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Alzheimers Dement ; 18(4): 790-809, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172367


In tandem with the ever-increasing aging population in low and middle-income countries, the burden of dementia is rising on the African continent. Dementia prevalence varies from 2.3% to 20.0% and incidence rates are 13.3 per 1000 person-years with increasing mortality in parts of rapidly transforming Africa. Differences in nutrition, cardiovascular factors, comorbidities, infections, mortality, and detection likely contribute to lower incidence. Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated neurocognitive disorders are the most common dementia subtypes. Comprehensive longitudinal studies with robust methodology and regional coverage would provide more reliable information. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is most studied but has shown differential effects within African ancestry compared to Caucasian. More candidate gene and genome-wide association studies are needed to relate to dementia phenotypes. Validated culture-sensitive cognitive tools not influenced by education and language differences are critically needed for implementation across multidisciplinary groupings such as the proposed African Dementia Consortium.

Alzheimer Disease , Dementia, Vascular , Dementia , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/genetics , Dementia, Vascular/complications , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Humans
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236053, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059206


Importance: The global impact of COVID-19 has led to an increased need to continuously assess disease surveillance tools. The utility of SARS-CoV-2 serologic tools in determining immunity levels across different age groups and locations in helping to quickly assess the burden of COVID-19 with significant health policy implications is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with respect to the age group and sex of participants. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional survey of 4904 individuals across 12 states with high and low COVID-19 disease burden in Nigeria was carried out between June 29 and August 21, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the detection of specific SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies, such as the nucleocapsid protein-NCP and spike protein S1. Interviewer-administered questionnaires provided information on participants' history of disease and associated risk factors. Results: A total of 4904 individuals participated in the study (3033 were female [61.8%]; mean [SD] age, 26.7 [6.51] years). A high seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (78.9%) was obtained. Seropositivity was consistent across the states surveyed, ranging from 69.8% in Lagos to 87.7% in Borno. There was no association between sex and seropositivity (female, 2414 [79.6%]; male, 1456 [77.8%]; P = .61); however, an association was noted between age and seropositivity, with the peak prevalence observed in participants aged 15 to 19 years (616 [83.6%]; P = .001). Similarly, loss of appetite (751 [82.3%]; P = .04) and smell (309 [84.4%]; P = .01) were associated with seropositivity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, a high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was obtained among the study population during the low level of vaccination at the time of the survey. Thus, there is a need for both an efficacy and antibody neutralization test study to ascertain the efficacy of the antibody detected and the potential for herd immunity in Nigeria.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
J Psychiatr Res ; 148: 188-196, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654823


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has profoundly affected the work of mental health professionals with many transitioning to telehealth to comply with public health measures. This large international study examined the impact of the pandemic on mental health clinicians' telehealth use. METHODS: This survey study was conducted with mental health professionals, primarily psychiatrists and psychologists, registered with WHO's Global Clinical Practice Network (GCPN). 1206 clinicians from 100 countries completed the telehealth section of the online survey in one of six languages between June 4 and July 7, 2020. Participants were asked about their use, training (i.e., aspects of telehealth addressed), perceptions, and concerns. OUTCOMES: Since the pandemic onset, 1092 (90.5%) clinicians reported to have started or increased their telehealth services. Telephone and videoconferencing were the most common modalities. 592 (49.1%) participants indicated that they had not received any training. Clinicians with no training or training that only addressed a single aspect of telehealth practice were more likely to perceive their services as somewhat ineffective than those with training that addressed two or more aspects. Most clinicians indicated positive perceptions of effectiveness and patient satisfaction. Quality of care compared to in-person services and technical issues were the most common concerns. Findings varied by WHO region, country income level, and profession. INTERPRETATION: Findings suggest a global practice change with providers perceiving telehealth as a viable option for mental health care. Increasing local training opportunities and efforts to address clinical and technological concerns is important for meeting ongoing demands.

COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics