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3.
J Clin Virol ; 155: 105248, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956201

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic continues to devastate communities all over the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the test agent as a prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a population of high-risk healthcare workers. Methods The study was a multi-centre, prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Key eligibility criteria included absence of significant co-morbidity and no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Participants were randomised to either the active agent nasal spray or placebo using computer generated random number tables. The nasal spray was administered 3 times daily over a 45 day course. The primary end point was the percentage of subjects who tested positive for IgGS (anti-spike, immunoglobulin G specific to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2) at day 45. Results Between 16th April 2021 and 26th July 2021, 556 participants were analysed for the primary endpoint (275 Test; 281 Placebo). The test agent significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to placebo [36 cases (13.1%) Vs 97 cases (34.5%); OR 0.29 (95% CI; 0.18-0.45), p < 0.0001]. Fewer clinical symptoms were also seen in the test group [57 cases (17.6%) vs 112 cases (34.6%); OR 0.40, (95% CI; 0.27-0.59), p < 0.0001]. No harmful effects were associated with taking the test agent. Conclusion The test agent significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers, with 62% fewer infections when compared to placebo. It was found to be safe and well tolerated and offers a novel treatment option for prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1503188, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765179

ABSTRACT

Facial gender recognition is a crucial research topic due to its comprehensive use cases, including a demographic gender survey, visitor profile identification, targeted advertisement, access control, security, and surveillance from CCTV. For these real-time applications, the face of a person can be oriented to any angle from the camera axis, and the person can be of any age group, including juveniles. A child's face consists of immature craniofacial feature points in texture and edge compared to an adult face, making it very hard to recognize gender using the child's face. Real-word faces captured in an unconstrained environment make the gender prediction system more complex to identify correctly due to orientation. These factors reduce the accuracy of the existing state-of-the-art models developed so far for real-time facial gender prediction. This paper presents the novelty of facial gender recognition for juveniles, adults, and unconstrained-oriented faces. The progressive calibration network (PCN) detects rotation-invariant faces in the proposed model. Then, a Gabor filter is applied to extract unique edge and texture features from the detected face. The Gabor filter is invariant to illumination and produces texture and edge features with redundant feature coefficients in large dimensions. Gabor has drawbacks such as redundancy and a large dimension resolved by the proposed meanDWT feature optimization method, which optimizes the system's accuracy, the size of the model, and computational timing. The proposed feature engineering model is classified with different classifiers such as Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression, SVM with linear, and RBF kernel. Its results are compared with the state-of-the-art techniques; detailed experimental analysis is presented and concluded to support the argument. We also present a review of approaches based on conventional and deep learning methods with their pros and cons for facial gender recognition on different datasets available for facial gender recognition.


Subject(s)
Facial Recognition , Recognition, Psychology , Adult , Bayes Theorem , Child , Head , Humans , Photic Stimulation
5.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
6.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 12(Suppl 1): S66-S70, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580211

ABSTRACT

The current scenario of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a huge disease burden worldwide affecting people across all age groups. Although children get infected by coronavirus, they are less commonly affected. Only 2% of cases are being reported among patients aged less than 20 years of age and childhood cases constitute around 1-5% of them. Moreover, they are less likely to be seriously affected when compared to adults, with more than 90% of them being either asymptomatic or having mild to moderate disease. This could be attributed to less exposure or sensitivity to COVID-19, varying immune response mechanisms, differences in the expression/function of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 receptors or higher antibody levels to viruses owing to exposures to multiple respiratory infections, protective role of measles and BCG vaccine, and few associated comorbidities. However, children with certain underlying medical conditions like cardiac or respiratory disease, diabetes, immunodeficiency disorders, cancer or on immunosuppressants may be at a higher risk for developing severe disease.

7.
Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med ; 9(2): 113-116, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487758

ABSTRACT

We report our experience of COVID-19 disease burden among patients aged 0-21 years at two tertiary care institutions in the Northeast and Midwest from New Jersey and Iowa. Our results showed that during the initial surge (March to August 2020) at both geographic locations, majority of COVID-19 disease burden occurred in adolescents and that they were more likely to be hospitalized for COVID-related illnesses, as well as develop severe disease needing intensive care. The study results emphasize the need for providing more targeted interventions toward this group to help prevent disease acquisition and transmission.

8.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
9.
Mater Today Proc ; 2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340756

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been scattering speedily around the world since 2019. Due to this pandemic, human life is becoming increasingly involutes and complex. Many people have died because of this virus. The lack of antiviral drugs is one of the reasons for the spreading of COVID-19 virus. This disease is spreading continuously and easily due to some common mistakes by people, like breathing, coughing and sneezing by infected persons. The main symptom is the normal flu. Therefore, in the present condition, the best precaution for this disease is the face mask, which covers both areas of mouth & nose. According to the government and the World Health Organization, everyone should wear a face mask in busy places like hospitals and marketplaces. In today's environment, it's difficult to tell if someone is wearing a mask or not, and physical inspection is impractical since it adds to labour costs. In this research, we present a mask detector that uses a machine learning facial categorization system to determine whether a person is wearing a mask or not, so that it may be connected to a CCTV system to verify that only persons wearing masks are allowed in.

10.
Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research ; 15(4):19-22, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1204364

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV 2) virus, a causative agent of COVID-19 has led to universal pandemic. During this pandemic there has been an acute shortage of good quality Viral Transport Medium (VTM) because of increase in number of infected people worldwide. It is also difficult to maintain the transport and storing conditions in line with the guidelines in pandemics. Aim: To assess the feasibility of Oropharyngeal Swab (OP)/Nasal swabs in 0.9% normal saline in place of VTM and to analyse the effect of temperature on nucleic acid detection by rRT PCR on saline samples stored at 4°C, ambient and at higher temperature (37°C). Materials and Methods: The present study was an observational analytical study which included 94 positive and 5 negative samples. Patients' nasal or OP samples were collected as dry swabs and in VTM. Normal saline was added once the samples were received in the laboratory. PCR was done with saline and VTM samples both on day 1. Samples were aliquotted in 3 sets and one set was kept at 4°-8° C and other two at 25°C and 37°C, respectively. All positive samples were further tested on day 3, day 4 and day 6. Results were analysed and compared. Results: Samples in normal saline showed very good sensitivity at all temperatures (4°-8°C, 25°C and 37°C) till day 6. Both the swab samples (in saline and in VTM) showed nearly 100% agreement in rRT-PCR results. Ct value variation was also =±2. Conclusion: Looking into the cost and logistics issues especially during pandemics, saline is a good and cheaper alternative to VTM and with its use, testing capacity can be expanded. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research is the property of JCDR Research & Publications Private Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

11.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 72(5): 718-722, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180675

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can lead to coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19). The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is now an appreciated portal of infection. SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are inflammatory conditions caused by chronic type 2 (T2) inflammation. the effects of the T2 atopic inflammatory milieu on SARS-COV-2 viral entry gene expression in the GI tract is poorly understood. We analyzed tissue ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EG), and in normal adult esophagi using publicly available RNA-sequencing datasets. Similar to findings evaluating the airway, there was no difference in tissue ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression in EoE or EG when compared with control non-EoE/EG esophagus/stomach. ACE2 gene expression was significantly lower in esophagi from children with or without EoE and from adults with EoE as compared with normal adult esophagi. Type 2 immunity and pediatric age could be protective for infection by SARS-CoV-2 in the gastrointestinal tract because of decreased expression of ACE2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enteritis , Adult , Child , Eosinophilia , Gastritis , Gene Expression , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 72(5): 718-722, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057901

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can lead to coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19). The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is now an appreciated portal of infection. SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are inflammatory conditions caused by chronic type 2 (T2) inflammation. the effects of the T2 atopic inflammatory milieu on SARS-COV-2 viral entry gene expression in the GI tract is poorly understood. We analyzed tissue ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EG), and in normal adult esophagi using publicly available RNA-sequencing datasets. Similar to findings evaluating the airway, there was no difference in tissue ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression in EoE or EG when compared with control non-EoE/EG esophagus/stomach. ACE2 gene expression was significantly lower in esophagi from children with or without EoE and from adults with EoE as compared with normal adult esophagi. Type 2 immunity and pediatric age could be protective for infection by SARS-CoV-2 in the gastrointestinal tract because of decreased expression of ACE2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enteritis , Adult , Child , Eosinophilia , Gastritis , Gene Expression , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2020: 8823622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021157

ABSTRACT

Enteritis as the only manifestation of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents without features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) or a prior history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been described. We report two adolescent patients (a 14-year-old male and a 20-year-old pregnant female) presenting to tertiary-care centers in the United States with severe enteritis as the only manifestation of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The patients were hospitalized with acute abdominal pain and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, with no evidence of MIS-C, and were previously healthy with no history of IBD. The patients' nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and testing for other infectious etiologies was negative. Both patients received intravenous corticosteroids and recovered without short-term complications. None of the patients died. This report highlights the need for keeping a high index of suspicion for SARS-CoV-2 infection in adolescents presenting solely with gastrointestinal manifestations, in the absence of respiratory symptoms or multisystem involvement, for prompt recognition and timely management.

15.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874695

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of treatment regimens and outcomes for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is evolving. Recent studies have reported mortality rates ranging from 39-50% among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We report our experience ofmanagement and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at a large tertiary-care center in Midwestern United States. Of 658 patients presenting to our tertiary care center, 217 needed hospitalization, majority (77%) of whom were severely sick requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). All received corticosteroids, and 78% of the patients received tocilizumab. More than two-thirds of the patients received anticoagulation and 80% of patients in the ICU had prone-positioning. The median duration of hospitalization was 12 days (interquartile range, 8 to16), median duration of intensive care unit stay was 7 days (interquartile range, 5 to 9) and requirement of mechanical ventilation was 6 days (interquartile range, 5 to 8) in our cohort. Of the 217 patients, 27 died (12% mortality). The majority of our patients received corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anticoagulation and prone positioning. While higher mortality rates of >30% have been reported in various studies among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients in our cohort survived with a low mortality rate. The majority of our patients received corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anticoagulation and prone positioning. While higher mortality rates of >30% have been reported in various studies among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients in our cohort survived with a low mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tertiary Healthcare , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Midwestern United States , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(11): e340-e346, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, severe manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been recognized. Analysis of studies for this novel syndrome is needed for a better understanding of effective management among affected children. METHODS: An extensive search strategy was conducted by combining the terms multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and coronavirus infection or using the term multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in bibliographic electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL) and in preprint servers (BioRxiv.org and MedRxiv.org) following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Metaanalyses guidelines to retrieve all articles published from January 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Observational cross-sectional, cohort, case series, and case reports were included. RESULTS: A total of 328 articles were identified. Sixteen studies with 655 participants (3 months-20 years of age) were included in the final analysis. Most of the children in reported studies presented with fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and Kawasaki Disease-like symptoms. Sixty-eight percent of the patients required critical care; 40% needed inotropes; 34% received anticoagulation; and 15% required mechanical ventilation. More than two-thirds of the patients received intravenous immunoglobulin and 49% received corticosteroids. Remdesivir and convalescent plasma were the least commonly utilized therapies. Left ventricular dysfunction was reported in 32% of patients. Among patients presenting with KD-like symptoms, 23% developed coronary abnormalities and 26% had circulatory shock. The majority recovered; 11 (1.7%) children died. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review delineates and summarizes clinical features, management, and outcomes of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although most children required intensive care and immunomodulatory therapies, favorable outcomes were reported in the majority with low-mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Care , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infant , Male , Mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Young Adult
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(3): 868-873, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713606

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (or COVID-19) has become a global risk and scientists are attempting to investigate antiviral vaccine. Berberis are important plants due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals, especially berberine from the protoberberine group of benzylisoquinoline and recent studies have shown its potential in treating COVID-19. B. lycium Royle growing in subtropical regions of Asia had wide applications in Indian system of medicine. Rapid determination and novel optimisation method for berberine extraction has been developed by Soxhlet extraction utilising central composite design-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM). Berberine was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the highest yield (13.39%) was obtained by maintaining optimal extraction conditions i.e., extraction time (7.28 hrs), ethyl alcohol (52.21%) and solvent to sample ratio (21.78 v/w). Investigation of two geographic regions (Ramnagar and Srinagar) showed high berberine content in lower altitude. This novel optimisation technique has placed berberine as a potential candidate for developing pharmaceutical products for human health care.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Berberis , COVID-19 , Lycium , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Plant Extracts , Quality Control , SARS-CoV-2
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