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Nutrition ; 106: 111901, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228665


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of using an energy-dense, high-protein (HP) formula enriched with ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and vitamin D (VitD) for enteral feeding in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This was a nested case-control multicenter study. Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 in whom enteral nutrition was not contraindicated and receiving an energy-dense, HP-HMB-FOS-VitD formula (1.5 kcal/mL; 21.5% of calories from protein; n = 53) were matched (1:1) by age (±1 y), sex, body mass index (±1 kg/m2) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (±1 point) and compared with patients fed with a standard HP, fiber-free formula (1.25-1.3 kcal/mL; 20% of calories from protein; n = 53). The primary end point was daily protein intake (g/kg) on day 4. Protein-calorie intake on day 7, gastrointestinal intolerance, and clinical outcomes were addressed as secondary end points. RESULTS: The use of a HP-HMB-FOS-VitD formula resulted in higher protein intake on days 4 and 7 (P = 0.006 and P = 0.013, respectively), with similar energy intake but higher provision of calories from enteral nutrition at both times (P <0 .001 and P = 0.017, respectively). Gastrointestinal tolerance was superior, with fewer patients fed with a HP-HMB-FOS-VitD formula reporting at least one symptom of intolerance (55 versus 74%; odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.99; P = 0.046) and constipation (38 versus 66%; OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.12-0.61; P = 0.002). A lower rate of ICU-acquired infections was also observed (42 versus 72%; OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003), although no difference was found in mortality, ICU length of stay, and ventilation-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: An energy-dense, HP-HMB-FOS-VitD formula provided a more satisfactory protein intake and a higher provision of caloric intake from enteral nutrition than a standard HP formula in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. Lower rates of gastrointestinal intolerance and ICU-acquired infections were also observed.

Crit Care ; 26(1): 176, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951306


OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of treatment with steroids on the incidence and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Propensity-matched retrospective cohort study from February 24 to December 31, 2020, in 4 dedicated COVID-19 Intensive Care Units (ICU) in Lombardy (Italy). PATIENTS: Adult consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were subdivided into two groups: (1) treated with low-dose corticosteroids (dexamethasone 6 mg/day intravenous for 10 days) (DEXA+); (2) not treated with corticosteroids (DEXA-). A propensity score matching procedure (1:1 ratio) identified patients' cohorts based on: age, weight, PEEP Level, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, non-respiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), C reactive protein plasma concentration at admission, sex and admission hospital (exact matching). INTERVENTION: Dexamethasone 6 mg/day intravenous for 10 days from hospital admission. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-nine patients were included, and the propensity-score matching identified two groups of 158 subjects each. Eighty-nine (56%) DEXA+ versus 55 (34%) DEXA- patients developed a VAP (RR 1.61 (1.26-2.098), p = 0.0001), after similar time from hospitalization, ICU admission and intubation. DEXA+ patients had higher crude VAP incidence rate (49.58 (49.26-49.91) vs. 31.65 (31.38-31.91)VAP*1000/pd), (IRR 1.57 (1.55-1.58), p < 0.0001) and risk for VAP (HR 1.81 (1.31-2.50), p = 0.0003), with longer ICU LOS and invasive mechanical ventilation but similar mortality (RR 1.17 (0.85-1.63), p = 0.3332). VAPs were similarly due to G+ bacteria (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) and G- bacteria (mostly Enterobacterales). Forty-one (28%) VAPs were due to multi-drug resistant bacteria. VAP was associated with almost doubled ICU and hospital LOS and invasive mechanical ventilation, and increased mortality (RR 1.64 [1.02-2.65], p = 0.040) with no differences among patients' groups. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill COVID-19 patients are at high risk for VAP, frequently caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, and the risk is increased by corticosteroid treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04388670, retrospectively registered May 14, 2020.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies