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2.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104132, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human seasonal coronaviruses usually cause mild upper-respiratory tract infection, but severe complications can occur in specific populations. Research into seasonal coronaviruses is limited and robust experimental models are largely lacking. This study aims to establish human airway organoids (hAOs)-based systems for seasonal coronavirus infection and to demonstrate their applications in studying virus-host interactions and therapeutic development. METHODS: The infections of seasonal coronaviruses 229E, OC43 and NL63 in 3D cultured hAOs with undifferentiated or differentiated phenotypes were tested. The kinetics of virus replication and production was profiled at 33 °C and 37 °C. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing was performed in hAOs under various conditions. The antiviral activity of molnupiravir and remdesivir, two approved medications for treating COVID19, was tested. FINDINGS: HAOs efficiently support the replication and infectious virus production of seasonal coronaviruses 229E, OC43 and NL63. Interestingly, seasonal coronaviruses replicate much more efficiently at 33 °C compared to 37 °C, resulting in over 10-fold higher levels of viral replication. Genome-wide transcriptomic analyses revealed distinct patterns of infection-triggered host responses at 33 °C compared to 37 °C temperature. Treatment of molnupiravir and remdesivir dose-dependently inhibited the replication of 229E, OC43 and NL63 in hAOs. INTERPRETATION: HAOs are capable of modeling 229E, OC43 and NL63 infections. The intriguing finding that lower temperature resembling that in the upper respiratory tract favors viral replication may help to better understand the pathogenesis and transmissibility of seasonal coronaviruses. HAOs-based innovative models shall facilitate the research and therapeutic development against seasonal coronavirus infections. FUNDING: This research is supported by funding of a VIDI grant (No. 91719300) from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and the Dutch Cancer Society Young Investigator Grant (10140) to Q.P., and the ZonMw COVID project (114025011) from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development to R.R.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Humans , Organoids/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Seasons
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4182, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947341

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development is essential for pandemic preparedness. We previously conducted a Phase 1 clinical trial of the vector vaccine candidate MVA-MERS-S against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), expressing its full spike glycoprotein (MERS-CoV-S), as a homologous two-dose regimen (Days 0 and 28). Here, we evaluate the safety (primary objective) and immunogenicity (secondary and exploratory objectives: magnitude and characterization of vaccine-induced humoral responses) of a third vaccination with MVA-MERS-S in a subgroup of trial participants one year after primary immunization. MVA-MERS-S booster vaccination is safe and well-tolerated. Both binding and neutralizing anti-MERS-CoV antibody titers increase substantially in all participants and exceed maximum titers observed after primary immunization more than 10-fold. We identify four immunogenic IgG epitopes, located in the receptor-binding domain (RBD, n = 1) and the S2 subunit (n = 3) of MERS-CoV-S. The level of baseline anti-human coronavirus antibody titers does not impact the generation of anti-MERS-CoV antibody responses. Our data support the rationale of a booster vaccination with MVA-MERS-S and encourage further investigation in larger trials. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03615911.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100685, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937310

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In follow up to a phase 1 trial, we perform a longitudinal analysis of immune responses following immunization with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine MVA-MERS-S encoding the MERS-CoV-spike protein. Three homologous immunizations were administered on days 0 and 28 with a late booster vaccination at 12 ± 4 months. Antibody isotypes, subclasses, and neutralization capacity as well as T and B cell responses were monitored over a period of 3 years using standard and bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot), and flow cytometry. The late booster immunization significantly increases the frequency and persistence of spike-specific B cells, binding immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and neutralizing antibodies but not T cell responses. Our data highlight the potential of a late boost to enhance long-term antibody and B cell immunity against MERS-CoV. Our findings on the MVA-MERS-S vaccine may be of relevance for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1778-1786, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915483

ABSTRACT

The Omicron BA.1 (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant is characterized by a high number of mutations in the viral genome, associated with immune escape and increased viral spread. It remains unclear whether milder COVID-19 disease progression observed after infection with Omicron BA.1 in humans is due to reduced pathogenicity of the virus or due to pre-existing immunity from vaccination or previous infection. Here, we inoculated hamsters with Omicron BA.1 to evaluate pathogenicity and kinetics of viral shedding, compared to Delta (B.1.617.2) and to animals re-challenged with Omicron BA.1 after previous SARS-CoV-2 614G infection. Omicron BA.1 infected animals showed reduced clinical signs, pathological changes, and viral shedding, compared to Delta-infected animals, but still showed gross- and histopathological evidence of pneumonia. Pre-existing immunity reduced viral shedding and protected against pneumonia. Our data indicate that the observed decrease of disease severity is in part due to intrinsic properties of the Omicron BA.1 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
6.
One Health Outlook ; 4(1): 12, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902430

ABSTRACT

Ongoing outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continue posing a global health threat. Vaccination of livestock reservoir species is a recommended strategy to prevent spread of MERS-CoV among animals and potential spillover to humans. Using a direct-contact llama challenge model that mimics naturally occurring viral transmission, we tested the efficacy of a multimeric receptor binding domain (RBD) particle-display based vaccine candidate. While MERS-CoV was transmitted to naïve animals exposed to virus-inoculated llamas, immunization induced robust virus-neutralizing antibody responses and prevented transmission in 1/3 vaccinated, in-contact animals. Our exploratory study supports further improvement of the RBD-based vaccine to prevent zoonotic spillover of MERS-CoV.

7.
Sci Immunol ; 7(75): eabq4450, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901912

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants may affect vaccine efficacy substantially. The Omicron variant termed BA.2, which differs substantially from BA.1 based on genetic sequence, is currently replacing BA.1 in several countries, but its antigenic characteristics have not yet been assessed. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize antigenic differences between early SARS-CoV-2 variants (614G, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Zeta, Delta, and Mu) using hamster antisera obtained after primary infection. We first verified that the choice of the cell line for the neutralization assay did not affect the topology of the map substantially. Antigenic maps generated using pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 on the widely used VeroE6 cell line and the human airway cell line Calu-3 generated similar maps. Maps made using authentic SARS-CoV-2 on Calu-3 cells also closely resembled those generated with pseudo-typed viruses. The antigenic maps revealed a central cluster of SARS-CoV-2 variants, which grouped on the basis of mutual spike mutations. Whereas these early variants are antigenically similar, clustering relatively close to each other in antigenic space, Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 have evolved as two distinct antigenic outliers. Our data show that BA.1 and BA.2 both escape vaccine-induced antibody responses as a result of different antigenic characteristics. Thus, antigenic cartography could be used to assess antigenic properties of future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern that emerge and to decide on the composition of novel spike-based (booster) vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Humans , Immune Sera , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3519, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900486

ABSTRACT

Since its discovery in 2019, multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified. This study investigates virus spread and associated pathology in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of Syrian golden hamsters at 4 days post intranasal SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection, in comparison to infection with variants of concern (VOCs) Gamma and Delta as well as ancestral strain 614 G. Pathological changes in the upper and lower respiratory tract of VOC Omicron infected hamsters are milder than those caused by other investigated strains. VOC Omicron infection causes a mild rhinitis with little involvement of the olfactory epithelium and minimal lesions in the lung, with frequent sparing of the alveolar compartment. Similarly, viral antigen, RNA and infectious virus titers are lower in respiratory tissues of VOC Omicron infected hamsters. These findings demonstrate that the variant has a decreased pathogenicity for the upper and lower respiratory tract of hamsters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
mBio ; 13(3): e0124922, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891739

ABSTRACT

The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to evolve in response to selective pressures poses a challenge to vaccine and antiviral efficacy. The S1 subunit of the spike (S) protein contains the receptor-binding domain and is therefore under selective pressure to evade neutralizing antibodies elicited by vaccination or infection. In contrast, the S2 subunit of S is only transiently exposed after receptor binding, which makes it a less efficient target for antibodies. As a result, S2 has a lower mutational frequency than S1. We recently described monomeric and dimeric SARS-CoV-2 fusion-inhibitory lipopeptides that block viral infection by interfering with S2 conformational rearrangements during viral entry. Importantly, a dimeric lipopeptide was shown to block SARS-CoV-2 transmission between ferrets in vivo. Because the S2 subunit is relatively conserved in newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), we hypothesize that fusion-inhibitory lipopeptides are cross-protective against infection with VOCs. Here, we directly compared the in vitro efficacies of two fusion-inhibitory lipopeptides against VOC, in comparison with a set of seven postvaccination sera (two doses) and a commercial monoclonal antibody preparation. For the beta, delta, and omicron VOCs, it has been reported that convalescent and postvaccination sera are less potent in virus neutralization assays. Both fusion-inhibitory lipopeptides were equally effective against all five VOCs compared to ancestral virus, whereas postvaccination sera and therapeutic monoclonal antibody lost potency to newer VOCs, in particular to omicron BA.1 and BA.2. The neutralizing activity of the lipopeptides is consistent, and they can be expected to neutralize future VOCs based on their mechanism of action. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, continues to spread globally, with waves resulting from new variants that evade immunity generated by vaccines and previous strains and escape available monoclonal antibody therapy. Fusion-inhibitory peptides may provide an intervention strategy that is not similarly affected by this viral evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ferrets , Humans , Lipopeptides/chemistry , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 20(5): 270-284, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839553

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a devastating pandemic. Although most people infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop a mild to moderate disease with virus replication restricted mainly to the upper airways, some progress to having a life-threatening pneumonia. In this Review, we explore recent clinical and experimental advances regarding SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology and discuss potential mechanisms behind SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), specifically focusing on new insights obtained using novel technologies such as single-cell omics, organoid infection models and CRISPR screens. We describe how SARS-CoV-2 may infect the lower respiratory tract and cause alveolar damage as a result of dysfunctional immune responses. We discuss how this may lead to the induction of a 'leaky state' of both the epithelium and the endothelium, promoting inflammation and coagulation, while an influx of immune cells leads to overexuberant inflammatory responses and immunopathology. Finally, we highlight how these findings may aid the development of new therapeutic interventions against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Pandemics , Virus Replication
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(2): 232-239, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838372

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the effect of interferon-α2 auto-antibodies (IFN-α2 Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α2 Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. METHODS: Sera from healthy controls, cases of COVID-19, and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-α2 Abs by ELISA and a pseudo virus-based neutralization assay. The effects of disease severity, sex, and age on the risk of having neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs were determined. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine association between IFN-α2 Abs and survival and viral load and whether serum IFN-α2 Abs appeared after convalescent plasma transfusion. RESULTS: IFN-α2 neutralizing sera were found only in COVID-19 patients, with proportions increasing with disease severity and age. In the acute stage of COVID-19, all sera from patients with ELISA-detected IFN-α2 Abs (13/164, 7.9%) neutralized levels of IFN-α2 exceeding physiological concentrations found in human plasma and this was associated with delayed viral clearance. Convalescent plasma donors that were anti-IFN-α2 ELISA positive (3/118, 2.5%) did not neutralize the same levels of IFN-α2. Neutralizing serum IFN-α2 Abs were associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2 Abs were detected by ELISA and neutralization assay in COVID-19 patients, but not in ICU patients with other respiratory illnesses. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. IFN-α2 Abs in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors were not neutralizing in the conditions tested.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabp9312, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807305

ABSTRACT

The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of Omicron, which displays notable immune escape potential through mutations at key antigenic sites on the spike protein. Many of these mutations localize to the spike protein ACE2 receptor binding domain, annulling the neutralizing activity of therapeutic antibodies that were effective against other variants of concern (VOCs) earlier in the pandemic. Here, we identified a receptor-blocking human monoclonal antibody, 87G7, that retained potent in vitro neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1/BA.2) VOCs. Using cryo-electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, we showed that 87G7 targets a patch of hydrophobic residues in the ACE2-binding site that are highly conserved in SARS-CoV-2 variants, explaining its broad neutralization capacity. 87G7 protected mice and hamsters prophylactically against challenge with all current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and showed therapeutic activity against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in both animal models. Our findings demonstrate that 87G7 holds promise as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent for COVID-19 that is more resilient to SARS-CoV-2 antigenic diversity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mice , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
14.
Nature ; 605(7911): 640-652, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773987

ABSTRACT

The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced after infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases within the National Institutes of Health established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants that could potentially affect the transmission, virulence, and resistance to infection- and vaccine-induced immunity. The SAVE programme is a critical data-generating component of the US Government SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group to assess implications of SARS-CoV-2 variants on diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics, and for communicating public health risk. Here we describe the coordinated approach used to identify and curate data about emerging variants, their impact on immunity and effects on vaccine protection using animal models. We report the development of reagents, methodologies, models and notable findings facilitated by this collaborative approach and identify future challenges. This programme is a template for the response to rapidly evolving pathogens with pandemic potential by monitoring viral evolution in the human population to identify variants that could reduce the effectiveness of countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biological Evolution , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.) , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacogenomic Variants , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology , Virulence
15.
Lancet ; 399(10329): 1027-1028, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735072
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010340, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731607

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 attaches to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to gain entry into cells after which the spike protein is cleaved by the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) to facilitate viral-host membrane fusion. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression profiles have been analyzed at the genomic, transcriptomic, and single-cell RNAseq levels. However, transcriptomic data and actual protein validation convey conflicting information regarding the distribution of the biologically relevant protein receptor in whole tissues. To describe the organ-level architecture of receptor expression, related to the ability of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 to mediate infectivity, we performed a volumetric analysis of whole Syrian hamster lung lobes. Lung tissue of infected and control animals was stained using antibodies against ACE2 and TMPRSS2, combined with SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein staining. This was followed by light-sheet microscopy imaging to visualize their expression and related infection patterns. The data demonstrate that infection is restricted to sites containing both ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the latter is expressed in the primary and secondary bronchi whereas ACE2 is predominantly observed in the bronchioles and alveoli. Conversely, infection completely overlaps where ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-localize in the tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Cricetinae , Lung/metabolism , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Immunol ; 7(69): eabo2202, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673343

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant is spreading rapidly, even in vaccinated individuals, raising concerns about immune escape. Here, we studied neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses targeting SARS-CoV-2 D614G [wild type (WT)] and the Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants of concern in a cohort of 60 health care workers after immunization with ChAdOx-1 S, Ad26.COV2.S, mRNA-1273, or BNT162b2. High binding antibody levels against WT SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) were detected 28 days after vaccination with both mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2), which substantially decreased after 6 months. In contrast, antibody levels were lower after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination but did not wane. Neutralization assays showed consistent cross-neutralization of the Beta and Delta variants, but neutralization of Omicron was significantly lower or absent. BNT162b2 booster vaccination after either two mRNA-1273 immunizations or Ad26.COV2 priming partially restored neutralization of the Omicron variant, but responses were still up to 17-fold decreased compared with WT. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detected up to 6 months after all vaccination regimens, with more consistent detection of specific CD4+ than CD8+ T cells. No significant differences were detected between WT- and variant-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses, including Omicron, indicating minimal escape at the T cell level. This study shows that vaccinated individuals retain T cell immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, potentially balancing the lack of neutralizing antibodies in preventing or limiting severe COVID-19. Booster vaccinations are needed to further restore Omicron cross-neutralization by antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
19.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259165, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581791

ABSTRACT

The rapid, sensitive and specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 is critical in responding to the current COVID-19 outbreak. In this proof-of-concept study, we explored the potential of targeted mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in both research samples and clinical specimens. First, we assessed the limit of detection for several SARS-CoV-2 proteins by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) MS in infected Vero E6 cells. For tryptic peptides of Nucleocapsid protein, the limit of detection was estimated to be in the mid-attomole range (9E-13 g). Next, this PRM methodology was applied to the detection of viral proteins in various COVID-19 patient clinical specimens, such as sputum and nasopharyngeal swabs. SARS-CoV-2 proteins were detected in these samples with high sensitivity in all specimens with PCR Ct values <24 and in several samples with higher CT values. A clear relationship was observed between summed MS peak intensities for SARS-CoV-2 proteins and Ct values reflecting the abundance of viral RNA. Taken together, these results suggest that targeted MS based proteomics may have the potential to be used as an additional tool in COVID-19 diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/isolation & purification , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sputum/virology , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
20.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 131(21):1-13, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1503264

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about the interplay between preexisting immunity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response. We investigated the kinetics, breadth, magnitude, and level of cross-reactivity of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and heterologous seasonal and epidemic coronaviruses at the clonal level in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 as well as in disease control patients. We assessed antibody reactivity to nucleocapsid and spike antigens and correlated this IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Patients with COVID-19 mounted a mostly type-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Additionally, IgG clones directed against a seasonal coronavirus were boosted in patients with severe COVID-19. These boosted clones showed limited cross-reactivity and did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate a boost of poorly protective CoV-specific antibodies in patients with COVID-19 that correlated with disease severity, revealing "original antigenic sin."

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