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PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067408


BACKGROUND: A pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and affected most of the world in early 2020. To inform effective public health measures we conducted a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey among a Hausa Muslim society in Nigeria in March 2020. METHODS: The study is an analytic cross-sectional survey with questionnaires administered to the general population including Health Care Workers (HCW) in Kano, Nigeria. Participants were recruited by convenience sampling following informed consent. The percentage of KAP scores were categorized as good and poor. Independent predictors of good knowledge of COVID 19 were ascertained using a binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: The questionnaire was administered among urban 32.8%, peri-urban dwellers 32.4%, and to online participants 34.8%. The peri-urban and urban participants were given paper questionnaires. There were 886 study participants with mean age 28.58yrs [SD:10.25] (Interquartile range [IQR]:22yrs-32yrs), males 55.4% with 57.3% having had or were in tertiary education. Most participants were students 40% and civil servants 20%. The overall mean [standard deviation (SD)] for knowledge, attitude and practice scores expressed in percentage was 65.38%[SD15.90], 71.45% [SD14.10], and 65.04% [SD17.02] respectively. Out of the respondents, 270(30.47%) had good knowledge (GK), 158(17.8%) had good attitude (GA), and 230(25.96%) had good practice (GP) using cut-off scores of 75%, 86.5%, and 75% respectively. Over 48% did not agree COVID-19 originated from animals while 60% perceived the pandemic to be due to God's punishment. Also, 36% thought it was a man-made virus. When rating fear, most respondents [63.5%] had marked fear i.e. ≥ 7 out of 10 and 56% admitted to modifying their habits recently in fear of contracting the virus. As regards attitude to religious norms, 77.77% agreed on cancellation of the lesser pilgrimage as a measure to curb the spread of the disease while 23.64% admitted that greater pilgrimage (Hajj) should proceed despite the persistence of the ongoing pandemic. About 50% of the respondents insisted on attending Friday congregational prayers despite social distancing. One in four people still harbored stigma towards a person who has recovered from the virus. 28% felt some races are more at risk of the disease though 66% mentioned always practicing social distancing from persons coughing or sneezing. Almost 70% of respondents said they were willing to accept a vaccine with 39% saying they would be willing to pay for it if not publicly funded. In univariate analysis increasing age and having been ever married were associated with GK while tertiary education was associated with GA [Odds Ratio; 95% Confidence Interval] 2.66(1.79-3.95). Independent positive predictors of GK were those who were or had ever been married, those who had marked fear of COVID-19, and had modified their habits in the last three months. Those who had non-tertiary education and had the questionnaire administered as paper rather than online version had GK but age was not a predictor. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of transmission and preventive measures should be improved in the general population cognizant of cultural norms and Islamic practices. The study highlights the importance of considering belief systems and perception in developing control measures against COVID-19.

COVID-19/ethnology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Islam/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Knowledge , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult