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Pneumologie ; 75(2): 88-112, 2021 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033360


Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Corona Virus-2) has been spreading rapidly in the sense of a global pandemic. This poses significant challenges for clinicians and hospitals and is placing unprecedented strain on the healthcare systems of many countries. The majority of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with only mild symptoms such as cough and fever. However, about 6 % require hospitalization. Early clarification of whether inpatient and, if necessary, intensive care treatment is medically appropriate and desired by the patient is of particular importance in the pandemic. Acute hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency with dyspnea and high respiratory rate (> 30/min) usually leads to admission to the intensive care unit. Often, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates/consolidations or even pulmonary emboli are already found on imaging. As the disease progresses, some of these patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mortality reduction of available drug therapy in severe COVID-19 disease has only been demonstrated for dexamethasone in randomized controlled trials. The main goal of supportive therapy is to ensure adequate oxygenation. In this regard, invasive ventilation and repeated prone positioning are important elements in the treatment of severely hypoxemic COVID-19 patients. Strict adherence to basic hygiene, including hand hygiene, and the correct wearing of adequate personal protective equipment are essential when handling patients. Medically necessary actions on patients that could result in aerosol formation should be performed with extreme care and preparation.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2