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J Intensive Care Med ; 37(2): 240-247, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463146


INTRODUCTION: Patients with COVID-19 ARDS require significant amounts of sedation and analgesic medications which can lead to longer hospital/ICU length of stay, delirium, and has been associated with increased mortality. Tracheostomy has been shown to decrease the amount of sedative, anxiolytic and analgesic medications given to patients. The goal of this study was to assess whether tracheostomy decreased sedation and analgesic medication usage, improved markers of activity level and cognitive function, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective registry of patients with COVID-19 ARDS who underwent tracheostomy creation at the University of Pennsylvania Health System or the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 3/2020 to 12/2020. Patients were grouped into the early (≤14 days, n = 31) or late (15 + days, n = 97) tracheostomy groups and outcome data collected. RESULTS: 128 patients had tracheostomies performed at a mean of 19.4 days, with 66% performed percutaneously at bedside. Mean hourly dose of fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol were all significantly reduced 48-h after tracheostomy: fentanyl (48-h pre-tracheostomy: 94.0 mcg/h, 48-h post-tracheostomy: 64.9 mcg/h, P = .000), midazolam (1.9 mg/h pre vs. 1.2 mg/h post, P = .0012), and propofol (23.3 mcg/kg/h pre vs. 8.4 mcg/kg/h post, P = .0121). There was a significant improvement in mobility score and Glasgow Coma Scale in the 48-h pre- and post-tracheostomy. Comparing the early and late groups, the mean fentanyl dose in the 48-h pre-tracheostomy was significantly higher in the late group than the early group (116.1 mcg/h vs. 35.6 mcg/h, P = .03). ICU length of stay was also shorter in the early group (37.0 vs. 46.2 days, P = .012). INTERPRETATION: This data supports a reduction in sedative and analgesic medications administered and improvement in cognitive and physical activity in the 48-h period post-tracheostomy in COVID-19 ARDS. Further, early tracheostomy may lead to significant reductions in intravenous opiate medication administration, and ICU LOS.

Analgesia , COVID-19 , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
Ann Surg ; 272(3): e181-e186, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066507


OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcomes of patients undergoing tracheostomy for COVID-19 and of healthcare workers performing these procedures. BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is often performed for prolonged endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients. However, in the context of COVID-19, tracheostomy placement pathways have been altered due to the poor prognosis of intubated patients and the risk of transmission to providers through this highly aerosolizing procedure. METHODS: A prospective single-system multi-center observational cohort study was performed on patients who underwent tracheostomy after acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 53 patients who underwent tracheostomy, the average time from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 19.7 days ±â€Š6.9 days. The most common indication for tracheostomy was acute respiratory distress syndrome, followed by failure to wean ventilation and post-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation decannulation. Thirty patients (56.6%) were liberated from the ventilator, 16 (30.2%) have been discharged alive, 7 (13.2%) have been decannulated, and 6 (11.3%) died. The average time from tracheostomy to ventilator liberation was 11.8 days ±â€Š6.9 days (range 2-32 days). Both open surgical and percutaneous dilational tracheostomy techniques were performed utilizing methods to mitigate aerosols. No healthcare worker transmissions resulted from performing the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations to tracheostomy practices and processes were successfully instituted. Following these steps, tracheostomy in COVID-19 intubated patients seems safe for both patients and healthcare workers performing the procedure.

COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(9): 579-586, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378256


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a devastating impact around the world. With high rates of transmission and no curative therapies or vaccine yet available, the current cornerstone of management focuses on prevention by social distancing. This includes decreased health care contact for patients. Patients with lung cancer are a particularly vulnerable population, where the risk of mortality from cancer must now be balanced by the potential risk of a life-threatening infection. In these unprecedented times, a collaborative and multidisciplinary approach is required to streamline but not compromise care. We have developed guidelines at our academic cancer center to standardize management of patients with lung cancer across our health care system and provide guidance to the larger oncology community. We recommend that general principles of lung cancer treatment continue to be followed in most cases where delays could result in rapid cancer progression. We recognize that our recommendations may change over time based on clinical resources and the evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. In principle, however, treatment paradigms must continue to be individualized, with careful consideration of risks and benefits of continuing or altering lung cancer-directed therapy.

Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Disease Management , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Medical Oncology/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2