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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 184-189, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851260

ABSTRACT

CURRENT SITUATION: The global influenza surveillance and response system (GISRS), coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a global framework for surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses, data collection, laboratory capacity building, genomic data submission and archival, standardization, and calibration of reagents and vaccine strains, production of seasonal influenza vaccines and creating a facilitatory regulatory environment for the same. GAPS: WHO-designated national influenza centers (NICs) are entrusted with establishing surveillance in their respective countries. National and subnational surveillance remains weak in most parts of the world because of varying capacities of the NICs, lack of funds, poor human and veterinary surveillance mechanisms, lack of intersectoral coordination, and varying commitments of the local government. WAY FORWARD: As influenza viruses have a wide variety of nonhuman hosts, it is critical to strengthen surveillance at local levels for timely detection of untypable or novel strains with potential to cause epidemics or pandemics. In this article, we have proposed possible strategies to strengthen and expand local capacities for respiratory virus surveillance through the designated NICs of the WHO.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Global Health , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , World Health Organization
2.
Indian J Med Res ; 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835120

ABSTRACT

The WHO emergency use-listed (EUL) COVID-19 vaccines were developed against early strains of SARS-CoV-2. With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) - Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron, it is necessary to assess the neutralizing activity of these vaccines against the VOCs. PubMed and preprint platforms were searched for literature on neutralizing activity of serum from WHO EUL vaccine recipients, against the VOCs, using appropriate search terms till November 30, 2021. Our search yielded 91 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The analysis revealed a drop of 0-8.9-fold against Alpha variant, 0.3-42.4-fold against Beta variant, 0-13.8-fold against Gamma variant and 1.35-20-fold against Delta variant in neutralization titres of serum from the WHO EUL COVID-19 vaccine recipients, as compared to early SARS-CoV-2 isolates. The wide range of variability was due to differences in the choice of virus strains selected for neutralization assays (pseudovirus or live virus), timing of serum sample collection after the final dose of vaccine (day 0 to 8 months) and sample size (ranging from 5 to 470 vaccinees). The reasons for this variation have been discussed and the possible way forward to have uniformity across neutralization assays in different laboratories have been described, which will generate reliable data. Though in vitro neutralization studies are a valuable tool to estimate the performance of vaccines against the backdrop of emerging variants, the results must be interpreted with caution and corroborated with field-effectiveness studies.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 821611, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776017

ABSTRACT

India experienced a second wave of COVID-19 infection with an unprecedented upsurge in the number of cases. We have analyzed the effect of different restrictive measures implemented in six Indian states. Further, based on available national and international data on disease transmission and clinical presentation, we have proposed a decision-making matrix for planning adequate resources to combat the future waves of COVID-19. We conclude that pragmatic and well calibrated localized restrictions, tailored as per specific needs may achieve a decline in disease transmission comparable to drastic steps like national lockdowns. Additionally, we have underscored the critical need for countries to generate local epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data alongwith community perception and uptake of various non-pharmaceutical interventions, for effective planning and policy making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Policy Making
5.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753690

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2/influenza virus co-infection studies have focused on hospitalized patients who usually had grave sequelae. Here, we report SARS-CoV-2/influenza virus co-infection cases from both community and hospital settings reported through integrated ILI/SARI (Influenza Like Illness/Severe Acute Respiratory Infection) sentinel surveillance established by the Indian Council of Medical Research. We describe the disease progression and outcomes in these cases. Out of 13,467 samples tested from 4 July 2021-31 January 2022, only 5 (0.04%) were of SARS-CoV-2/influenza virus co-infection from 3 different sites in distinct geographic regions. Of these, three patients with extremes of age required hospital admission, but none required ICU admission or mechanical ventilation. No mortality was reported. The other two co-infection cases from community settings were managed at home. This is the first report on SARS-CoV-2/Influenza virus co-infection from community as well as hospital settings in India and shows that influenza viruses are circulating in the community even during COVID-19. The results emphasize the need for continuous surveillance for multiple respiratory pathogens for effective public health management of ILI/SARI cases in line with the WHO (World Health Organization) recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance
6.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737033

ABSTRACT

Due to the failure of virus isolation of the Omicron variant in Vero CCL-81 from the clinical specimens of COVID-19 cases, an initial in vivo and subsequent in vitro approach was utilized for the isolation of the virus. A total of 74 oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from SARS-CoV-2 positive international travellers and a contact case at Delhi and Mumbai, India. All the specimens were sequenced using next-generation sequencing and simultaneously inoculated onto Vero CCL-81 cells for virus isolation. Subsequently, two omicron positive specimens were inoculated into Syrian hamsters for two passages. The initial passage of the positive hamster specimens was inoculated onto Vero CCL-81 cells. The clinical specimens, hamster specimens, and Vero CCL-81 passages were sequenced to assess the mutational changes in different host species. The replication of the Omicron variant in hamsters was confirmed with the presence of a high viral load in nasal turbinate and lung specimens of both passages. The successful isolation of the virus from hamster specimens with Vero CCL-81 was observed with cytopathic effect in infected cells and high viral load in the cell suspension. The genome analysis revealed the presence of L212C mutation, Tyrosine 69 deletion, and C25000T nucleotide change in spike gene of hamster passage sequences and an absence of V17I mutation in E gene in hamster passage sequences, unlike human clinical specimen and Vero CCL-81 passages. No change was observed in the furin cleavage site in any of the specimen sequences, suggesting intact pathogenicity of the virus isolate. Our data demonstrated successful isolation of the Omicron variant with the in vivo method first followed by in vitro method. The virus isolate could be used in the future to explore different aspects of the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 818545, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731870

ABSTRACT

We report here a Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Kozhikode district of Kerala state, India, which had caused fatal encephalitis in a 12-year-old boy and the outbreak response, which led to the successful containment of the disease and the related investigations. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, ELISA-based antibody detection, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed to confirm the NiV infection. Contacts of the index case were traced and isolated based on risk categorization. Bats from the areas near the epicenter of the outbreak were sampled for throat swabs, rectal swabs, and blood samples for NiV screening by real-time RT-PCR and anti-NiV bat immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA. A plaque reduction neutralization test was performed for the detection of neutralizing antibodies. Nipah viral RNA could be detected from blood, bronchial wash, endotracheal (ET) secretion, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and anti-NiV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies from the serum sample of the index case. Rapid establishment of an onsite NiV diagnostic facility and contact tracing helped in quick containment of the outbreak. NiV sequences retrieved from the clinical specimen of the index case formed a sub-cluster with the earlier reported Nipah I genotype sequences from India with more than 95% similarity. Anti-NiV IgG positivity could be detected in 21% of Pteropus medius (P. medius) and 37.73% of Rousettus leschenaultia (R. leschenaultia). Neutralizing antibodies against NiV could be detected in P. medius. Stringent surveillance and awareness campaigns need to be implemented in the area to reduce human-bat interactions and minimize spillover events, which can lead to sporadic outbreaks of NiV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nipah Virus , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Nipah Virus/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to disruption in delivering routine healthcare services including routine immunization (RI) worldwide. Understanding the enablers and barriers for RI services during a pandemic is critically important to develop context-appropriate strategies to ensure uninterrupted routine services. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in five different states of India, nested within an ongoing multicentric study on RI. Telephone in-depth interviews among 56 health workers were carried out and the data were analyzed using a content analysis method. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers encountered many challenges at the health system, community and individual level when rendering RI services. Challenges like the limited availability of personal protective equipment and vaccines, deployment for COVID-19 duty at system level, the difficulty in mobilizing people in the community, fear among people at community level, mobility restrictions and limited family support, as well as the stress and stigma at individual level, were barriers to providing RI services. By contrast, the issuing of identification cards to health staff, engaging community volunteers, the support given to health workers by their families and training on COVID-19, were factors that enabled health workers to maintain RI services during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: When addressing the COVID-19-related public health emergency, we should not lose sight of the importance of services like RI.

10.
Indian J Med Res ; 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715907

ABSTRACT

To implement the strategy of test, track and treat to tackle the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the number of real-time RT-PCR-based testing laboratories was increased for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the country. To ensure reliability of the laboratory results, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated external quality assessment (EQA) by deploying inter-laboratory quality control (ILQC) activity for these laboratories by nominating 34 quality control (QC) laboratories. This report presents the results of this activity for a period of September 2020 till November 2020. A total of 597 laboratories participated in this activity and 86 per cent of these scored ≥90 per cent concordance with QC laboratories. This ILQC activity showcased India's preparedness in quality diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

11.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3404-3409, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712144

ABSTRACT

International travel has been the major source for the rapid spread of new SARS-CoV-2 variants across the globe. During SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance, a total of 212 SARS-CoV-2 positive clinical specimens were sequenced using next-generation sequencing. A complete SARS-CoV-2 genome could be retrieved from 90 clinical specimens. Of them, 14 sequences belonged to the Eta variant from clinical specimens of international travelers (n = 12) and local residents (n = 2) of India, and 76 belonged to other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Of all the Eta-positive specimens, the virus isolates were obtained from the clinical specimens of six international travelers. Many variants of interest have been found to cause substantial community transmission or cluster infections. The detection of this variant with lethal E484K mutation across the globe and India necessitates persistent genomic surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 variants, which would aid in taking preventive action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310962

ABSTRACT

Background: The threat of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still looming large on humankind. Pooled-testing can serve as a method of choice for current and future mass surveillance. The aim is to economically benefit in the face of resource-paucity in overburdened public health systems. Methods: This study assesses the viability of pooled-testing with viral transport media (VTM) for COVID-19 diagnosis. For this, we designed high-dilution pools using samples with wide-ranging viral loads. The testing employs common TaqMan-based RT-PCR assay considering biological as well as technical replicates. Results: We successfully detected a single positive sample in a pool (up to 1/32 dilutions) without loss of sensitivity. The results from biological and technical replicates were found to be satisfactory and reproducible for the objective. We have also discussed multiple variables that can influence the final outcome of pooled testing strategy. Conclusions: We show that pooling approach can be efficiently applied for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. We report improved pooling success compared to published studies, even with very low input volume of media, in very high pool-sizes using low-viral load samples. We consider these features to be unique to this study. The study outcomes are encouraging and can be implemented in public health settings to conserve precious resources.

13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325672

ABSTRACT

Background: Omicron a new variant of SARS COV2 was first detected in November 2021. This was believed to be highly transmissible and evade immunity as a result urgent need was felt to screen all positive, identify Omicron cases and isolate them to prevent spread of infection and study their clinico-epidemiological profile. Methodology: All positive cases detected in state of Rajasthan during November to January beginning were selected for next generation sequencing. Processing was done as per protocol on Ion Torrent S5 system for 1210 samples and bioinformatics analysis was done. Results: Among the 1210 samples tested 762(62.9%) were Delta/Delta like and other lineages, 291(24%) were Omicron and 157(12.9%) were invalid or repeat samples. Within a month the proportion of Delta and other variants was reversed, from zero omicron became 81% and delta and other variants 19%, initially all omicron cases were international travellers and their contacts but soon community transmission was seen. Majority of omicron patients were asymptomatic (56.7%) or had mild disease (33%), 9.2% had moderate symptoms and 2(0.7%) had severe disease requiring hospitalization, of which one (0.3%) died and rest (99.7%) recovered. History of vaccination was seen in 81.1%, of previous infection in 43.2%. Among the Omicron cases BA.1 (62.8%) was the predominant lineage followed by BA.2(23.7%) and B.1.529 (13.4%), however rising trends were seen initially for BA.1 and later for BA.2 also. Conclusion: In very short time Omicron has spread in community and has taken over the pre-existing Delta/Delta like and other lineages, it evades immunity, but the good part is most of the cases were asymptomatic or had mild disease and mortality rate was very low. Key words;SARSCoV2, NGS, Omicron

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324369

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that has severely affected mankind and posed a great challenge to the public health system of affected countries. The availability of a safe and effective vaccine is the need of the hour to overcome this crisis. Here, we have developed and assessed the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBV152) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata). Twenty macaques were divided into four groups of five animals each. One group was administered a placebo while three groups were immunized with three different vaccine candidates at 0 and 14 days. All the macaques were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 fourteen days after the second dose. The protective response was observed with increasing SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers from 3rd-week post-immunization. Viral clearance was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, nasal swab, throat swab, and lung tissues at 7 days post-infection in the vaccinated groups. No evidence of pneumonia was observed by histopathological examination in vaccinated groups, unlike the placebo group which showed features of interstitial pneumonia and localization of viral antigen in the alveolar epithelium and macrophages by immunohistochemistry. Data from this study substantiate the immunogenicity of the vaccine candidates and BBV152 is being evaluated in Phase I clinical trials in India (NCT04471519).

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320750

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID -19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is leading to a humongous impact on the mankind with over a million people succumbing to it worldwide. Although there are few drugs approved for the treatment, there is not yet a safe and effective vaccine available for COVID-19. Also, the passive immunization therapy with convalescent plasma, though potentially an effective treatment option for other viral disease has limitation of availability. The prior use of immunoglobulins generated in animals has proven to be effective in several viral and bacterial diseases. Here, we report the development and evaluation of equine hyper immune globulin raised against inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus. Post immunization neutralization titres of the equines demonstrated high neutralizing antibodies. To minimize the adverse effects, the immunoglobulins were digested with pepsin, and purified to obtain the F(ab’)2 fragments. The average nAb titre of the purified bulk was 22,927 and correlated with high IgG binding efficiency in ELISA. The quality control assessments of the different batches proved to have consistent nAb titres. The study provides evidence of the potential of generating highly purified F(ab’)2 from equines against SARS-CoV-2 that can demonstrate consistent and high neutralization activity. Further, in-vivo testing for efficacy of this indigenously developed, cost effective product will pave the way to clinical evaluation.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317246

ABSTRACT

The availability of a safe and effective vaccine would be the eventual measure to deal with SARS-CoV-2 threat. Here, we have developed and assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBV152) in hamsters. Three dose vaccination regime with three formulations of BBV152 induced significant titres of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. The formulation with imidazoquinoline adsorbed on alum adjuvant remarkably generated a quick and robust immune response. Th 1 biased immune response was demonstrated by the detection of IgG2 antibodies. Post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccinated hamsters did not show any histopathological changes in the lungs. The protection of the hamsters was evident by the rapid clearance of the virus from lower respiratory tract, reduced virus load in upper respiratory tract, absence of lung pathology and robust humoral immune response. These findings confirm the immunogenic potential of BBV152 and further protection of hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2.

17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674020

ABSTRACT

Sudden emergence and rapid spread of COVID-19 created an inevitable need for expansion of the COVID-19 laboratory testing network across the world. The strategy to test-track-treat was advocated for quick detection and containment of the disease. Being the second most populous country in the world, India was challenged to make COVID-19 testing available and accessible in all parts of the country. The molecular laboratory testing network was augmented expeditiously, and number of laboratories was increased from one in January 2020 to 2951 till mid-September, 2021. This rapid expansion warranted the need to have inbuilt systems of quality control/ quality assurance. In addition to the ongoing inter-laboratory quality control (ILQC), India implemented an External Quality Assurance Program (EQAP) with assistance from World Health Organization (WHO) and Royal College of Pathologists, Australasia. Out of the 953 open system rRTPCR laboratories in both public and private sector who participated in the first round of EQAP, 891(93.4%) laboratories obtained a passing score of > = 80%. The satisfactory performance of Indian COVID-19 testing laboratories has boosted the confidence of the public and policy makers in the quality of testing. ILQC and EQAP need to continue to ensure adherence of the testing laboratories to the desired quality standards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Laboratories/standards , Mass Screening/standards , Quality Assurance, Health Care/standards , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Quality Control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods
19.
Lancet ; 398(10317): 2173-2184, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the clinical efficacy against COVID-19 infection of BBV152, a whole virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine formulated with a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist molecule adsorbed to alum (Algel-IMDG) in Indian adults. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 clinical trial in 25 Indian hospitals or medical clinics to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunological lot consistency of BBV152. Adults (age ≥18 years) who were healthy or had stable chronic medical conditions (not an immunocompromising condition or requiring treatment with immunosuppressive therapy) were randomised 1:1 with a computer-generated randomisation scheme (stratified for the presence or absence of chronic conditions) to receive two intramuscular doses of vaccine or placebo administered 4 weeks apart. Participants, investigators, study coordinators, study-related personnel, the sponsor, and nurses who administered the vaccines were masked to treatment group allocation; an unmasked contract research organisation and a masked expert adjudication panel assessed outcomes. The primary outcome was the efficacy of the BBV152 vaccine in preventing a first occurrence of laboratory-confirmed (RT-PCR-positive) symptomatic COVID-19 (any severity), occurring at least 14 days after the second dose in the per-protocol population. We also assessed safety and reactogenicity throughout the duration of the study in all participants who had received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo. This report contains interim results (data cutoff May 17, 2021) regarding immunogenicity and safety outcomes (captured on days 0 to 56) and efficacy results with a median of 99 days for the study population. The trial was registered on the Indian Clinical Trials Registry India, CTRI/2020/11/028976, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04641481 (active, not recruiting). FINDINGS: Between Nov 16, 2020, and Jan 7, 2021, we recruited 25 798 participants who were randomly assigned to receive BBV152 or placebo; 24 419 received two doses of BBV152 (n=12 221) or placebo (n=12 198). Efficacy analysis was dependent on having 130 cases of symptomatic COVID-19, which occurred when 16 973 initially seronegative participants had at least 14 days follow-up after the second dose. 24 (0·3%) cases occurred among 8471 vaccine recipients and 106 (1·2%) among 8502 placebo recipients, giving an overall estimated vaccine efficacy of 77·8% (95% CI 65·2-86·4). In the safety population (n=25 753), 5959 adverse events occurred in 3194 participants. BBV152 was well tolerated; the same proportion of participants reported adverse events in the vaccine group (1597 [12·4%] of 12 879) and placebo group (1597 [12·4%] of 12 874), with no clinically significant differences in the distributions of solicited, unsolicited, or serious adverse events between the groups, and no cases of anaphylaxis or vaccine-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: BBV152 was highly efficacious against laboratory-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 disease in adults. Vaccination was well tolerated with no safety concerns raised in this interim analysis. FUNDING: Bharat Biotech International and Indian Council of Medical Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , India , Male
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 164-171, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering the potential threat from emerging Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the rising COVID-19 cases, SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance is ongoing in India. We report herewith the isolation of the P.2 variant (B.1.1.28.2) from international travelers and further its pathogenicity evaluation and comparison with D614G variant (B.1) in hamster model. METHODS: Virus isolation was performed in Vero CCL81 cells and genomic characterization by next generation sequencing. The pathogenicity and host immune response of the isolate was assessed in Syrian hamster model and compared with B.1 variant. RESULTS: B.1.1.28.2 variant was isolated from nasal/throat swabs of international travelers returned to India from United Kingdom and Brazil. The B.1.1.28.2 variant induced body weight loss, viral replication in the respiratory tract and caused severe lung pathology in infected Syrian hamster model in comparison, with B.1 variant infected hamsters. The sera from B.1.1.28.2 infected hamsters efficiently neutralized the D614G variant virus whereas 6-fold reduction in the neutralization was seen in case of D614G variant infected hamsters' sera with the B.1.1.28.2 variant. CONCLUSIONS: B.1.1.28.2 lineage variant could be successfully isolated and characterization could be performed. Pathogenicity of the isolate was demonstrated in Syrian hamster model and the findings of neutralization reduction is of great concern and point towards the need for screening the vaccines for efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung , Virulence
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