unpaired t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's Exact test were used. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and few laboratory parameters. Logistic regression was applied for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Elderly age, ischemic heart disease and smoking were significantly associated with mortality. Elevated levels of D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reduced lymphocyte counts were the predictors of mortality. The ROCs for SOFA score curve showed a cut-off value ≥ 3.5 (sensitivity- 91.7% and specificity- 87.5%), for IL-6 the cut-off value was ≥ 37.9 (sensitivity- 96% and specificity- 78%) and for lymphocyte counts, a cut off was calculated to be less than and equal to 1.46 x 109per litre (sensitivity-75.2%and specificity- 83.3%). CONCLUSION: Old age, smoking history, ischemic heart disease and laboratory parameters including elevated D-dimer, raised LDH and low lymphocyte counts at baseline are associated with COVID-19 mortality. A higher SOFA score at admission is a poor prognosticator in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 22(7): 603-615, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of children admitted to the PICU for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The secondary objective was to identify explanatory factors associated with outcome of critical illness defined by a composite index of in-hospital mortality and organ system support requirement. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirty-eight PICUs within the Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from March 2020 to January 2021. PATIENTS: Children less than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 394 patients, 171 (43.4%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children were more likely younger (2-12 yr vs adolescents; p < 0.01), Black (35.6% vs 21.9%; p < 0.01), present with fever/abdominal pain than cough/dyspnea (p < 0.01), and less likely to have comorbidities (33.3% vs 61.9%; p < 0.01) compared with those without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Inflammatory marker levels, use of inotropes/vasopressors, corticosteroids, and anticoagulants were higher in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients (p < 0.01). Overall mortality was 3.8% (15/394), with no difference in the two groups. Diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children was associated with longer duration of hospitalization as compared to nonmultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (7.5 d[interquartile range, 5-11] vs 5.3 d [interquartile range, 3-11 d]; p < 0.01). Critical illness occurred in 164 patients (41.6%) and was more common in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children compared with those without (55.6% vs 30.9%; p < 0.01). Multivariable analysis failed to show an association between critical illness and age, race, sex, greater than or equal to three signs and symptoms, or greater than or equal to two comorbidities among the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children cohort. Among nonmultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients, the presence of greater than or equal to two comorbidities was associated with greater odds of critical illness (odds ratio 2.95 [95% CI, 1.61-5.40]; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study delineates significant clinically relevant differences in presentation, explanatory factors, and outcomes among children admitted to PICU with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness stratified by multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15585, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285549

ABSTRACT

Introduction During a large-scale disease outbreak, one needs to respond to the situation quickly towards capacity building, by identifying areas that require training and planning a workable strategy and implementing it. There are limited studies focused on fast-track workforce creation under challenging circumstances that demand mandatory social distancing and discouragement of gatherings. This study was conducted to analyze the planning process and implementation of fast-track training during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, and evaluate its effectiveness in building a rapid, skilled, and massive workforce. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate rapid preparedness training delivered from March to June 2020, based on documents and data regarding the process, planning, and implementation for large-scale capacity building. Pre-test and post-test scores were compared to assess the effectiveness of training. The number of personnel trained was evaluated to determine the efficiency of the training program. Data on COVID-19 among health care workers (HCWs) were analyzed. Results The Advanced Center of Continuous Professional Development acted as the central facility, quickly responding to the situation. A total of 327 training sessions were conducted, including 76 online sessions with 153 instructors. The capacity-building of 2,706 individuals (913 clinicians and 1,793 nurses, paramedics, and non-medical staff) was achieved through multiple parallel sessions on general precautionary measures and specialized skills within four months. The rate of hospital staff infected with COVID-19 was found to be 0.01% over five months. Conclusions A fast-track, efficient, large-scale workforce can be created through a central facility even under challenging circumstances which restrict gatherings and require physical distancing. A training action plan for disease outbreaks would be a useful resource to tackle such medical emergencies affecting substantial populations in future.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL