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1.
Prev Med ; 151: 106640, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294329

ABSTRACT

Cancer screening rates declined sharply early in the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic may have exacerbated existing disparities in cancer screening due to the disproportionate burden of illness and job loss among racial/ ethnic minorities, and potentially, uneven resumption of care between different racial/ ethnic groups. Using electronic health record data from Mass General Brigham (MGB), we assessed changes in rates of breast, cervical, colorectal and lung cancer screening before and during the pandemic. Among patients who received primary care in an MGB-affiliated primary care practice, cancer screening rates were calculated as the number of individuals who received a screening test for each cancer type over the number of individuals due for each test, during each month between April 2019-November 2020. We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis to test for changes in screening rates by race/ethnicity before and during the pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, relative to White individuals, Asian women were less likely to receive breast cancer screening (p < 0.001), and Latinx and Black individuals were less likely to screen for lung cancer (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02). Our results did not show significant improvement or worsening of racial/ethnic disparities for any cancer screening type as screening resumed. However, as of November 2020 rates of screening for breast cancer were lower than pre-pandemic levels for Latinx individuals, and lung cancer screening rates were higher than baseline for Latinx, Black or White individuals. Further monitoring of disparities in cancer screening is warranted as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
Prev Med ; 151: 106595, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294324

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has proved enormously disruptive to the provision of cancer screening, which does not just represent an initial test but an entire process, including risk detection, diagnostic follow-up, and treatment. Successful delivery of services at all points in the process has been negatively affected by the pandemic. There is a void in empirical high-quality evidence to support a specific strategy for administering cancer screening during a pandemic and its resolution phase, but several pragmatic considerations can help guide prioritization efforts. Targeting guideline-eligible people who have never been screened, or those who are significantly out of date with screening, has the potential to maximize benefits now and into the future. Disruptions to care due to the pandemic could represent an unparalleled opportunity to reassess early detection programs towards an explicit, thoughtful, and just prioritization of populations historically experiencing cancer disparities. By focusing screening services on populations that have the most to gain, and by careful and deliberate planning for the period following the pandemic, we can positively affect cancer outcomes for all.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Delivery of Health Care , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(6): 662-664, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249307

ABSTRACT

These past months of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic have given us ample opportunity to reflect on the US health-care system. Despite overwhelming tragedy, it is an opportunity for us to learn and to change. As we postpone routine visits because of the pandemic, we worry about risks for patients who delay cancer screening. We use cervical cancer screening and prevention as an example of how we can use some "lessons learned" from the pandemic to prevent "collateral losses," such as an increase in cancers. COVID-2019-related health-system changes, like the more rapid evaluation of diagnostic tests and vaccines, the transition to compensated virtual care for most counseling and education visits, and broadened access to home services, offer potential benefits to the delivery of cervical cancer screening and prevention. While we detail the case for cervical cancer prevention, many of the issues discussed are generalizable to other preventative measures. It would be a tragedy if the morbidity and mortality of COVID-2019 are multiplied because of additional suffering caused by delayed or deferred cancer screening and diagnostic evaluation-but maybe with creativity and reflection, we can use this pandemic to improve care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Prev Med Rep ; 23: 101399, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230713

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To review the scientific literature seeking lessons for the COVID-19 era that could be learned from previous health services interruptions that affected the delivery of cancer screening services. Methods: A systematic search was conducted up to April 17, 2020, with no restrictions on language or dates and resulted in 385 articles. Two researchers independently assessed the list and discussed any disagreements. Once a consensus was achieved for each paper, those selected were included in the review. Results: Eleven articles were included. Three studies were based in Japan, two in the United States, one in South Korea, one in Denmark, and the remaining four offered a global perspective on interruptions in health services due to natural or human-caused disasters. No articles covered an interruption due to a pandemic. The main themes identified in the reviewed studies were coordination, communication, resource availability and patient follow-up. Conclusion: Lessons learned applied to the context of COVID-19 are that coordination involving partners across the health sector is essential to optimize resources and resume services, making them more resilient while preparing for future interruptions. Communication with the general population about how COVID-19 has affected cancer screening, measures taken to mitigate it and safely re-establish screening services is recommended. Use of mobile health systems to reach patients who are not accessing services and the application of resource-stratified guidelines are important considerations. More research is needed to explore best strategies for suspending, resuming and sustaining cancer screening programs, and preparedness for future disruptions, adapted to diverse health care systems.

6.
J Med Screen ; 28(2): 213-216, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic disruptions to cervical cancer screening in the United States, stratified by step in the screening process and primary test modality, on cervical cancer burden. METHODS: We conducted a comparative model-based analysis using three independent NCI Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network cervical models to quantify the impact of eight alternative COVID-19-related screening disruption scenarios compared to a scenario of no disruptions. Scenarios varied by the duration of the disruption (6 or 24 months), steps in the screening process being disrupted (primary screening, surveillance, colposcopy, excisional treatment), and primary screening modality (cytology alone or cytology plus human papillomavirus "cotesting"). RESULTS: The models consistently showed that COVID-19-related disruptions yield small net increases in cervical cancer cases by 2027, which are greater for women previously screened with cytology compared with cotesting. When disruptions affected all four steps in the screening process under cytology-based screening, there were an additional 5-7 and 38-45 cases per one million screened for 6- and 24-month disruptions, respectively. In contrast, under cotesting, there were additional 4-5 and 35-45 cases per one million screened for 6- and 24-month disruptions, respectively. The majority (58-79%) of the projected increases in cases under cotesting were due to disruptions to surveillance, colposcopies, or excisional treatment, rather than to primary screening. CONCLUSIONS: Women in need of surveillance, colposcopies, or excisional treatment, or whose last primary screen did not involve human papillomavirus testing, may comprise priority groups for reintroductions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , Colposcopy , Cytological Techniques , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , United States , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
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