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1.
JACS Au ; 1(6): 750-765, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307307

ABSTRACT

Rising population density and global mobility are among the reasons why pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, spread so rapidly across the globe. The policy response to such pandemics will always have to include accurate monitoring of the spread, as this provides one of the few alternatives to total lockdown. However, COVID-19 diagnosis is currently performed almost exclusively by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Although this is efficient, automatable, and acceptably cheap, reliance on one type of technology comes with serious caveats, as illustrated by recurring reagent and test shortages. We therefore developed an alternative diagnostic test that detects proteolytically digested SARS-CoV-2 proteins using mass spectrometry (MS). We established the Cov-MS consortium, consisting of 15 academic laboratories and several industrial partners to increase applicability, accessibility, sensitivity, and robustness of this kind of SARS-CoV-2 detection. This, in turn, gave rise to the Cov-MS Digital Incubator that allows other laboratories to join the effort, navigate, and share their optimizations and translate the assay into their clinic. As this test relies on viral proteins instead of RNA, it provides an orthogonal and complementary approach to RT-PCR using other reagents that are relatively inexpensive and widely available, as well as orthogonally skilled personnel and different instruments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD022550.

2.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2020 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leicester was the first city in the UK to have 'local lockdown' measures imposed in response to high community rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. As part of this response, a directive was issued by NHS England to offer testing of asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) at University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust (UHL) for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Between 20 July and 14 August 2020, we invited all HCWs at UHL to attend for SARS-CoV-2 testing by nucleic acid amplification (NAAT). We combined the result of this assay with demographic information from the electronic staff record. RESULTS: A total of 1150 staff (~8% of the workforce) volunteered. The median age was 46 years (IQR 34-55), 972 (84.5%) were female; 234 (20.4%) were of South Asian and 58 (5.0%) of Black ethnicity; 564 (49.0%) were nurses/healthcare assistants. We found no cases of asymptomatic infection. In comparison, average community test positivity rate in Leicester city was 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Within the context of local lockdowns due to high community transmission rates, voluntary testing of asymptomatic staff has low uptake and low yield and thus its premise and cost-effectiveness should be re-considered.

3.
Clin Imaging ; 72: 75-82, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928892

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate pooled prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity of chest computed tomography (CT) and radiographic findings for novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: We performed systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase to identify articles reporting baseline imaging findings of COVID-19 pneumonia. The quality of the articles was assessed using NIH quality assessment tool for case series studies. The pooled prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of imaging findings were calculated. RESULTS: Fifty-six studies (6007 patients, age, 2.1-70 years, 2887 females, 5762 CT, 396 radiographs,) were included. The mean interval between onset of symptoms and CT acquisition was 1-8 days. On CT, the pooled prevalence of ground glass opacities (GGO), GGO plus consolidation, and consolidation only was 66.9% (95% CI 60.8-72.4%), 44.9% (38.7-51.3%), and 32.1 (23.6-41.9%) respectively. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of GGO on CT was 73% (71%-80%) and 61% (41%-78%), respectively. For GGO plus consolidation and consolidation only, the pooled sensitivities/ specificities were 58% (48%-68%)/ 58% (41%-73%) and 49% (20%-78%)/ 56% (30%-78%), respectively. The pooled prevalence of GGO and consolidation on chest radiograph was 38.7% (22.2%-58.3%) and 46.9% (29.7%-64.9%), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographic findings could not be assessed due to small number of studies. CONCLUSION: GGO on CT has the highest diagnostic performance for COVID-19 pneumonia, followed by GGO plus consolidation and consolidation only. However, the moderate to low sensitivity and specificity suggest that CT should not be used as the primary tool for diagnosis. Chest radiographic abnormalities are seen in half of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Lung , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests that demographic characteristics including minority ethnicity increase the risk of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is unclear whether these characteristics, together with occupational factors, influence anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence in hospital staff. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional surveillance examining seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG amongst staff at University Hospitals of Leicester (UHL) NHS Trust. We quantified seroprevalence stratified by ethnicity, occupation and seniority of practitioner and used logistic regression to examine demographic and occupational factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: A total of 1148/10662 (10.8%) hospital staff members were seropositive. Compared to White staff (seroprevalence 9.1%), seroprevalence was higher in South Asian (12.3%) and Black (21.2%) staff. The occupations and department with the highest seroprevalence were nurses/healthcare assistants (13.7%) and the Emergency Department (ED)/Acute Medicine (17.5%), respectively. Seroprevalence decreased with seniority in medical/nursing practitioners. Minority ethnicity was associated with seropositivity on an adjusted analysis (South Asian: aOR 1.26; 95%CI: 1.07-1.49 and Black: 2.42; 1.90-3.09). Anaesthetics/ICU staff members were less likely to be seropositive than ED/Acute medicine staff (0.41; 0.27-0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Ethnicity and occupational factors, including specialty and seniority, are associated with seropositivity for anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG. These findings could be used to inform occupational risk assessments for front-line healthcare workers.

5.
Journal of Health Management ; 22(2):248-261, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-738927

ABSTRACT

Before the imposition of the strict lockdowns and the spread of COVID-19, the disruptions in China caused a ripple effect on the global supply chains. Emphasis has been laid on minimisation of costs and timely delivery of essential products. In India, as the situation worsens due to the outbreak, we have seen disruptions in the logistics supply chain. There are several reasons attributed to the increase in demand and slowing of the supply. There are several workable solutions available to look into this situation. We should work towards promoting Indian markets and amend policies to help the local workforce lessen the interdependencies of imports on other countries. This will help in strengthening the logistics supply chain in India. This will create employment opportunities and increase the GDP growth.

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