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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 867540, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952503

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted breastfeeding and lactation globally, with clinical practices implemented early in the pandemic being mostly anti-breastfeeding, e.g., separation of mothers from their infants, and not evidence based. As the pandemic has progressed, evidence has emerged reconfirming the value of human milk and the importance of protecting and supporting breastfeeding, especially the initiation of lactation. However, it is clear that COVID-19 has changed the clinical care paradigm around breastfeeding and lactation support and, as such, it is imperative that practices adapt and evolve to maintain the emphasis on lactation support. We participated in a round table conference aiming to rescue and develop protocols and practices that support breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. One key area to target will be to maximize the use of the antenatal period. The early identification of lactation risk factors together with the development of person-centered methods to deliver breastfeeding information and education to parents-to-be will be critical. In addition, the establishment of a hospital culture that values breastfeeding and prioritizes the use of human milk will be integral for the motivation of health care professionals. That culture will also support active management of the initiation of lactation and the development of a 'back-up plan' toolkit to support the mother experiencing lactation difficulties. Post-discharge support will also be crucial with the development of both in-person and virtual lactation support programs, in particular for the immediate post-discharge period to benefit mothers who experience an early discharge process. These measures will allow for a new, adapted framework of practice that acknowledges the current COVID-19 paradigm and maintains the emphasis on the need to protect and support breastfeeding and the use of human milk.

2.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837896

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted breastfeeding and lactation globally, with clinical practices implemented early in the pandemic being mostly anti-breastfeeding, e.g., separation of mothers from their infants, and not evidence based. As the pandemic has progressed, evidence has emerged reconfirming the value of human milk and the importance of protecting and supporting breastfeeding, especially the initiation of lactation. However, it is clear that COVID-19 has changed the clinical care paradigm around breastfeeding and lactation support and, as such, it is imperative that practices adapt and evolve to maintain the emphasis on lactation support. We participated in a round table conference aiming to rescue and develop protocols and practices that support breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. One key area to target will be to maximize the use of the antenatal period. The early identification of lactation risk factors together with the development of person-centered methods to deliver breastfeeding information and education to parents-to-be will be critical. In addition, the establishment of a hospital culture that values breastfeeding and prioritizes the use of human milk will be integral for the motivation of health care professionals. That culture will also support active management of the initiation of lactation and the development of a 'back-up plan' toolkit to support the mother experiencing lactation difficulties. Post-discharge support will also be crucial with the development of both in-person and virtual lactation support programs, in particular for the immediate post-discharge period to benefit mothers who experience an early discharge process. These measures will allow for a new, adapted framework of practice that acknowledges the current COVID-19 paradigm and maintains the emphasis on the need to protect and support breastfeeding and the use of human milk.

3.
JAMA ; 327(8): 748-759, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739090

ABSTRACT

Importance: It remains unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 infection specifically increases the risk of serious obstetric morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with serious maternal morbidity or mortality from common obstetric complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 14 104 pregnant and postpartum patients delivered between March 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020 (with final follow-up to February 11, 2021), at 17 US hospitals participating in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Gestational Research Assessments of COVID-19 (GRAVID) Study. All patients with SARS-CoV-2 were included and compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result who delivered on randomly selected dates over the same period. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on a positive nucleic acid or antigen test result. Secondary analyses further stratified those with SARS-CoV-2 infection by disease severity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of maternal death or serious morbidity related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, or infection other than SARS-CoV-2. The main secondary outcome was cesarean birth. Results: Of the 14 104 included patients (mean age, 29.7 years), 2352 patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection and 11 752 did not have a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly associated with the primary outcome (13.4% vs 9.2%; difference, 4.2% [95% CI, 2.8%-5.6%]; adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.61]). All 5 maternal deaths were in the SARS-CoV-2 group. SARS-CoV-2 infection was not significantly associated with cesarean birth (34.7% vs 32.4%; aRR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.99-1.11]). Compared with those without a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, moderate or higher COVID-19 severity (n = 586) was significantly associated with the primary outcome (26.1% vs 9.2%; difference, 16.9% [95% CI, 13.3%-20.4%]; aRR, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.73-2.46]) and the major secondary outcome of cesarean birth (45.4% vs 32.4%; difference, 12.8% [95% CI, 8.7%-16.8%]; aRR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.07-1.28]), but mild or asymptomatic infection (n = 1766) was not significantly associated with the primary outcome (9.2% vs 9.2%; difference, 0% [95% CI, -1.4% to 1.4%]; aRR, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.94-1.32]) or cesarean birth (31.2% vs 32.4%; difference, -1.4% [95% CI, -3.6% to 0.8%]; aRR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.93-1.07]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among pregnant and postpartum individuals at 17 US hospitals, SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an increased risk for a composite outcome of maternal mortality or serious morbidity from obstetric complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Postpartum Hemorrhage/mortality , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant individuals are needed to inform infection prevention guidance and counseling for this population. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of pregnant individuals during August 2020-March 2021 at three U.S. sites. The three primary outcomes were incidence rates of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infection, and asymptomatic infection, during pregnancy during periods of SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Participants self-collected weekly mid-turbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, completed weekly illness symptom questionnaires, and submitted additional swabs with COVID-19-like symptoms. An overall SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate weighted by population counts of women of reproductive age in each state was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1098 pregnant individuals followed for a mean of 10 weeks, nine percent (99/1098) had SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study. Population weighted incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 10.0 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7-14.3) person-weeks for any infection, 5.7 per 1,000 (95% CI 1.7-9.7) for symptomatic infections, and 3.5 per 1,000 (95% CI 0-7.1) for asymptomatic infections. Among 96 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptom data, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (72%), cough (64%), headache (59%), and change in taste or smell (54%); 28% had measured or subjective fever. The median symptom duration was 10 days (IQR6-16 days). CONCLUSION: Pregnant individuals had a 1% risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection per week. Study findings provide information about SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during pregnancy to inform counseling for pregnant individuals about infection prevention practices, including COVID-19 vaccination.

5.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(6): e215563, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607894

ABSTRACT

Importance: Associations between in utero exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and neurodevelopment are speculated, but currently unknown. Objective: To examine the associations between maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, being born during the COVID-19 pandemic regardless of maternal SARS-CoV-2 status, and neurodevelopment at age 6 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of infants exposed to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and unexposed controls was enrolled in the COVID-19 Mother Baby Outcomes Initiative at Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York City. All women who delivered at Columbia University Irving Medical Center with a SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy were approached. Women with unexposed infants were approached based on similar gestational age at birth, date of birth, sex, and mode of delivery. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Ages & Stages Questionnaire, 3rd Edition (ASQ-3) at age 6 months. A historical cohort of infants born before the pandemic who had completed the 6-month ASQ-3 were included in secondary analyses. Exposures: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were scores on the 5 ASQ-3 subdomains, with the hypothesis that maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy would be associated with decrements in social and motor development at age 6 months. Results: Of 1706 women approached, 596 enrolled; 385 women were invited to a 6-month assessment, of whom 272 (70.6%) completed the ASQ-3. Data were available for 255 infants enrolled in the COVID-19 Mother Baby Outcomes Initiative (114 in utero exposed, 141 unexposed to SARS-CoV-2; median maternal age at delivery, 32.0 [IQR, 19.0-45.0] years). Data were also available from a historical cohort of 62 infants born before the pandemic. In utero exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection was not associated with significant differences on any ASQ-3 subdomain, regardless of infection timing or severity. However, compared with the historical cohort, infants born during the pandemic had significantly lower scores on gross motor (mean difference, -5.63; 95% CI, -8.75 to -2.51; F1,267 = 12.63; P<.005), fine motor (mean difference, -6.61; 95% CI, -10.00 to -3.21; F1,267 = 14.71; P < .005), and personal-social (mean difference, -3.71; 95% CI, -6.61 to -0.82; F1,267 = 6.37; P<.05) subdomains in fully adjusted models. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, birth during the pandemic, but not in utero exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection, was associated with differences in neurodevelopment at age 6 months. These early findings support the need for long-term monitoring of children born during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 65(1): 123-133, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584009

ABSTRACT

The influence of social determinants of health on disease dynamics and outcomes has become increasingly clear, making them a prime target of investigation and mitigation efforts. The obstetric population is uniquely positioned to provide insight into the health inequities exacerbated by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic given their susceptibility to infectious disease morbidity and frequent interactions with the health care system, which provide opportunities for ascertainment of disease incidence and severity. This review summarizes the data on disparities identified in the US obstetric population during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic as they relate to race and ethnicity, built environment, insurance status, language, and immigration status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obstetrics , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review obstetric personnel absences at a hospital during the initial peak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection risk in New York City from March 25 to April 21, 2020. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study evaluated absences at Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital. Clinical absences for (1) Columbia University ultrasonographers, (2) inpatient nurses, (3) labor and delivery operating room (OR) technicians, (4) inpatient obstetric nurse assistants, and (5) attending physicians providing inpatient obstetric services were analyzed. Causes of absences were analyzed and classified as illness, vacation and holidays, leave, and other causes. Categorical variables were compared with the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: For nurses, absences accounted for 1,052 nursing workdays in 2020 (17.2% of all workdays) compared with 670 (11.1%) workdays in 2019 (p < 0.01). Significant differentials in days absent in 2020 compared with 2019 were present for (1) postpartum nurses (21.9% compared with 12.9%, p < 0.01), (2) labor and delivery nurses (14.8% compared with 10.6%, p < 0.01), and (3) antepartum nurses (10.2% compared with 7.4%, p = 0.03). Evaluating nursing assistants, 24.3% of workdays were missed in 2020 compared with 17.4% in 2019 (p < 0.01). For ultrasonographers, there were 146 absences (25.2% of workdays) in 2020 compared with 96 absences (16.0% of workdays) in 2019 (p < 0.01). The proportion of workdays missed by OR technicians was 22.6% in 2020 and 18.3% in 2019 (p = 0.25). Evaluating attending physician absences, a total of 78 workdays were missed due to documented COVID-19 infection. Evaluating the causes of absences, illness increased significantly between 2019 and 2020 for nursing assistants (42.6 vs. 57.4%, p = 0.02), OR technicians (17.1 vs. 55.9%, p < 0.01), and nurses (15.5 vs. 33.7%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 outbreak surge planning represents a major operational issue for medical specialties such as critical care due to increased clinical volume. Findings from this analysis suggest it is prudent to devise backup staffing plans. KEY POINTS: · 1) COVID-19 outbreak surge planning represents a major operational issue for obstetrics.. · 2) Inpatient obstetric volume cannot be reduced.. · 3) Staffing contingencies plans for nurses, sonographers, and physicians may be required..

8.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(1): 75-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate pregnant women's attitudes toward COVID-19 illness and vaccination and identify factors associated with vaccine acceptability. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women enrolled in a prospective COVID-19 cohort study in Salt Lake City, UT, Birmingham, AL, and New York, NY, from August 9 to December 10, 2020. Women were eligible if they were 18 to 50 years old and <28 weeks of gestation. Upon enrollment, women completed surveys regarding concerns about COVID-19 illness and likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine if one were available during pregnancy. Vaccine acceptability was defined as a response of "very likely" or "somewhat likely" on a 4-point Likert scale. Factors associated with vaccine acceptability were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 939 pregnant women eligible for the main cohort study, 915 (97%) consented to participate. Among these 915 women, 39% self-identified as White, 23% Black, 33% Hispanic, and 4% Other. Sixty-two percent received an influenza vaccine last season. Seventy-two percent worried about getting sick with COVID-19. If they were to get sick, 92% worried about harm to their pregnancy and 80% about harm to themselves. Only 41% reported they would get a vaccine. Of women who were unlikely to get vaccinated, the most frequently cited concern was vaccine safety for their pregnancy (82%). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women had lower odds of accepting a vaccine compared with non-Hispanic White women (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6 for both). Receipt of influenza vaccine during the previous season was associated with higher odds of vaccine acceptability (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0). CONCLUSION: Although most pregnant women worried about COVID-19 illness, <50% were willing to get vaccinated during pregnancy. Racial and ethnic disparities in plans to accept COVID-19 vaccine highlight the need to prioritize strategies to address perceived barriers among groups at high risk for COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · Less than half of pregnant patients stated they would get a COVID-19 vaccine.. · Protecting their baby was the most common reason for acceptance and refusal of the COVID-19 vaccine.. · Patients of minority race/ethnicity and those without prior influenza vaccination were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine..


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
10.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 224(2):S660-S661, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1384874

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe racial/ethnic differences in COVID-19 disease and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women delivering during the COVID-19 pandemic. Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of pregnant women delivering at a single institution in NYC who were universally tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR or serology from March 13 to August 5, 2020. Women were classified by self-reported race/ethnicity into five groups - non-Hispanic Black ("Black"), non-Hispanic White ("White"), Hispanic, Asian and "other". Data on baseline characteristics, SARS-CoV-2 presentation and outcomes, and perinatal outcomes were collected and examined across groups of race/ethnicity in SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected women using Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. The odds ratios (OR) for SARS-CoV-2 positivity and cesarean delivery were determined by logistic regression models with adjustment for demographic, medical and obstetric factors. Result(s): Of 2489 women who delivered, 1338 (53.8%) were Hispanic, 531 (21.3%) White, 252 (10.1%) Black, 127 (5.1%) Asian and 241 (9.7%) "other". The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 11.1% (n=276). There was a significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rate among Hispanic women compared to White women (15.6% vs 6.0%, p<=0.01), which persisted after controlling for confounders (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.05, 4.27). The infection rate did not differ significantly among other racial/ethnic groups compared to White women. (Table 1) Hispanic and Black women were more likely to undergo cesarean (51% and 39% vs 28 %, p<=0.05), which persisted in Hispanic women after controlling for SARS-CoV-2 infection and confounders (OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.30, 9.80), but not in Black women. There were no differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated outcomes or other perinatal complications. (Table 2) Conclusion(s): Hispanic women were disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2 in this population and were more likely to undergo cesarean compared to SARS-CoV-2-infected White women. This cesarean rate disparity could not be accounted for by SARS-CoV-2 infection. [Formula presented] [Formula presented]Copyright © 2020

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant individuals are needed to inform infection prevention guidance and counseling for this population. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of pregnant individuals during August 2020-March 2021 at three U.S. sites. The three primary outcomes were incidence rates of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infection, and asymptomatic infection, during pregnancy during periods of SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Participants self-collected weekly mid-turbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, completed weekly illness symptom questionnaires, and submitted additional swabs with COVID-19-like symptoms. An overall SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate weighted by population counts of women of reproductive age in each state was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1098 pregnant individuals followed for a mean of 10 weeks, nine percent (99/1098) had SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study. Population weighted incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 10.0 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7-14.3) person-weeks for any infection, 5.7 per 1,000 (95% CI 1.7-9.7) for symptomatic infections, and 3.5 per 1,000 (95% CI 0-7.1) for asymptomatic infections. Among 96 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptom data, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (72%), cough (64%), headache (59%), and change in taste or smell (54%); 28% had measured or subjective fever. The median symptom duration was 10 days (IQR6-16 days). CONCLUSION: Pregnant individuals had a 1% risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection per week. Study findings provide information about SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during pregnancy to inform counseling for pregnant individuals about infection prevention practices, including COVID-19 vaccination.

12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(5): 100403, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although mass vaccination against COVID-19 may prove to be the most efficacious end to this deadly pandemic, there remain concern and indecision among the public toward vaccination. Because pregnant and reproductive-aged women account for a large proportion of the population with particular concerns regarding vaccination against COVID-19, this survey aimed at investigating their current attitudes and beliefs within our own institution. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand vaccine acceptability among pregnant, nonpregnant, and breastfeeding respondents and elucidate factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. STUDY DESIGN: We administered an anonymous online survey to all women (including patients, providers, and staff) at our institution assessing rates of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Respondents were contacted in 1 of 3 ways: by email, advertisement flyers, and distribution of quick response codes at virtual town halls regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. Based on their responses, respondents were divided into 3 mutually exclusive groups: (1) nonpregnant respondents, (2) pregnant respondents, and (3) breastfeeding respondents. The primary outcome was acceptance of vaccination. Prevalence ratios were calculated to ascertain the independent effects of multiple patient-level factors on vaccine acceptability. RESULTS: The survey was administered from January 7, 2021, to January 29, 2021, with 1012 respondents of whom 466 (46.9%) identified as non-Hispanic White, 108 (10.9%) as non-Hispanic Black, 286 (28.8%) as Hispanic, and 82 (8.2%) as non-Hispanic Asian. The median age was 36 years (interquartile range, 25-47 years). Of all the respondents, 656 respondents (64.8%) were nonpregnant, 216 (21.3%) were pregnant, and 122 (12.1%) were breastfeeding. There was no difference in chronic comorbidities when evaluated as a composite variable (Table 1). A total of 390 respondents (39.2%) reported working in healthcare. Nonpregnant respondents were most likely to accept vaccination (457 respondents, 76.2%; P<.001) with breastfeeding respondents the second most likely (55.2%). Pregnant respondents had the lowest rate of vaccine acceptance (44.3%; P<.001). Prevalence ratios revealed all non-White races except for non-Hispanic Asian respondents, and Spanish-speaking respondents were less likely to accept vaccination (Table 3). Working in healthcare was not found to be associated with vaccine acceptance among our cohort. CONCLUSION: In this survey study of only women at a single institution, pregnant respondents of non-White or non-Asian races were more likely to decline vaccination than nonpregnant and breastfeeding respondents. Working in healthcare was not associated with vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(4): 571-580, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity in pregnant patients and evaluate the association between disease severity and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of all pregnant patients with a singleton gestation and a positive test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who delivered at 1 of 33 U.S. hospitals in 14 states from March 1 to July 31, 2020. Disease severity was classified by National Institutes of Health criteria. Maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes were abstracted by centrally trained and certified perinatal research staff. We evaluated trends in maternal characteristics and outcomes across COVID-19 severity classes and associations between severity and outcomes by multivariable modeling. RESULTS: A total of 1,219 patients were included: 47% asymptomatic, 27% mild, 14% moderate, 8% severe, 4% critical. Overall, 53% were Hispanic; there was no trend in race-ethnicity distribution by disease severity. Those with more severe illness had older mean age, higher median body mass index, and pre-existing medical comorbidities. Four maternal deaths (0.3%) were attributed to COVID-19. Frequency of perinatal death or a positive neonatal SARS-CoV-2 test result did not differ by severity. Adverse perinatal outcomes were more frequent among patients with more severe illness, including 6% (95% CI 2-11%) incidence of venous thromboembolism among those with severe-critical illness compared with 0.2% in mild-moderate and 0% in asymptomatic (P<.001 for trend across severity). In adjusted analyses, severe-critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of cesarean birth (59.6% vs 34.0%, adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.57, 95% CI 1.30-1.90), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (40.4% vs 18.8%, aRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.18-2.20), and preterm birth (41.8% vs 11.9%, aRR 3.53, 95% CI 2.42-5.14) compared with asymptomatic patients. Mild-moderate COVID-19 was not associated with adverse perinatal outcomes compared with asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection without symptoms, those with severe-critical COVID-19, but not those with mild-moderate COVID-19, were at increased risk of perinatal complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Age , Maternal Mortality , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Young Adult
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14390, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309469

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected people at all ages. Whereas pregnant women seemed to have a worse course of disease than age-matched non-pregnant women, the risk of feto-placental infection is low. Using a cohort of 66 COVID-19-positive women in late pregnancy, we correlated clinical parameters with disease severity, placental histopathology, and the expression of viral entry and Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) antiviral transcripts. All newborns were negative for SARS-CoV-2. None of the demographic parameters or placental histopathological characteristics were associated with disease severity. The fetal-maternal transfer ratio for IgG against the N or S viral proteins was commonly less than one, as recently reported. We found that the expression level of placental ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 or Furin, was higher in women with severe COVID-19. Placental expression of IFITM1 and IFITM3, which have been implicated in antiviral response, was higher in participants with severe disease. We also showed that IFITM3 protein expression, which localized to early and late endosomes, was enhanced in severe COVID-19. Our data suggest an association between disease severity and placental SARS-CoV-2 processing and antiviral pathways, implying a role for these proteins in placental response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Female , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Young Adult
15.
American J. Obstet. Gynecol. MFM ; 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1283873
17.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(8): 857-868, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to review 4 weeks of universal novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening among delivery hospitalizations, at two hospitals in March and April 2020 in New York City, to compare outcomes between patients based on COVID-19 status and to determine whether demographic risk factors and symptoms predicted screening positive for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients admitted for delivery from March 22 to April 18, 2020, at two New York City hospitals. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes were collected. The relationship between COVID-19 and demographic, clinical, and maternal and neonatal outcome data was evaluated. Demographic data included the number of COVID-19 cases ascertained by ZIP code of residence. Adjusted logistic regression models were performed to determine predictability of demographic risk factors for COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 454 women delivered, 79 (17%) had COVID-19. Of those, 27.9% (n = 22) had symptoms such as cough (13.9%), fever (10.1%), chest pain (5.1%), and myalgia (5.1%). While women with COVID-19 were more likely to live in the ZIP codes quartile with the most cases (47 vs. 41%) and less likely to live in the ZIP code quartile with the fewest cases (6 vs. 14%), these comparisons were not statistically significant (p = 0.18). Women with COVID-19 were less likely to have a vaginal delivery (55.2 vs. 51.9%, p = 0.04) and had a significantly longer postpartum length of stay with cesarean (2.00 vs. 2.67days, p < 0.01). COVID-19 was associated with higher risk for diagnoses of chorioamnionitis and pneumonia and fevers without a focal diagnosis. In adjusted analyses, including demographic factors, logistic regression demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69, 0.80). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 symptoms were present in a minority of COVID-19-positive women admitted for delivery. Significant differences in obstetrical outcomes were found. While demographic risk factors demonstrated acceptable discrimination, risk prediction does not capture a significant portion of COVID-19-positive patients. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 symptoms were present in a minority of COVID-19-positive women admitted.. · COVID-19 symptomatology did not appear to differ before or after the apex of infection in New York.. · Demographic risk factors are unlikely to capture a significant portion of COVID-19-positive patients..


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Carrier State/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Maternal Age , New York City/epidemiology , Obesity, Maternal/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Semin Perinatol ; 44(6): 151290, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176931
20.
Contemporary OB/GYN ; 66:14-15, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1134790

ABSTRACT

The article presents the highlights of the 2021 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) annual virtual meeting held in January. Topics include the effects of anemia in pregnant African American women, the impact of COVID-19 in pregnant women with severe symptoms and comorbidities, and pre-term birth. Presenters include Doctor Rebecca Hamm.

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