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1.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 53(5): 418-428, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326227

ABSTRACT

Tracheostomy is a standard surgical procedure that is used in critically ill patients who require sustained mechanical ventilation. In this article, we review the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who underwent tracheostomy. We searched for relevant articles on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, up to April 20, 2021. This meta- analysis examines ventilation liberation, decannulation, and hospital mortality rates in COVID-19 patients who have undergone tracheostomy. Two investigators evaluated the articles, and the differences of opinion were settled by consensus with a third author. A total of 4366 patients were included in 47 related articles for this meta-analysis. After data pooling, the proportions of ventilation liberation, decannulation and mortality were found to be 48% (95% CI: 31-64), 42% (95% CI: 17-69) and 18% (95% CI: 9-28) respectively. The Luis Furuya-Kanamori (LFK) index values for ventilation liberation, decannulation and mortality were 4.28, 1.32 and 0.69. No transmission of the disease attributable to participating in tracheostomy procedures was reported in most of the included articles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
2.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(10): 5969-5982, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309760

ABSTRACT

Background: Airports pose a possible threat in facilitating global disease transmission within the community which may be prevented by rigorous systematic entry-exit screening. This study captures the perception of stakeholders on barriers and facilitators of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening. Further, key outcomes viz. total passengers screened, suspected cases, and confirmed cases were assessed. Methods: An inductive-deductive mix-method thematic analysis was conducted to capture qualitative data of key stakeholders on COVID-19 disease screening at Jaipur International Airport. Additionally, secondary data retrieved from Rajasthan Medical & Health Department team deployed for COVID-19 airport screening were analyzed. Results: Jaipur International Airport screened 4565 passengers (Males = 4073 and Females = 492) with 23 suspected cases during an outlined period of declaration of Pandemic to Lockdown in India (11 to 24 March 2020). Total 65 passengers had travel history from China (3 from Wuhan). The mean average age of passengers was 40.95 ± 7.8 years. The average screening time per passenger was 2-3 min with a load of 25-90 passengers per team per flight. Fishbone analysis of screening challenges revealed poor cooperation of passengers, masking symptoms, apprehension, and stigma related to quarantine. Moreover, inadequate human resources and changing guidelines overburdened healthcare providers. But, perception of risk, and social responsibility of travelers together with supportive organization behavior act as facilitators. Overall, groundwork on airport screening was insightful to propose key action areas for screening. Conclusions: Globally, COVID-19 has an impact on health infrastructure and international travel. International coordination with streamlined screening will go an extended way in virus containment.

3.
Cureus ; 15(2): e34491, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, cancer patients may have faced difficulty accessing health care. This study explored the challenges experienced by cancer patients in availing of healthcare during the pandemic, as well as the vaccination status and prevalence of COVID-19 infection among cancer patients in the year 2021. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, to interview 150 patients from the oncology department using convenience sampling. Face-to-face interviews lasted for 20-30 minutes. The first segment of the pretested semi-structured questionnaire was directed at obtaining the patient's socio-demographic characteristics, while the second segment focused on the problems that patients encountered during the pandemic in receiving cancer care. The data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). RESULTS: Several constraints, such as a lack of transportation services, difficulty in availing outpatient department (OPD) and teleconsultation services, long waiting times, and deferred surgeries and therapies, have hampered cancer care. COVID-19 mitigation measures further imposed additional stress and financial burden on cancer patients. Moreover, there was low vaccination coverage among cancer patients, which increases their probability of acquiring an infection. CONCLUSION: Policy reforms must prioritize cancer care in India to maintain a continuum of care by ensuring medication, teleconsultation, uninterrupted treatment, and complete vaccination to decrease the risk of COVID-19 infection and facilitate patient compliance with the healthcare delivery system.

4.
Journal of family medicine and primary care ; 11(10):5969-5982, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2169009

ABSTRACT

Background: Airports pose a possible threat in facilitating global disease transmission within the community which may be prevented by rigorous systematic entry-exit screening. This study captures the perception of stakeholders on barriers and facilitators of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening. Further, key outcomes viz. total passengers screened, suspected cases, and confirmed cases were assessed. Methods: An inductive-deductive mix-method thematic analysis was conducted to capture qualitative data of key stakeholders on COVID-19 disease screening at Jaipur International Airport. Additionally, secondary data retrieved from Rajasthan Medical & Health Department team deployed for COVID-19 airport screening were analyzed. Results: Jaipur International Airport screened 4565 passengers (Males = 4073 and Females = 492) with 23 suspected cases during an outlined period of declaration of Pandemic to Lockdown in India (11 to 24 March 2020). Total 65 passengers had travel history from China (3 from Wuhan). The mean average age of passengers was 40.95 ± 7.8 years. The average screening time per passenger was 2-3 min with a load of 25-90 passengers per team per flight. Fishbone analysis of screening challenges revealed poor cooperation of passengers, masking symptoms, apprehension, and stigma related to quarantine. Moreover, inadequate human resources and changing guidelines overburdened healthcare providers. But, perception of risk, and social responsibility of travelers together with supportive organization behavior act as facilitators. Overall, groundwork on airport screening was insightful to propose key action areas for screening. Conclusions: Globally, COVID-19 has an impact on health infrastructure and international travel. International coordination with streamlined screening will go an extended way in virus containment.

5.
Neural Process Lett ; : 1-40, 2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174682

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a novel virus that presents challenges due to a lack of consistent and in-depth research. The news of the COVID-19 spreads across the globe, resulting in a flood of posts on social media sites. Apart from health, social, and economic disturbances brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, another important consequence involves public mental health crises which is of greater concern. Data related to COVID-19 is a valuable asset for researchers in understanding people's feelings related to the pandemic. It is thus important to extract the early information evolving public sentiments on social platforms during the outbreak of COVID-19. The objective of this study is to look at people's perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic who interact with each other and share tweets on the Twitter platform. COVIDSenti, a large-scale benchmark dataset comprising 90,000 COVID-19 tweets collected from February to March 2020, during the initial phases of the outbreak served as the foundation for our experiments. A pre-trained bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) model is fine-tuned and embeddings generated are combined with two long short-term memory networks to propose the residual encoder transformation network model. The proposed model is used for multiclass text classification on a large dataset labeled as positive, negative, and neutral. The experimental outcomes validate that: (1) the proposed model is the best performing model, with 98% accuracy and 96% F1-score; (2) It also outperforms conventional machine learning algorithms and different variants of BERT, and (3) the approach achieves better results as compared to state-of-the-art on different benchmark datasets.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1027122, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142033

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the highly infectious Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is an urgent need for biomarkers that will help in better stratification of patients and contribute to personalized treatments. We performed targeted proteomics using the Olink platform and systematically investigated protein concentrations in 350 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 186 post-COVID-19 individuals, and 61 healthy individuals from 3 independent cohorts. Results revealed a signature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is represented by inflammatory biomarkers, chemokines and complement-related factors. Furthermore, the circulating proteome is still significantly affected in post-COVID-19 samples several weeks after infection. Post-COVID-19 individuals are characterized by upregulation of mediators of the tumor necrosis (TNF)-α signaling pathways and proteins related to transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß. In addition, the circulating proteome is able to differentiate between patients with different COVID-19 disease severities, and is associated with the time after infection. These results provide important insights into changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection at the proteomic level by integrating several cohorts to obtain a large disease spectrum, including variation in disease severity and time after infection. These findings could guide the development of host-directed therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteomics , Humans , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers
8.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 38(Suppl 1): S89-S95, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024774

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: The hypercoagulability occurring in COVID-19 patients is detected only by Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). However, the benefit of performing ROTEM in the management of disease and predicting the outcome of COVID-19 patients is yet to be established. Material and Methods: The data of 23 critically ill and 11 stable COVID-19 adult patients were extracted from the hospital information system admitted between July and August 2020 and patient charts and analyzed retrospectively. The critically ill patients were divided as a survivor and non-survivor groups. The Intrinsic pathway part of ROTEM (INTEM) and Fibrinogen part of ROTEM (FIBTEM) were performed on day 0 for both critically ill and stable patients, and on day 10 for critically ill patients. The statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 26 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The median FIBTEM amplitude at 5 min (A5) and maximum clot firmness (MCF) were elevated in both stable and critically ill patients (24 vs 27 mm, P = 0.46 and 27.5 vs 40 mm, P = 0.011) with a significant difference in FIBTEM MCF. But there was no significant difference between number of survivors and non-survivors with FIBTEM MCF >25 at day 0 and day 10. Conclusion: The Hypercoagulability state as detected by ROTEM parameters at day 0 and day 10 had no association with the outcome (mortality) of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Hence it cannot be used as a prognostic test. The increasing age, comorbidities and D-dimer values were associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 693-702, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: India introduced BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines in January 2021. We estimated the effectiveness of these vaccines against severe COVID-19 among individuals aged ≥45 years. METHODS: We did a multi-centric, hospital-based, case-control study between May and July 2021. Cases were severe COVID-19 patients, and controls were COVID-19 negative individuals from 11 hospitals. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for complete (2 doses ≥ 14 days) and partial (1 dose ≥ 21 days) vaccination; interval between two vaccine doses and vaccination against the Delta variant. We used the random effects logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for relevant known confounders. RESULTS: We enrolled 1143 cases and 2541 control patients. The VE of complete vaccination was 85% (95% CI: 79-89%) with AZD1222/Covishield and 71% (95% CI: 57-81%) with BBV152/Covaxin. The VE was highest for 6-8 weeks between two doses of AZD1222/Covishield (94%, 95% CI: 86-97%) and BBV152/Covaxin (93%, 95% CI: 34-99%). The VE estimates were similar against the Delta strain and sub-lineages. CONCLUSION: BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield were effective against severe COVID-19 among the Indian population during the period of dominance of the highly transmissible Delta variant in the second wave of the pandemic. An escalation of two-dose coverage with COVID-19 vaccines is critical to reduce severe COVID-19 and further mitigate the pandemic in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(6): 2377-2380, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934367

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To study the impact of lockdown during novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic on Pediatric Emergency visits. Methods: In this retrospective study, we compared the data regarding demographic details, triage category, underlying primary organ system involvement and outcomes among pediatric emergency visits of April-May 2019 and 2020. Results are expressed in means and proportions. Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportion in two groups. Results: We observed decrease in number of patients during lockdown period as compared to previous year (792 vs 506, decrease by 36%). There was significant increase in respiratory (P = 0.001, CI 2.66-11.6), and hematological emergencies (P < 0.001, CI 2.96-9.23) Road traffic accident (RTA) were decreased significantly (P = 0.005, CI 0.6-3.06). Unintentional injuries were comparable to previous year (P = 0.14, CI -0.86-6.19), though children being at home. Conclusion: During lockdown, number of pediatric emergency visits was reduced and also lead to delayed presentation. Parents should be informed about utilizing telemedicine services available during this period and avoid delaying in going to hospitals in emergency conditions.

11.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24682, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924621

ABSTRACT

Background The importance of prognostication in critical care cannot be over-emphasized, especially in the context of diseases like dengue, as their presentation may vary from mild fever to critical life-threatening illness. With the help of prognostic markers, it is possible to identify patients at higher risk and thus improve their outcome with timely intervention. Basic arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters, i.e., potential of hydrogen (pH), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) and bicarbonate are useful parameters, especially in critical care medicine as they are known to vary with the severity of illness. Hyperlactatemia is often referred to as a "powerful predictor of mortality". Basic ABG parameters and lactate have been used as an essential prognostic modality in critically ill patients for decades; however, the evidence remains limited for their role as prognostic markers in patients with severe dengue. Method We carried out an observational retrospective cohort study comprising 163 patients with severe dengue, admitted between July 2021 and November 2021 at Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) of Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences (SRMS IMS), Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. Basic ABG parameters and lactate levels at the time of admission to MICU were compared between survivor and non-survivor groups of patients with severe dengue in order to evaluate their prognostic utility as predictors of mortality. Results pH (p<0.0001), PO2 (p=0.01) and bicarbonate (<0.0001) levels were significantly lower, while PCO2 (p=0.002) and lactate (p<0.0001) levels were significantly higher in non-survivor group as compared to survivor group. Lactate was found to be the best prognostic marker with Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 88.7% on Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. Conclusion Basic arterial blood gas parameters and lactate can be used as feasible prognostic markers in patients with severe dengue.

12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 859387, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924095

ABSTRACT

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of COVID-19 patients of European ancestry have identified genetic loci significantly associated with disease severity. Here, we employed the detailed clinical, immunological and multi-omics dataset of the Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP) to explore the physiological significance of the host genetic variants that influence susceptibility to severe COVID-19. A genomics investigation intersected with functional characterization of individuals with high genetic risk for severe COVID-19 susceptibility identified several major patterns: i. a large impact of genetically determined innate immune responses in COVID-19, with ii. increased susceptibility for severe disease in individuals with defective cytokine production; iii. genetic susceptibility related to ABO blood groups is probably mediated through the von Willebrand factor (VWF) and endothelial dysfunction. We further validated these identified associations at transcript and protein levels by using independent disease cohorts. These insights allow a physiological understanding of genetic susceptibility to severe COVID-19, and indicate pathways that could be targeted for prevention and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome-Wide Association Study , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Immunity , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
13.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(7): 1955-1960, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBG) residency program in India. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based online survey aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on the residency training program in Obstetrics and Gynecology. The questionnaire consisted of five sections: demographic details, information regarding COVID-19 status, clinical work load, teaching and research, and psychological impact. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 280 OBG trainees from different medical colleges from India. Training activity in general was reduced considerably during the pandemic, according to 79.6% (n = 223) respondents. According to 13.21% (n = 37) and 5% (n = 14) respondents, reduction in training activity were due to cancelation of elective operations and reduced patient foot fall respectively. In 74.3% (n = 208) of cases, trainees reported worry about meeting the goals of their specialty training. Logistic regression showed that the extent of training reduction was not significantly associated with residents' age (p = 0.806), gender (p = 0.982), marital status (p = 0.363), and status of their duty in COVID-19 dedicated hospitals (p = 0.110). However, year of residency was a significant predictor of the perception about degree of training reduction. CONCLUSION: The pandemic imposed a significant impact on OBG residency training in India. During the pandemic, exposure to learning opportunities, surgeries, and teaching were reduced, which may result in a decline in the quality of care offered to women in the future if training deficit is not overcome. At the same time, pandemic also gave birth to newer insights of learning and interaction by online mode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gynecology , Internship and Residency , Obstetrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gynecology/education , Humans , Obstetrics/education , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838132, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809394

ABSTRACT

The majority of COVID-19 patients experience mild to moderate disease course and recover within a few weeks. An increasing number of studies characterized the long-term changes in the specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, but how COVID-19 shapes the innate and heterologous adaptive immune system after recovery is less well known. To comprehensively investigate the post-SARS-CoV-2 infection sequelae on the immune system, we performed a multi-omics study by integrating single-cell RNA-sequencing, single-cell ATAC-sequencing, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, and functional validation experiments in 14 convalescent COVID-19 and 15 healthy individuals. We showed that immune responses generally recover without major sequelae after COVID-19. However, subtle differences persist at the transcriptomic level in monocytes, with downregulation of the interferon pathway, while DNA methylation also displays minor changes in convalescent COVID-19 individuals. However, these differences did not affect the cytokine production capacity of PBMCs upon different bacterial, viral, and fungal stimuli, although baseline release of IL-1Ra and IFN-γ was higher in convalescent individuals. In conclusion, we propose that despite minor differences in epigenetic and transcriptional programs, the immune system of convalescent COVID-19 patients largely recovers to the homeostatic level of healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Convalescence , Disease Progression , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Cureus ; 14(3): e22971, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761181

ABSTRACT

Introduction Due to the nature of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, final year medical undergraduate students have had to be involved in patient management in different countries. The same was the case with India. This study was conducted with the objective to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of preparedness training to combat COVID-19 in pre-final and final-year medical students at a tertiary care institute in North India. Methods A pre-post study was conducted among final and pre-final year medical undergraduate students. Data was collected as pre-test and post-test multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and clinical vignettes. Results A total of 179 medical undergraduate students attended the training. Scores on general instructions, personal protective equipment (PPE) donning and doffing, hand hygiene, biomedical waste management, contact tracing, cleaning and disinfection, ECG, and COVID-19 management improved significantly after the training. Pre-test scores on ECG, simulation, COVID-19 management were 21.58±5.311, 17.05±4.501, and 23.84±4.067, respectively. Post-test scores on ECG, simulation, COVID-19 management were 28.01±6.826, 23.84±4.067, and 6.93±1.726, respectively. Pre-test and post-test scores were statistically significant (p=0.0001).  Discussion Our preparedness training program was effective in delivering the intended skills. The efficiency of the training program was demonstrated through simulation. We created a trained pool of medical undergraduate students to assist clinicians in COVID-19-related supportive care.

16.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health ; 17(1): 280-286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745218

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused havoc on the health system globally and raised a lot of questions and issues. Treatment for cancer is an emergency that cannot be taken back, particularly in an era of global pandemics. Cancer treatment mainly includes chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, and palliative care, and because of the pandemic, all of these treatments are affected. The COVID-19 pandemic also had a potential effect on the quality of life and mental health of patients as well as health workers. Objective: This systematic review was intended to discuss the quality of life of people with cancer in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic in India in the light of the best available facts. Methods: An extensive literature search was done on PubMed, Medline, Embase, Clinical Key and Google Scholar databases till 3rd Feb 2021. Out of 1455 research articles, 06 research articles were included in this systematic review. Results: The results showed that cancer treatment delivery was as per standard safety protocol and the best treatment decisions were made by scheduling and setting priority. Till data, no direct research was conducted on the Indian continent to assess the quality of life of cancer patients in the COVID-19 era. The effect on the quality of life of cancer patients is very large and needs to be explored more by further research. Issues to be discussed with health care administrators and policy makers further. The tele-oncology method of cancer care delivery to patients is another rational option which is applicable as well. Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrated up-to-date evidence regarding the quality of life of cancer patients in the COVID-19 era in India. No research has been done to assess the quality of life of cancer patients. Still, the area is unrevealed, but evidence from other global studies indicates an altered quality of life for cancer patients. To maintain quality of life, cancer physicians should make evidence-based decisions and incorporate multidisciplinary management into decision making.

17.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 118-122, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726355

ABSTRACT

Background: Asymptomatic carriers are responsible for the consistent spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the community. The Government of India has deputed house-to-house survey teams to aid in identifying asymptomatic individuals and their susceptible contacts. We selected door-to-door survey teams of a COVID-19 red zone in western India and determined their infectioncontrol practices and anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobin G (IgG) status. Materials and Methods: This single-day prospective cross-sectional study was conducted by the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary care hospital of Jodhpur, in collaboration with the Rajasthan State Health Services. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) use after written informed consent. Venous blood samples were collected and Kavach enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (J Mitra and Co.) was performed to determine anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG status. Results: Out of the total 39 participants, IgG antibody was detected in four. Of them, three reported mild symptoms in the past. Out of two previously real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2-positive participants, only one had detectable IgG antibodies (Ab) in serum. Cloth mask was used by 24, N95 mask by 11, and surgical masks by four. Conclusion: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Abs were detected among four members of house-to-house COVID-19 survey teams in Jodhpur. Most of the team members used cloth masks, whereas the Government of India guidelines has recommended triple-layered surgical masks as minimum essential PPE for healthcare workers in India. More such studies should be conducted to ascertain infection prevention and control practices among such vulnerable frontline workers in our country.

18.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
19.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E628-E634, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575254

ABSTRACT

The number of outbreaks have progressively increased since many years in India. In this era of globalization and rapid international travel, any infectious disease in one country can become a potential threat to the entire globe. Outbreaks of Nipah, Zika, Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever and Kyasanur Forest Disease have been reported since a decade and now we are facing COVID-19 pandemic. One of the challenges in the prevention of these outbreaks is that as the cases decrease, the felt need declines, the public demand decreases and the mitigation responses get overshadowed by the need of emergency responses elsewhere. The One Health approach is a movement to promote alliance between medicine field, veterinary medicine and environmental sciences to upgrade the health of humans, animals, and ecosystem. The data in this article is compiled from different websites and publications of World Health Organization (WHO), Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP), grey literature and media. There is an urgent need for better surveillance and disease burden assessments in the country and to gain detailed insights into vector biology, factors of environment influencing the diseases, mapping of endemic areas, strengthen intersectoral coordination, infection control practices, and ensure use of Personal Protective Equipment's (PPE) and availability of drugs and vaccines to handle the outbreaks in a better way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Ecosystem , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cureus ; 13(9), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1489506

ABSTRACT

Introduction In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the frontline around the world and categorized as a priority group for COVID-19 vaccines. Our study aimed to find out the COVID-19 vaccine awareness, attitude, and acceptance in HCWs in western India. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January 14 and January 28, 2021, at a tertiary care hospital located in western India. Data were collected anonymously using Google Forms. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the sociodemographic variables. The knowledge and attitude of HCWs were analyzed using mean and SD. Multivariate analysis was done to find out the association between participants’ attitudes with demographic characteristics. Results Of the total health care workers, 498 answered the survey. The mean age of participants was 29.8 years (SD 6.4), and 354 (71.1%) were male. Among the respondents, 445 (89.4%) would accept a COVID-19 vaccine when available. Four-hundred seventy-six (476) HCWs (95.6%) had excellent knowledge regarding COVID-19 and COVID-19-appropriate behavior. The majority of the subjects (399) had a neutral attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination. Health care professionals (doctors and nurses) had higher acceptance for vaccination against COVID-19 than non-professionals. Conclusions The higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and the excellent knowledge among HCWs will directly enhance the level and acceptability of vaccine among the general population and will definitely help in reducing the mortality and morbidity related to COVID-19.

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