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1.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):9268-9282, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067324

ABSTRACT

Purpose –This study aims to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance during pre and post-pandemic. The pandemic's effect on businesses, especially those of developing nations, served as a motivating factor for the author. Methodology – The balanced panel data were used for firms listed in BSE S&P 500 from the financial year 2018 to 2021. To account for possible endogeneity and unobserved heterogeneity, we employed the Generalised Method of Moments to analyse the relationship between corporate governance and business performance. After excluding financial firms and firms with unavailable data, the sample size was reduced to 285 listed firms. Findings – The study's findings showed that the average board size for Indian firms is over nine and has a significant positive relationship with ROA. ROE and dividend payout in both sampling periods. A significant number of directors bring intellectual diversity and a variety of ideas. However, before the pandemic, board independence had a significant positive relationship with ROA, ROE and TobinQ but a significant negative association with the firm's market value (TobinQ). Further findings revealed that CEO-Duality had a significant negative relationship with firm performance in both sampling periods. Implications-The study's findings provide helpful empirical evidence to policymakers and listed companies in India. Originality-Few studies have examined the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance in pre and post-pandemic periods in emerging markets. Limitation-Although the time frame for this study was restricted, further research might be conducted over a longer time. Future studies could add other factors, such as ownership structure and cost of capital.

2.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 14(3):155-168, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2044366

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the wake of covid19 outbreak, all mankind of entire world if suffering. As we all know prevention is better than cure. Hence, to take care of diet and nutrients can help in building a strong immune system. When an immune system response is low, weak or damage it become an open invitation for infections. The present study was aimed for preparation of immunity booster as a Kwath or Kadha using natural ingredients by decoction process and also evaluation of the formulation. Method: The present study was conducted in Department of Pharmacy, Hygia Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow. The preparation obtained by boiling the drugs with water called Kwath (Decoction). The method of Kwath preparation is very much similar to the decoction method of extraction from herbs. It is water soluble and heat stable constituents of crude drugs by boiling in water for 15 min, cooling, straining, and passing sufficient cold water through the drugs to produce the required volume. Result: This preliminary in-vitro study demonstrated that immunity boosting Rasayan Kwath was effective against pathogenic bacteria. From the result we can say that the Rasayan Kwath is good in appearance, stable and acceptable. Kwath has been designed by ancient scholars aimed at the synergistic action of the herbs to cure infections and boosting up immune system. This project based Kwath or kadha works as antioxidant, antipyretic seem to be effective in regulating immunity for the prevention and reduction of viral disease complications. This herbal preparations suggested quantity improve the immunity level naturally with speedy recovery in COVID-19 cases as well as in healthy persons and suspected cases it minimizes the chance of infections. Conclusion: On the basis of the results we can further conclude that the present formulation may be effective against various respiratory pathogenic microbes like available formulation in the market. No doubt further research like toxicity study and supporting preclinical trials for immunity boosting required to claiming present work in the market. But in research in this field use, this work as a primary step in this direction.

3.
Med Mycol ; 60(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2042590

ABSTRACT

 : Poster session 1, September 21, 2022, 12:30 PM - 1:30 PM Background: Mucormycosis is a deadly fungal infection that emerges in patients affected with COVID-19. All fungal illnesses are caused by dysregulated adaptive immunity, but Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have added a new dimension to the chronic inflammatory response. Objective: We attempted to enumerate the MDSC immune response in rhino-orbital mucormycosis patients before and after treatment and compared the data with healthy control. Methods: A total of 3 ml of blood samples were taken in an EDTA vial from 20 patients with mucormycosis and 20 age-matched healthy control. A second blood sample was collected to examine the immune system post three months of treatment. Mycological identification was performed on nasal crust retrieved after surgery using KOH/culture. The expression of the MDSC marker was analyzed by immunostaining with the antibodies against CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD33, CD66 (Biolegend). Fluorescence profiles were recorded by Flow Cytometer (BD FACSAria™ III) and analyzed by Flow Jo software (BD Biosciences). The percentage of positive cells is used to express the results. The GraphPad Prism (version 8, GraphPad software, LaJolla, CA, USA) was used to analyze the data. All of the results were considered significant when P <.05. Results: All of the patients tested positive for Rhizopus arrhizus, which was confirmed by the culture. The percentages of Monocytic-MDSC (mMDSC: CD14 + HLA-DR-/low) cells were significantly high in patients compared to healthy control. In post-3-month treatment, the percentages of mMDSC were found significantly low and comparable with healthy control. Granulocytic MDSC (gMDSC: HLA-DR-/low CD33 + CD11b + CD66+) cell population was higher in patients compared with healthy control and patients with post-3-month treatment. Conclusion: MDSC regulates T cells and other immune cells with a different mode of action. The findings in this study imminently indicate the mechanism of immune dysregulation involving MDSC pathways in mucormycosis and provide evidence that restoration of immune balance causes reduction of MDSC cells may be considered a therapeutic option for long-term benefit.

4.
Med Mycol ; 60(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2042589

ABSTRACT

 : Poster session 1, September 21, 2022, 12:30 PM - 1:30 PM Objectives: To study the IL-23R (Th17) and CD25+ (Treg) in CD4 + T cell populations in rhino-orbital mucormycosis post-COVID-19 patients and in healthy controls. Methods: The study included 20 cases of mucormycosis and 20 healthy controls. Nasal crust, collected post-surgery was subjected to KOH/culture for mycological identification. Venous blood sample (3 ml) was collected in EDTA vials from cases and controls and stained with different monoclonal antibodies such as CD3, CD4, CD25, and IL-23R for analyzing the expression of Th17 and Treg cells by flow cytometry. The assays were performed at the time of enrolment of patients and repeat blood samples were taken from each patient for staining 3 months later after treatment prescribed by Otorhinolaryngologists. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and the P-value ≤ .05 considered as significant. All the data are expressed as the mean ± SD. Results: All the cases were found positive by KOH and confirmed for Rhizopus arrhizus by culture.The flow cytometry analysis showed that the percentage of CD4 + IL-23R+ (Th17) cells was significantly high in patient before treatment compared to healthy controls and found to be lower post 3 months of antifungal treatment. The percentage positivity of CD4 + CD25+ (Tregs) cells was decreased in patients (before treatment) as compared to controls and after treatment groups. The percentage positivity of CD4 + CD25 + cells was significantly increased in patients after treatment. Conclusion: We observed a noticeable immune imbalance, with elevated CD4 + IL-23R Th17 and diminished CD4 + CD25 + T regulatory cells. The findings imminently indicate the mechanism of immune dysregulation involving Th17 and Treg pathways in mucormycosis and provide evidence that restoration of Th17/Treg may be considered as a therapeutic option for long-term benefit. Recovery of CD4 + CD25 + T cells after treatment indicated a favorable phenotype outcome.

6.
Blockchain Applications for Healthcare Informatics: beyond 5G ; : 27-55, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035532

ABSTRACT

Medicines play a vital role in human lives and that’s why the market size of medicines is quite large. Amid the pandemic of COVID-19 in the 21st century, the governments of many countries as well as healthcare industries, hospitals, doctors, and patients are facing a crucial threat of tampering and counterfeiting of vaccines and drugs. This is not an issue that can be ignored easily, as it troubles all of society in a significant way. New technology such as near field communication (NFC), combined with the latest technologies such as Hyperledger, blockchain, and the Internet of Things have given efficient results. The methodology used in this research manuscript (the authors named it “AKSHAT”) is that an NFC chip will be installed in the caps of medicines. When a consumer scans the label on a product with a phone or any NFC-enabled device, the device authenticates the product and informs as to whether it is a genuine product. When a consumer finds that the NFC seal is broken or if it looks intact but NFC data cannot be read, then apparently the product has been tampered with. In NFC, all data and information can be stored and cannot be changed again. The research results presented here establish that NFC is time-efficient, cost-effective, secure, and accurate. With the use of NFC tags, registered transactions on a private network and the tracing of the vaccine are very easy. The authors’ team has demonstrated this as a product that can currently store every transaction as immutable and transparent. The proposed anticounterfeiting solution “AKSHAT” uses NTAG-213 based tags, which are cost-effective as well as have a mutual understanding with all NFC-enabled smartphones. This provides the option for all product manufacturers and brand owners to integrate NFC technology at a fraction of the money. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

7.
HemaSphere ; 6:3515, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032161

ABSTRACT

Background: Diagnosis of AL amyloidosis requires demonstration of amyloid in affected tissues along with clonal plasma cells in bone marrow or presence of monoclonal light chains in blood. With increasing awareness among physicians and availability of proper diagnostics, more cases of AL amyloidosis are being diagnosed. Here we present our experience of AL amyloidosis diagnosis and treatment in the era of modern diagnostics and therapy with novel agents. Aims: We aimed to describe the clinical presentations, laboratory features and outcomes of patients with AL amyloidosis in a single center using standard diagnostic tests and treatment with novel agents. Methods: A retrospective analysis of AL amyloidosis patients, diagnosed in our hospital, a tertiary care center in India from January 2016 to December 2021. The data was collected from departmental database. All statistical analyses were done by SPSS version 17. Results: Diagnosis of AL amyloidosis was done in 27 patients. Median age of presentation was 59 years. 22 (81.5%) were males. Major symptoms were pedal edema (37%), shortness of breath (22.2%), frothy urine (11.1%) and fatigue (11.1%). Twenty two (81.5%) presented with ECOG PS ≥ 2. Most common system involved was renal in 16 (59.2%), followed by cardiac in 13 (48.1%) and gastro-intestinal in 9 (33.3%). Fifteen (55.6%) had two or more system involvement while 12 (44.4%) had single system involvement. Lambda monoclonal light chain was present in 22/27 (81.5%) and kappa monoclonal light chain was present in 5/27 (18.5%). Median Hb was 11.6 g/dl (range 6.7- 14.8 g/dl), median M-protein was 0.69 g/dL (range 0-2 g/dL) and median bone marrow plasma cells were 7% (range- 1-18%). Fourteen patients were treated;cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (CyBORD) in 10/14 (71.4%) and bortezomib + dexamethasone in 4/14 (28.6%). Among 14 patients followed up with median follow up of 13 months (range 6-60 months), 5 expired;3 due to COVID, one due to cardiac arrhythmia (during first cycle) and one due to relapse and rest 9 were alive. Among the 9 patients who were alive 6 were in complete hematological response and 3 were in partial response after 6 cycles of therapy. Summary/Conclusion: Our study presents the spectrum of clinical manifestations, management and outcomes of primary amyloidosis in Indian context. There is a need to increase the awareness among the physicians about amyloidosis so that early diagnosis can be made and timely treatment can be done with novel agents to improve the dismal historical results.

8.
HemaSphere ; 6:322-323, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032159

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) LBCL after first-line treatment who are unable to undergo high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) hae poor outcomes and limited treatment options. Aims: PILOT (NCT03483103) ealuated liso-cel, an autologous, CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell product, as second-line treatment in patients with R/R LBCL not intended for HSCT. Methods: Eligible patients were adults with R/R LBCL after first-line treatment who were not deemed candidates for HDCT and HSCT by their physician and met ≥ 1 frailty criteria as follows: age ≥ 70 years, Eastern Cooperatie Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 2, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide ≤ 60%, left entricular ejection fraction < 50%, creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min, or alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase > 2 × the upper limit of normal. Bridging therapy was allowed. Patients receied lymphodepletion with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine, followed 2-7 days later by liso-cel infusion at a target dose of 100 × 106 CAR+ T cells. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was graded per Lee 2014 criteria. Neurological eents (NE) were defined as inestigator-identified neurological aderse eents related to liso-cel and graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Aderse Eents, ersion 4.03. The primary endpoint was objectie response rate (ORR) per independent reiew committee;all patients had ≥ 6 months of follow-up from first response. Results: Of 74 patients who underwent leukapheresis, 61 receied liso-cel and 1 receied nonconforming product (ie, product wherein one of the CD8 or CD4 cell components did not meet one of the requirements to be considered lisocel). Common reasons for preinfusion dropout included death and loss of eligibility (5 each). For liso-cel-treated patients, median age was 74 years (range, 53-84;79% ≥ 70 years) and 69%, 26%, and 5% met 1, 2, and 3 frailty criteria, respectiely;26% had ECOG PS of 2 and 44% had Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index score ≥ 3. After first-line treatment, 54% were chemotherapy refractory, 21% relapsed within 12 months, and 25% relapsed after 12 months;51% of patients receied bridging chemotherapy. Median (range) onstudy follow-up was 12.3 months (1.2-26.5). ORR and complete response rate were 80% and 54%, respectiely (Table). Median duration of response and progression-free surial were 12.1 months and 9.0 months, respectiely. Median oerall surial has not been reached. The most frequent treatment-emergent aderse eents (TEAE) were neutropenia (51%), fatigue (39%), and CRS (38%), with grade 3 CRS in 1 patient (2%) and no grade 4/5 CRS eents. Any-grade NEs were seen in 31% (n = 19) of patients;grade 3 NEs occurred in 5% (n = 3) of patients and no grade 4/5 NEs were reported. Seen percent (n = 4) receied tocilizumab only, 3% (n = 2) receied corticosteroids only, and 20% (n = 12) receied both tocilizumab and corticosteroids for treatment of CRS and/or NEs. Oerall, grade ≥ 3 TEAEs occurred in 79% (n = 48) of patients, with grade 5 TEAEs in 2 patients (both due to COVID-19). Two patients (3%) had grade 3/4 infections and 15 (25%) had grade ≥3 neutropenia at Day 29. Summary/Conclusion: In the PILOT study, liso-cel as second-line treatment in patients with LBCL who met ≥ 1 frailty criteria and for whom HSCT was not intended demonstrated substantial and durable oerall and complete responses, with no new safety concerns. (Table Presented).

9.
Journal of Transportation Engineering Part A: Systems ; 148(11), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2028770

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic affected the world in extraordinary ways. Various measures were taken by state and local governments, including the introduction of stay-at-home orders and closures of nonessential businesses, as well as recommendations related to social distancing and the wearing of face coverings. The rollout of testing and vaccination programs were also key actions aimed at limiting the spread of COVID-19. Collectively, these restrictions have resulted in marked changes in travel behavior and patterns throughout the world. In this study, mixed-effects linear regression models are estimated to assess the impacts of COVID-19-related travel restrictions and vaccination rates on daily travel across the United States from January 1, 2020, through August 15, 2021. The results show that daily trips per person were reduced by 15% and 31% in March and April of 2020, respectively, prior to considering the impacts of any government-imposed restrictions. This suggests that government and media coverage of the pandemic played an important role in reducing travel levels. When accounting for the introduction of interventions, ranging from travel advisories to mandatory stay-at-home orders, travel was reduced by an additional 2%-9%. Interestingly, the reductions were less pronounced in areas that strongly supported the Republican candidate in the 2020 presidential election, raising important concerns as to the role of politics and trust in government. Along these same lines, as the duration of mandatory stay-at-home orders increased, travel tended to revert toward prepandemic levels, which may be attributed to quarantine fatigue. Travel levels were also higher among areas with lower median income, as well as those counties that exhibited greater variability in income, illustrating the inequitable impacts of the pandemic on these areas, which tend to include larger proportions of workers in essential industries. The results also show that trip-making increased with vaccination rates, particularly during the early stages of large-scale vaccination programs. Collectively, these insights are important in informing future strategies to mitigate the adverse impacts associated with future outbreaks of new COVID-19 strains and variants. © 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers.

10.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009542

ABSTRACT

Background: Pts with R/R LBCL after first-line (1L) treatment (tx) who are unable to undergo high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and HSCT have poor outcomes and limited tx options. PILOT (NCT03483103) evaluated liso-cel, an autologous, CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell product, as 2L tx in pts with R/R LBCL not intended for HSCT. Methods: Eligible pts were adults with R/R LBCL after 1L tx who were not deemed candidates for HDCT and HSCT by their physician and met ≥ 1 frailty criteria: age ≥ 70 yr, ECOG PS = 2, DLCO ≤ 60%, LVEF < 50%, CrCl < 60 mL/min, or ALT/AST > 2 × ULN. Bridging tx was allowed. Pts received lymphodepletion with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine, followed 2-7 days later by liso-cel at a target dose of 100 × 106 CAR+ T cells. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was graded per Lee 2014 criteria and neurological events (NE) per NCI CTCAE, version 4.03. Primary endpoint was ORR per independent review committee (IRC);all pts had ≥ 6 mo followup (f/u) from first response. Results: Of 74 pts leukapheresed, 61 received liso-cel and 1 received nonconforming product. Common reasons for pre-infusion dropout included death and loss of eligibility (5 each). For liso-cel-treated pts, median age was 74 yr (range, 53-84;79% ≥ 70 yr) and 69%, 26%, and 5% met 1, 2, and 3 frailty criteria, respectively;26% had ECOG PS = 2 and 44% had HCT-CI score ≥ 3. After 1L tx, 54% were chemotherapy refractory, 21% relapsed ≤ 12 mo, and 25% relapsed > 12 mo;51% of pts received bridging chemotherapy. Median (range) on-study f/u was 12.3 mo (1.2-26.5). ORR and CR rate was 80% and 54%, respectively. Median DOR and PFS was 12.1 mo and 9.0 mo, respectively. Median OS has not been reached (Table). Most frequent tx-emergent AEs (TEAE) were neutropenia (51%), fatigue (39%), and CRS (38%), with grade (gr) 3 CRS in 1 pt (2%) and no gr 4/5 CRS. Any-grade NEs were seen in 31%, gr 3 in 5% (n = 3), and no gr 4/5 NEs;7% received tocilizumab, 3% corticosteroids, and 20% both for tx of CRS/NEs. Overall, gr ≥ 3 TEAEs occurred in 79%, with gr 5 in 2 pts (both due to COVID-19). Two pts (3%) had gr 3/4 infections and 15 (25%) had gr ≥3 neutropenia at Day 29. Conclusions: In the PILOT study, liso-cel as 2L tx in pts with LBCL who met ≥ 1 frailty criteria and for whom HSCT was not intended demonstrated substantial and durable overall and complete responses, with no new safety concerns.

12.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003148

ABSTRACT

Background: Our frontline nurses and physicians seemed to have increased anxiety at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and increased depression as the year progressed. Perceptions of anxiety and depression coincided with concern for one's own health, limited knowledge of how to care for patients during a pandemic, limited personal protective equipment (PPE), and/or financial constraints. To date, there are no studies looking at pediatric frontline healthcare providers and their rates of anxiety and depression over the course of a pandemic. Furthermore, nurses and physicians have distinct roles in the emergency setting that affect their perceptions of anxiety and depression. Currently, there are limited studies comparing nurse and physician anxiety and depression rates during a pandemic. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in perceptions of anxiety and depression among our Pediatric Emergency and Urgent Care frontline providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study at a large quaternary level 1 trauma center including 3 emergency departments and 7 urgent care sites. We used the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), both standardized validated screening tools for identifying anxiety and depressive disorders, respectively. The GAD-7 scores range from 0-21 points, with 0-4 considered minimal anxiety, 5-9 mild anxiety, 10-14 moderate anxiety, and 15-21 severe anxiety. PHQ-2 scores range from 0-6 points with 3-6 considered likely major depressive disorder. We surveyed healthcare providers including physicians and nurses twice with the GAD-7, once at the beginning of the pandemic in Spring 2020 and again after vaccine implementation in Spring 2021. We surveyed healthcare providers once after vaccine implementation with the PHQ-2. Results: 396 surveys were distributed in Spring 2020 and 466 surveys were distributed in Spring 2021, with one-third physician and two-thirds nurse response each time. Table 1 shows the average GAD-7 and PHQ2 scores for healthcare providers by role. The average GAD-7 score decreased for both nurses and physicians from the beginning of the pandemic to after vaccine implementation. Nurses on average had higher anxiety scores with mild score range compared to minimal score range for physicians. Nurses on average had higher depression scores compared to physicians but both roles had scores in the low likelihood range. Conclusion: Many healthcare providers perceived higher anxiety and depression levels during the pandemic. The anxiety levels appeared to decrease after vaccine implementation although hospital-wide pandemic relief efforts may have played a role in improved perceptions. Even though nurses had higher anxiety scores, the difference in the score is unlikely to be clinically significant. Our data supports rigorous mental health infrastructure during pandemic preparedness to support the sudden feelings of anxiety and depression in frontline healthcare providers.

14.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003055

ABSTRACT

Background: There are increasing numbers of immigrant children held in government custody at the US-Mexico border and across the US. Further, anti-immigrant policies and the US COVID-19 pandemic response exacerbated detention conditions under the Trump administration. Thus, there is a greater need to identify the health concerns and challenges clinicians face when caring for these children. Methods: A national cross-sectional 66- question online survey was distributed from October 2020 to January 2021 through national pediatric and migrant health listservs including the Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The reported total number of listserv members was 6200, but the degree of redundancy among these groups was not able to be assessed. Clinicians were asked about care delays, health problems encountered, and resources needed while caring for children under government custody. “Children in government custody” was defined as children (0-17 years) who currently or previously (in the past 5 years) were under the custody of the US Immigration Customs Enforcement, Customs Border Protection and/or the Office of Refugee and Resettlement. Results: Eightytwo clinicians responded and cared for children clinically. Thirty four cared for children who were in government custody. About 1/3 of this subset of respondents noted care delays while in custody and delays in establishing primary care after custody release. The two main health issues seen were a lack of routine health maintenance and traumatic exposures. Most commonly, children were behind on vaccinations and needed mental health screening. Exposure to violence was the most common traumatic exposure. Furthermore, 47% of clinicians felt that their current resources were inadequate and requested legal assistance and mental health support. Importantly, 58% of respondents were not aware of or were unsure of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention domestic refugee health guidelines for the care of migrant children and adults. Conclusion: Children who experience detention have significant healthcare needs, many of which clinicians do not feel equipped to address. The reported health complications emphasize the need for policy measures, such as those recommended by the AAP, namely, the provision of evidence-based medical evaluations, trauma-informed care, and family-centered medical homes with comprehensive primary care and embedded mental health and legal support systems. Child detention should end. If present, children should be released to ORR shelters with pediatric clinicians providing healthcare and oversite until children can be safely released to vetted legal guardians and established in medical homes. This process should be swift with improved integration of detainment and post-detainment healthcare. Clinicians can be supported with training on immigrant screening guidelines. Of note, the low response rate and inability to distinguish between ICE, CBP, and ORR on the survey limits these results. Nonetheless, these findings support further research and recommendations for policy changes to improve the health and well-being of newly-arrived immigrant children.

15.
Journal of Marine Medical Society ; 24(3):30-33, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997940

ABSTRACT

Background: Caregivers not being allowed into the COVID wards prevented them from being involved in caring for their relatives in respect of day-to-day activities such as eating, drinking, and walking to the washroom. The aim of this study was to observe the challenges faced by patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 pneumonia. We also observed the impact of two simple nursing interventions related to feeding and defecation and noted their impact in terms of patient's satisfaction. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured feedback questionnaire was prepared to cover common challenges faced by patients after interview with 10 patients admitted at a COVID ICU. Two simple nursing interventions were performed related to feeding and defecation. Results: Breathlessness was the most common issue as all the patients admitted were hypoxic. Inability to perform routine day-to-day functions such as feeding, drinking, sitting, and walking were other common issues. Emotional issues like anxiety, fear homesickness, and loneliness were also very high. Most (69.44%) patients were satisfied with a blended diet which was easy to take for patients with breathlessness. Most (77.28%) of patients were satisfied with intervention of helping them sit on a commode chair while on oxygen. Conclusion: During this pandemic, where all our efforts seemed insufficient in face of this unprecedented crisis yet these small seemingly insignificant steps helped both the patients as well as nurses in making the atmosphere more positive.

16.
International Journal of Health Sciences ; 6:11150-11160, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989166

ABSTRACT

Background: People's mental health has been impacted by the novel corona virus COVID 19. According to studies, a significant percentage of people who have recovered from the infection have mental health problems. The research was carried out on people who had recovered from COVID 19 in the previous year. Participants were contacted a month after being discharged from the hospital and encouraged to complete a questionnaire that included the DASS and IES scales. Anxiety, depression, stress, and post-traumatic stress disorder were all examined in the results (PTSD). Those with scores that indicated severe levels were encouraged to see a psychiatrist for proper treatment and therapy. The results of the DASS revealed that 2.5 percent of the participants had scores indicative of severe stress, 25.3 percent had scores indicative of severe anxiety, and 7.3 percent had scores indicative of severe depression. According to the results of the IES, 15.1 percent of the participants said the event had a significant impact on their mental health, and 17.2 percent of the participants had scores that indicated the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. There is a strong link between IES scores and the severity of lung involvement. Conclusion: People who have recovered from COVID 19 are at risk for anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). © 2022 Universidad Tecnica de Manabi. All Rights Reserved.

17.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(8):DC01-DC06, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988471

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recent pandemic have showed importance of adequate availability of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) most importantly the face mask and training of Healthcare Workers (HCWs) for its proper usage for protection from various infections to maintain smooth functioning of healthcare facility. Aim: To examine practices and barriers to compliance regarding face mask usage among HCWs. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional observational analytical study which was conducted at Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, Delhi, India, from 30th June, 2020 to 24th July, 2020 during Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data was collected through semi-structured bilingual online questionnaire using Google form based on recommendations for mask use by World Health Organisation (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data was recorded in MS Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Qualitative data was expressed in percentages and continuous data was summarised in mean±Standard Deviation (SD). Chi-square test was used to check the association between the categorical variables. Results: Total 362 HCWs submitted responses, of which 44.7% respondents wore N95 masks to protect themselves from COVID-19. Only 34.2% were satisfied with availability of masks in healthcare facility. Itching and sweating on part inside mask was major problem faced by 52.8% of respondents. Only 58% followed proper hand hygiene precautions while handling mask whereas 62.7% took proper measures while doffing. Conclusion: There appears to be a lack of awareness about proper hand hygiene while handling mask, appropriate precautions for reuse and doffing. Availability of mask also needs to be addressed. Regular trainings are needed to increase awareness, improve behaviour and practices regarding mask usage for prevention of occupational spread of infection among HCWs.

18.
World Journal of Dentistry ; 13(5):483-488, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1975167

ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the level of attitude and awareness regarding biomedical waste management (BMWM) policy and practice among healthcare workers (HCWs) in tertiary level hospitals in Uttar Pradesh. Materials and methods: This is a questionnaire-based study which was done among 1,000 members of the hospital including undergraduate students, doctors (faculty members and postgraduate students), and class IV employees (cleaners and maintenance personnel). It consisted a total of 33 questions intended to obtain information about knowledge of BMWM practices grouped under three headings: (a) knowledge of biomedical waste (BMW) generation, segregation, and categorization;(b) knowledge of BMWM practice in hospitals on procedure and disposal;and (c) awareness regarding best management practices in dental office. Results: The mean scores were calculated and it was found that regarding knowledge of BMW generation, segregation, and categorization, the doctors had significantly more knowledge and dental students were having comparatively least knowledge among all groups, whereas mean value of attitude of BMWM practice in hospitals on procedure and disposal and practice regarding best waste management in dental office has shown statistically significant results with doctors. Conclusion: This study showed that there was a good, satisfactory, and poor level of knowledge, attitude, and practice about BMW generation hazards, legislation, and management among doctors (faculty members and postgraduate students), class IV employees, and dental students, respectively. Clinical significance: The awareness of these BMWM laws among the public, as well as development of policies and enforcement that respect those laws, is essential. Appropriate measures should be taken to minimize hazardous waste where possible or action should be taken to ensure that all generated waste is managed according to the correct norms and regulations. © The Author(s). 2022.

19.
2nd International Conference on Mechanical and Energy Technologies , ICMET 2021 ; 290:465-473, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958919

ABSTRACT

This article presents an inexpensive artificial intelligence solution aimed at increasing indoor safety of COVID-19, including a number of important aspects: (1) breakdown of the process (2) Method for mask identification (3). Assessment methodology of social distancing The Arduino Uno sensor system uses an infrasound sensor or heat camera, whereas the Raspberry Pi is equipped with computer vision technologies for mask detection and social distance checks. Indoor measures are the most prevalent—people with a high body heat should stay at home, masks should be worn, and their distance should be at least 1.5–2 m. In the first case, the Arduino Uno temperature sensor board is utilized, while we utilize a single-board Pi Raspberry computer coupled with camera for two additional situations, using computer vision techniques. Due to their compact size and cost, we chose to utilize these devices. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

20.
1st International Conference on Informatics, ICI 2022 ; : 229-231, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932111

ABSTRACT

Sentiment analysis is the field of computer science that studies people's behaviour or attitude towards objects, events, organizations, and products. Organizations make use of this to improve their products. This paper aims to study people's behaviour towards COVID 19. We have taken data from Twitter to analyse the sentiments. The results show that people don't have positive sentiments towards this coronavirus. © 2022 IEEE.

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