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1.
International Conference on Computational Techniques and Applications, ICCTA 2021 ; 426:43-52, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1844331

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the pandemic that we are all facing these days, we all are advised to maintain some specified social distance from other people in order to keep ourselves safe. The CoVID-19 pandemic started showing its symptoms at the end of 2019 and is still killing thousands of people every day. Although the scientists have been successful in preparing the medicines for it, it is better to take some precautionary measures ourselves only. We are battling from it today as well. So, our tool is just a medium to make this battle a little easier. This will help us to monitor the distance between two objects, here, people, and whether they are at a safe distance from each other or not. This can also be helpful for the officials if they have to keep an eye on everyone and if they are following the proper guidelines to prevent COVID-19 from spreading. This will help us to detect the objects, in this case, people, and track their movements. Anyone can track whether people are maintaining a proper distance from each other or not. We are using three algorithms, object detection, object tracking, and distance measure algorithm, mainly to detect the objects, then track them, and then to analyze the distance between them. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

2.
Annals of Financial Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840616

ABSTRACT

Utilizing a mixed data sampling (MIDAS) approach, we show that a daily newspaper-based index of uncertainty associated with infectious diseases can be used to predict, both in-and out-of-samples, low-frequency movements of output growth for the United States (US). The predictability of monthly industrial production growth and quarterly real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth during the current period of heightened economic uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to be of tremendous value to policymakers. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Company.

3.
4th International Conference on Recent Innovations in Computing, ICRIC 2021 ; 855:587-597, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826280

ABSTRACT

The recent emerging coronavirus as novel corona virus (2019‐nCoV) formed viral pneumonia based emergency not only in Wuhan but also Europe, Iran, North Korea, India, and many more countries. WHO has already declared this situation as pandemic of corona virus. The world has around twenty-four lakhs cases in the whole world with around one and half lakhs deaths as on 20 April 2020. The corona virus is the family member of Nidovirales, which occur in human body from animal-human interaction. Here, we deliver the basics of corona virus and illustrate the social impact of this emergency. The review will aid the knowledge of CoV with their family and understand the person for healthy life. Here we study the Indian Tweets to determine the people’s emphasis on emerged Novel Coronaviruses (COVID-19), also compute the comparative tweets as concern of corona virus especially for Indian capital region for last six months January to June 2020 and January to March 2021 and find out the tactics of tweets for peoples concern about it. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

4.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334188

ABSTRACT

Most human subjects infected by SARS-CoV-2 report an acute alteration in their sense of smell, and more than 25% of COVID patients report lasting olfactory dysfunction. While animal studies and human autopsy tissues have suggested mechanisms underlying acute loss of smell, the pathophysiology that underlies persistent smell loss remains unclear. Here we combine objective measurements of smell loss in patients suffering from post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) with single cell sequencing and histology of the olfactory epithelium (OE). This approach reveals that the OE of patients with persistent smell loss harbors a diffuse infiltrate of T cells expressing interferon-gamma;gene expression in sustentacular cells appears to reflect a response to inflammatory signaling, which is accompanied by a reduction in the number of olfactory sensory neurons relative to support cells. These data identify a persistent epithelial inflammatory process associated with PASC, and suggests mechanisms through which this T cell-mediated inflammation alters the sense of smell.

5.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333519

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, starting in 2019, has challenged the speed at which labs perform science, ranging from discoveries of the viral composition to handling health outcomes in humans. The small ~30kb single-stranded RNA genome of Coronaviruses makes them adept at cross species spread and drift, increasing their probability to cause pandemics. However, this small genome also allows for a robust understanding of all proteins coded by the virus. We employed protein modeling, molecular dynamic simulations, evolutionary mapping, and 3D printing to gain a full proteome and dynamicome understanding of SARS-CoV-2. The Viral Integrated Structural Evolution Dynamic Database (VIStEDD) has been established (prokoplab.com/vistedd), opening future discoveries and educational usage. In this paper, we highlight VIStEDD usage for nsp6, Nucleocapsid (N), and Spike (S) surface glycoprotein. For both nsp6 and N we reveal highly conserved surface amino acids that likely drive protein-protein interactions. In characterizing viral S protein, we have developed a quantitative dynamics cross correlation matrix insight into interaction with the ACE2/SLC6A19 dimer complex. From this quantitative matrix, we elucidated 47 potential functional missense variants from population genomic databases within ACE2/SLC6A19/TMPRSS2, warranting genomic enrichment analyses in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Moreover, these variants have ultralow frequency, but can exist as hemizygous in males for ACE2, which falls on the X-chromosome. Two noncoding variants (rs4646118 and rs143185769) found in ~9% of African descent individuals for ACE2 may regulate expression and be related to increased susceptibility of African Americans to SARS-CoV-2. This powerful database of SARS-CoV-2 can aid in research progress in the ongoing pandemic.

6.
Neurology Asia ; 27(1):117-123, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798520

ABSTRACT

Background & Objective: Neurological manifestations of novel-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been described in various studies. None of these studies has compared the findings in COVID-19 patients with COVID-negative patients presenting with similar clinical symptomatology during the same period. We undertook this case-control study with an aim to establish a direct relationship between COVID-19 infection and CNS related clinical and imaging presentations. Methods: This study was a review of retrospectively collected data of the patients who presented with different neurological symptoms to a tertiary care hospital in India. Based on results of Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-Co-V-2, patients were classified into COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative groups. MRI findings in both groups were reviewed for acute ischemic stroke, intracranial bleed and other acute imaging abnormalities. Basic demographic information and stroke-related co-morbidities were also compared. Results: Eighty four patients in COVID-19 positive group and 323 patients in COVID-19 negative group underwent brain MRI for acute neurological symptoms during the same period. There was no statistically significant difference in presenting symptoms, sex distribution and risk factors for stroke. There was a higher prevalence of increased coagulability in COVID-19 positive group (p-value = 0.009). No statistically significant association was observed for infarcts or their hemorrhagic transformation, intracranial bleed, intracranial infection or dural sinus thrombosis. An association was found between acute diffuse leukoencephalopathy and COVID-19 infection (p value < 0.05). Conclusion: The current study points towards a weak direct association between COVID-19 infection and acute abnormalities in MRI brain studies, especially in patients with pre-existing co-morbidities.

9.
Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 16(3):534-539, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789540

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic is the most daunting challenge for humankind in the current scenario. Healthcare personnel (HCPs) being at forefront dealing with pandemic, have been prioritized to get inoculated against COVID-19. However, literature has limited information regarding HCPs intention to get vaccinated and their concerns regarding the same. Therefore, this study was done to assess Indian HCPs awareness, attitude, and perception toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Materials and Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted using the convenience sampling method. A validated questionnaire was designed in English and was mailed to all the participants through link of Google form and also through social media platforms. A total of 815 HCPs responses were obtained. Results: Of the 815 responses 452 were willing for the COVID-19 vaccine. Five hundred and eighty-three HCPs have shown trust in the Science and Ministry of Health for the development of safe and effective vaccines. Four hundred and sixty-one of HCPs were of the opinion that India is going slow on the vaccination drive and 620 of them feel the need to accelerate the drive. Conclusions: High acceptance and low hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccine demands increased vaccine coverage by Indian HCPs. Addressing this demand requires possible intervention by the participation of the private sector which will help to accept the national vaccination program to a wider scale, thereby combating the future wave of the pandemic. © 2022 Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

10.
IEEE Access ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788612

ABSTRACT

Cryptographic forms of money are distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) computerized exchange mediums, where the exchanges or records are secured through a protected hash set of secure hash algorithm-256 (SHA-256) and message digest 5 (MD5) calculations. Since their initiation, the prices seem highly volatile and came to their amazing cutoff points during the COVID-19 pandemic. This factor makes them a popular choice for investors with an aim to get higher returns over a short span of time. The colossal high points and low points in digital forms of money costs have drawn in analysts from the scholarly community as well as ventures to foresee their costs. A few machines and deep learning algorithms like gated recurrent unit (GRU), long short-term memory (LSTM), autoregressive integrated moving average with explanatory variable (ARIMAX), and a lot more have been utilized to exactly predict and investigate the elements influencing cryptocurrency prices. The current literature is totally centered around the forecast of digital money costs disregarding its reliance on other cryptographic forms of money. However, Dash coin is an individual cryptocurrency, but it is derived from Bitcoin and Litecoin. The change in Bitcoin and Litecoin prices affects the Dash coin price. Motivated from these, we present a cryptocurrency price prediction framework in this paper. It acknowledges different cryptographic forms of money (which are subject to one another) as information and yields higher accuracy. To illustrate this concept, we have considered a price prediction of Dash coin through the past days’prices of Dash, Litecoin, and Bitcoin as they have hierarchical dependency among them at the protocol level. We can portray the outcomes that the proposed scheme predicts the prices with low misfortune and high precision. The model can be applied to different digital money cost expectations. Author

11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332814

ABSTRACT

Patients with haematological malignancies, such as acute leukaemia and high-risk MDS (HR-MDS), have significantly increased mortality and morbidity from COVID-19. However vaccine efficacy in these patients and the impact of systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT) on vaccine response remains to be fully established. SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in 53 patients with ALL, AML or HR-MDS receiving SACT were characterised following two doses of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1nCoV-19. All patients were tested for anti-S antibodies after 2 doses, 60% after the first dose and anti-N antibody testing was performed on 46 patients (87%). Seropositivity rates after 2 vaccine doses were 95% in AML/HR-MDS patients and 79% in ALL. After stratification by prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, naïve patients with AML/HR-MDS had higher seroconversion rates and median anti-S antibody titres compared to ALL (median 291U/mL versus 5.06U/mL), and significant increases in anti-S titres with consecutive vaccine doses, not seen in ALL. No difference was seen in serological response between patients receiving intensive chemotherapy or non-intensive therapies (HMA) but significantly reduced titres were present in AML/HR-MDS patients who received venetoclax-based regimens compared to other therapies. All ALL patients received intensive chemotherapy, with no further impact of anti-CD20 immunotherapy on serological response. Understanding the impact of disease subtypes and therapy on vaccine response is essential to enable decisions on modifying or delaying treatment in the context of either SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination.

12.
4th International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology, ICSSIT 2022 ; : 1391-1395, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1784495

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandeamic has affected people all over the world. COVID-19 may manifest with different severity in different people, however, it predominantly affects respiratory system. Symptoms may vary from sore throat and cough to shortness of breath and damaged lungs. This work focusses on developing a smart system for early detection of COVID-19 based on cough sounds and machine learning algorithms. Such a system would be easily accessible and may provide initial screening for detection of COVID-19. Moreover, cough sounds may be recorded by the person on smartphone avoiding the need for visiting a hospital or testing facility and getting exposed to the disease during the pandeamic. First, the duration of cough sound is determined in the recorded audio signal using thresholding. Then, statistical features are extracted for cough sound and normalized. Finally, the performance of 10 different machine learning algorithms are compared for automatic detection of COVID-19. The proposed stacked ensemble of machine learning models yields the best performance, with an accuracy of 79.86% and area under region of convergence curve of 0.797 for cough sounds of new patients. © 2022 IEEE

13.
Meng, B.; Ferreira, I. A. T. M.; Abdullahi, A.; Goonawardane, N.; Saito, A.; Kimura, I.; Yamasoba, D.; Gerba, P. P.; Fatihi, S.; Rathore, S.; Zepeda, S. K.; Papa, G.; Kemp, S. A.; Ikeda, T.; Toyoda, M.; Tan, T. S.; Kuramochi, J.; Mitsunaga, S.; Ueno, T.; Shirakawa, K.; Takaori-Kondo, A.; Brevini, T.; Mallery, D. L.; Charles, O. J.; Bowen, J. E.; Joshi, A.; Walls, A. C.; Jackson, L.; Cele, S.; Martin, D.; Smith, K. G. C.; Bradley, J.; Briggs, J. A. G.; Choi, J.; Madissoon, E.; Meyer, K.; Mlcochova, P.; Ceron-Gutierrez, L.; Doffinger, R.; Teichmann, S.; Pizzuto, M.; de Marco, A.; Corti, D.; Sigal, A.; James, L.; Veesler, D.; Hosmillo, M.; Lee, J. H.; Sampaziotis, F.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Matheson, N. J.; Thukral, L.; Sato, K.; Gupta, R. K.; Kawabata, R.; Morizako, N.; Sadamasu, K.; Asakura, H.; Nagashima, M.; Yoshimura, K.; Ito, J.; Kimura, I.; Uriu, K.; Kosugi, Y.; Suganami, M.; Oide, A.; Yokoyama, M.; Chiba, M.; Saito, A.; Butlertanaka, E. P.; Tanaka, Y. L.; Ikeda, T.; Motozono, C.; Nasser, H.; Shimizu, R.; Yuan, Y.; Kitazato, K.; Hasebe, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Wu, J.; Takahashi, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Shimizu, K.; Tsushima, K.; Kubo, H.; Kazuma, Y.; Nomura, R.; Horisawa, Y.; Nagata, K.; Kawai, Y.; Yanagida, Y.; Tashiro, Y.; Tokunaga, K.; Ozono, S.; Baker, S.; Dougan, G.; Hess, C.; Kingston, N.; Lehner, P. J.; Lyons, P. A.; Matheson, N. J.; Owehand, W. H.; Saunders, C.; Summers, C.; Thaventhiran, J. E. D.; Toshner, M.; Weekes, M. P.; Maxwell, P.; Shaw, A.; Bucke, A.; Calder, J.; Canna, L.; Domingo, J.; Elmer, A.; Fuller, S.; Harris, J.; Hewitt, S.; Kennet, J.; Jose, S.; Kourampa, J.; Meadows, A.; O’Brien, C.; Price, J.; Publico, C.; Rastall, R.; Ribeiro, C.; Rowlands, J.; Ruffolo, V.; Tordesillas, H.; Bullman, B.; Dunmore, B. J.; Fawke, S.; Gräf, S.; Hodgson, J.; Huang, C.; Hunter, K.; Jones, E.; Legchenko, E.; Matara, C.; Martin, J.; Mescia, F.; O’Donnell, C.; Pointon, L.; Pond, N.; Shih, J.; Sutcliffe, R.; Tilly, T.; Treacy, C.; Tong, Z.; Wood, J.; Wylot, M.; Bergamaschi, L.; Betancourt, A.; Bower, G.; Cossetti, C.; de Sa, A.; Epping, M.; Fawke, S.; Gleadall, N.; Grenfell, R.; Hinch, A.; Huhn, O.; Jackson, S.; Jarvis, I.; Krishna, B.; Lewis, D.; Marsden, J.; Nice, F.; Okecha, G.; Omarjee, O.; Perera, M.; Potts, M.; Richoz, N.; Romashova, V.; Yarkoni, N. S.; Sharma, R.; Stefanucci, L.; Stephens, J.; Strezlecki, M.; Turner, L.; de Bie, E. M. D. D.; Bunclark, K.; Josipovic, M.; Mackay, M.; Mescia, F.; Michael, A.; Rossi, S.; Selvan, M.; Spencer, S.; Yong, C.; Allison, J.; Butcher, H.; Caputo, D.; Clapham-Riley, D.; Dewhurst, E.; Furlong, A.; Graves, B.; Gray, J.; Ivers, T.; Kasanicki, M.; Le Gresley, E.; Linger, R.; Meloy, S.; Muldoon, F.; Ovington, N.; Papadia, S.; Phelan, I.; Stark, H.; Stirrups, K. E.; Townsend, P.; Walker, N.; Webster, J.; Scholtes, I.; Hein, S.; King, R.; Márquez, S.; Prado-Vivar, B.; Becerra-Wong, M.; Caravajal, M.; Trueba, G.; Rojas-Silva, P.; Grunauer, M.; Gutierrez, B.; Guadalupe, J. J.; Fernández-Cadena, J. C.; Andrade-Molina, D.; Baldeon, M.; Pinos, A..
Web of Science; 2021.
Preprint in English | Web of Science | ID: ppcovidwho-331154

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in late 2021 and is characterised by multiple spike mutations across all spike domains. Here we show that Omicron BA.1 has higher affinity for ACE2 compared to Delta, and confers very significant evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralising antibodies after two doses. mRNA vaccination as a third vaccine dose rescues and broadens neutralisation. Importantly, antiviral drugs remdesevir and molnupiravir retain efficacy against Omicron BA.1. We found that in human nasal epithelial 3D cultures replication was similar for both Omicron and Delta. However, in lower airway organoids, Calu-3 lung cells and gut adenocarcinoma cell lines live Omicron virus demonstrated significantly lower replication in comparison to Delta. We noted that despite presence of mutations predicted to favour spike S1/S2 cleavage, the spike protein is less efficiently cleaved in live Omicron virions compared to Delta virions. We mapped the replication differences between the variants to entry efficiency using spike pseudotyped virus (PV) entry assays. The defect for Omicron PV in specific cell types correlated with higher cellular RNA expression of TMPRSS2, and accordingly knock down of TMPRSS2 impacted Delta entry to a greater extent as compared to Omicron. Furthermore, drug inhibitors targeting specific entry pathways demonstrated that the Omicron spike inefficiently utilises the cellular protease TMPRSS2 that mediates cell entry via plasma membrane fusion. Instead, we demonstrate that Omicron spike has greater dependency on cell entry via the endocytic pathway requiring the activity of endosomal cathepsins to cleave spike. Consistent with suboptimal S1/S2 cleavage and inability to utilise TMPRSS2, syncytium formation by the Omicron spike was dramatically impaired compared to the Delta spike. Overall, Omicron appears to have gained significant evasion from neutralising antibodies whilst maintaining sensitivity to antiviral drugs targeting the polymerase. Omicron has shifted cellular tropism away from TMPRSS2 expressing cells that are enriched in cells found in the lower respiratory and GI tracts, with implications for altered pathogenesis.

14.
Studies in Computational Intelligence ; 1007:337-353, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1767464

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major obstacle for educational systems. The pandemic has essentially upset the higher education part too, which is a basic determinant of a nation’s economic future. Students, parents, and instructors around the globe are feeling the uncommon expanding influence of the novel coronavirus as schools are closing down and isolation strategies are being requested to adapt to the worldwide pandemic. While governments and well-being authorities are doing their best hindering the episode, worldwide education systems are working together to react and give quality training to all during these troublesome occasions. On these difficult occasions, devices, assets, and tips are abundant;however, how would we discover ones that truly work? There is a rise in the usage of online meeting tools/apps for taking classes online like Zoom, Skype, Google Meet/Classroom, etc. and so is the hazard from these types of apps. Consequently, the objective of this study is to assess the role of ICT instruments accessible in imparting quality instruction and also to examine the effect and techniques for training division in India. The study also suggests ways to curb the security risks of online education using ICT. A structured questionnaire has been used to collect data using random purposive techniques from teachers using ICT for their teaching-learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

15.
US Endocrinology ; 17(1):10-13, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1766544

ABSTRACT

We assessed real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) data in an individual with type 2 diabetes who presented with severe symptoms of COVID-19, and suffered a fatal cardiac arrest during hospitalization. In this retrospective analysis, we used rtCGM to evaluate changes in blood glucose levels in a 71-year-old male with COVID-19 symptoms who suffered a fatal cardiac arrest. Blood glucose levels remained constant at 220–225 mg/dL after the first cardiac arrest, slowly decreased to 167 mg/dL after return of spontaneous circulation was achieved, and rose to 198 mg/dL prior to the second arrest. After the patient expired, glucose levels decreased to the 141 mg/dL over the first hour, but quickly declined to undetectable levels within the next 20 minutes. Wider adoption of rtCGM use in patients with COVID-19 may help identify blood glucose patterns and uncover new insights to various comorbidities and conditions

16.
17.
Pharma Times ; 52(9):14-16, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1743829

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken the world into a dark time. The number of infected people has crossed 12 crores and the death counts to more than 5 lakhs until July, 2020 worldwide[1]. Moreover, this lockdown is breaking the pillar of the economy of the countries and the condition is getting worse day by day. So, keeping these things in mind, a vaccine or medicine or some other method of cure is urgently needed. To make this possible, the study of the structure of the virus needs to be done very carefully. That is why we focused upon the structural proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We all know that in this short period of time it is nearly impossible to do XRD and to know the exact structures of all the proteins present in the discussed virus. So in this article, we have tried to predict the most accurate 3D structure of a yet-unmodelled protein of the SARS-CoV-2, so that in the future, our finding may appear helpful for researchers in case of performing XRD of this protein and further research. © 2020, Indian Pharmaceutical Association. All rights reserved.

18.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-330191

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein is critical for virus infection via engagement of ACE2, and amino acid variation in Spike is increasingly appreciated. Given both vaccines and therapeutics are designed around Wuhan-1 Spike, this raises the theoretical possibility of virus escape, particularly in immunocompromised individuals where prolonged viral replication occurs. Here we report chronic SARS-CoV-2 with reduced sensitivity to neutralising antibodies in an immune suppressed individual treated with convalescent plasma, generating whole genome ultradeep sequences by both short and long read technologies over 23 time points spanning 101 days. Although little change was observed in the overall viral population structure following two courses of remdesivir over the first 57 days, N501Y in Spike was transiently detected at day 55 and V157L in RdRp emerged. However, following convalescent plasma we observed large, dynamic virus population shifts, with the emergence of a dominant viral strain bearing D796H in S2 and DELTA H69/ DELTA V70 in the S1 N-terminal domain NTD of the Spike protein. As passively transferred serum antibodies diminished, viruses with the escape genotype diminished in frequency, before returning during a final, unsuccessful course of convalescent plasma. In vitro, the Spike escape double mutant bearing DELTA H69/ DELTA V70 and D796H conferred decreased sensitivity to convalescent plasma, whilst maintaining infectivity similar to wild type. D796H appeared to be the main contributor to decreased susceptibility, but incurred an infectivity defect. The DELTA H69/ DELTA V70 single mutant had two-fold higher infectivity compared to wild type and appeared to compensate for the reduced infectivity of D796H. Consistent with the observed mutations being outside the RBD, monoclonal antibodies targeting the RBD were not impacted by either or both mutations, but a non RBD binding monoclonal antibody was less potent against DELTA H69/ DELTA V70 and the double mutant. These data reveal strong selection on SARS-CoV-2 during convalescent plasma therapy associated with emergence of viral variants with reduced susceptibility to neutralising antibodies.

19.
Rsc Medicinal Chemistry ; : 29, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1735303

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, has been confirmed to be a new coronavirus having 79% and 50% similarity with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively. For a better understanding of the features of the new virus SARS-CoV-2, we have discussed a possible correlation between some unique features of the genome of SARS-CoV-2 in relation to pathogenesis. We have also reviewed structural druggable viral and host targets for possible clinical application if any, as cases of reinfection and compromised protection have been noticed due to the emergence of new variants with increased infectivity even after vaccination. We have also discussed the types of vaccines that are being developed against SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we have tried to give a brief overview of the fundamental factors of COVID-19 research like basic virology, virus variants and the newly emerging techniques that can be applied to develop advanced treatment strategies for the management of COVID-19 disease.

20.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i614-i615, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722367

ABSTRACT

Background: The information on seroprevalence rates of COVID-19 infection among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its comparison to healthy controls is sparse. We compared the seroprevalence rates in immunocompromised and immunocompetent IBD patients and healthy controls. Methods: Patients with IBD under follow-up at the IBD clinic, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were included. After obtaining informed consent, patients underwent SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing (chemiluminescent immunoassay: Seimens kit IgG against antigen S1RBD) and information on demography, drug history, past history of COVID infection and vaccination status were noted. Patients with IBD on 5-aminosalicylic acid or not on any treatment were considered immunocompetent and those who had received steroids, thiopurines or methotrexate within 6 months of sample collection were considered immunocompromised. Results: 235 patients (51.9%-males;mean age at enrolment- 38.7±12.4 years;median disease duration-60 months [IQR:36- 120]) (UC-69.4%, CD-28.9%, IBDU-1.7%) and 73 healthy controls (HCs- mean age-39.6± 10.9 years, 79% males) were enrolled from July 2020 - April 2021 (Table1). 128 (54.5%) patients were immunocompromised and 107 were immunocompetent (treatment details: 5 ASA-72.3%, steroids-15.3%, Thiopurines-40%, methotrexate-2.6%). Seventy-four (31.5%) patients were positive for IgG antibody against SARS CoV2, 2 patients (0.9%) had previous history of COVID infection and none received COVID vaccine. Seroprevalence rates between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with IBD and healthy controls was similar (28.1% vs 36% vs 28%, p>0.05) (Figure1). Demographic and disease characteristics such as age, gender, disease type, disease activity in last 6 months, disease duration and medication use was similar between patients with positive and negative serology (Table2). There was progressive increase in seroprevalence from July 2020 to April 2021 Conclusion: Upto 1/3rd patients with IBD were seropositive for IgG SARS Cov2 antibody indicating asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. The seroprevalence was similar to healthy controls and was not different between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with IBD.

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