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1.
Transportation Letters ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-20232012

ABSTRACT

This study combines an integrated transport, land-use, and energy (iTLE) modeling system with traffic microsimulation model and emission simulator for a holistic analysis of COVID-19 pandemic related changes in traffic flows and emissions. An activity-based travel demand model within iTLE informs pandemic traffic operation scenarios for traffic microsimulation modeling. Link-based simulation outputs inform a finer-grained emission estimation process within a MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator. Results suggest that the overall network performance improves during lockdown as average delays and queue time decrease by 42.04% and 5.9% respectively compared to pre-COVID condition. Emission results reveal that GHG emissions significantly decrease (64%) in lockdown while it starts increasing gradually in post-pandemic period. Link-based emission analysis indicates that major arterial streets achieve a significant reduction in air pollutant emission. The findings of this study will help transportation planners, engineers, and policymakers to devise effective policies for the improvement of transport operations and emissions.

2.
Transportation research record ; 2677(4):65-78, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2315118

ABSTRACT

This study proposes a framework to analyze public discourse in Twitter to understand the impacts of COVID-19 on transport modes and mobility behavior. It also identifies reopening challenges and potential reopening strategies that are discussed by the public. First, the study collects 15,776 tweets that relate to personal opinions on transportation services posted between May 15 and June 15, 2020. Next, it applies text mining and topic modeling techniques to the tweets to determine the prominent themes, terms, and topics in those discussions to understand public feelings, behavior, and broader sentiments about the changes brought about by COVID-19 on transportation systems. Results reveal that people are avoiding public transport and shifting to using private car, bicycle, or walking. Bicycle sales have increased remarkably but car sales have declined. Cycling and walking, telecommuting, and online schools are identified as possible solutions to COVID-19 mobility problems and to reduce car usage with an aim to tackle traffic congestion in the post-pandemic world. People appreciated government decisions for funding allocation to public transport, and asked for the reshaping, restoring, and safe reopening of transit systems. Protecting transit workers, riders, shop customers and staff, and office employees is identified as a crucial reopening challenge, whereas mask wearing, phased reopening, and social distancing are proposed as effective reopening strategies. This framework can be used as a tool by decision makers to enable a holistic understanding of public opinions on transportation services during COVID-19 and formulate policies for a safe reopening.

3.
Transportation research record ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2312533

ABSTRACT

Teleworking has been considered to be one of the emanating behaviors from the pandemic that may become long-lasting. Wider adoption of teleworking may fundamentally change urban mobility and spaces across cities. However, knowledge about the potential implications of teleworking on urban transport and land-use systems post-pandemic is limited. Through a comprehensive review of existing teleworking studies, this research identifies gaps in the literature, discusses major issues for exploration and suggests future research directions. It also explores ways to utilize teleworking as an effective travel demand management strategy. Analysis shows that teleworking has the potential to substantially change city landscapes and can assist in reducing traffic congestion, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy use. Priority areas for further research are identified, such as in-home activities, residential location choice, non-work trip patterns, and energy consumption decisions of teleworkers for a clearer understanding of the relationship between teleworking and urban systems. Analysis also reveals several planning and policy challenges surrounding teleworking, including digital divide, urban sprawling, and transformation of city centers, among others. To fully realize the benefits of teleworking, planners need to reconfigure community design principles to promote mixed-use, lively, and vibrant neighborhoods where people can both live and work. At the same time, governments should consider providing incentives to both organizations and employees with an aim to retain teleworking. Results of this paper will be highly beneficial to transport and land-use researchers, planners, and policy makers.

4.
Transp Res Rec ; 2677(4): 65-78, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315119

ABSTRACT

This study proposes a framework to analyze public discourse in Twitter to understand the impacts of COVID-19 on transport modes and mobility behavior. It also identifies reopening challenges and potential reopening strategies that are discussed by the public. First, the study collects 15,776 tweets that relate to personal opinions on transportation services posted between May 15 and June 15, 2020. Next, it applies text mining and topic modeling techniques to the tweets to determine the prominent themes, terms, and topics in those discussions to understand public feelings, behavior, and broader sentiments about the changes brought about by COVID-19 on transportation systems. Results reveal that people are avoiding public transport and shifting to using private car, bicycle, or walking. Bicycle sales have increased remarkably but car sales have declined. Cycling and walking, telecommuting, and online schools are identified as possible solutions to COVID-19 mobility problems and to reduce car usage with an aim to tackle traffic congestion in the post-pandemic world. People appreciated government decisions for funding allocation to public transport, and asked for the reshaping, restoring, and safe reopening of transit systems. Protecting transit workers, riders, shop customers and staff, and office employees is identified as a crucial reopening challenge, whereas mask wearing, phased reopening, and social distancing are proposed as effective reopening strategies. This framework can be used as a tool by decision makers to enable a holistic understanding of public opinions on transportation services during COVID-19 and formulate policies for a safe reopening.

5.
Transportation Letters ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2028939

ABSTRACT

This study combines an integrated transport, land-use, and energy (iTLE) modeling system with traffic microsimulation model and emission simulator for a holistic analysis of COVID-19 pandemic related changes in traffic flows and emissions. An activity-based travel demand model within iTLE informs pandemic traffic operation scenarios for traffic microsimulation modeling. Link-based simulation outputs inform a finer-grained emission estimation process within a MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator. Results suggest that the overall network performance improves during lockdown as average delays and queue time decrease by 42.04% and 5.9% respectively compared to pre-COVID condition. Emission results reveal that GHG emissions significantly decrease (64%) in lockdown while it starts increasing gradually in post-pandemic period. Link-based emission analysis indicates that major arterial streets achieve a significant reduction in air pollutant emission. The findings of this study will help transportation planners, engineers, and policymakers to devise effective policies for the improvement of transport operations and emissions. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Transportation Letters is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Procedia Comput Sci ; 201: 64-71, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907674

ABSTRACT

This research attempts to understand the impacts of social distancing on dense urban pedestrian environments through pedestrian movement simulations. It develops a pedestrian microsimulation modelling framework that evaluates three scenarios for a commercial street in the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM). The Business-as-Usual scenario mimics pre-COVID conditions with no social distancing protocols. Pandemic Scenario# 1 represents social distancing without any changes in the pedestrian infrastructure. The HRM has adopted a mobility response plan for COVID-19, this generates Pandemic Scenario# 2 depicting the widened sidewalks within the pedestrian microsimulation model. The results reveal that the social distancing strategy in the pandemic scenarios significantly improved pedestrian flow in terms of the reduction in contact violations. These violations are described as instances in which a pedestrian violates the 2 m social distancing rule. The simulation of the first pandemic scenario (no sidewalk enhancement) showed a significant reduction of 43% in the number of contact violations during the one-hour pedestrian simulation of the street. The second pandemic scenario showed a 68% decrease in violations. The conclusions derived from this research support the actions of the municipality as the simulation results indicate that an increase in sidewalk width can influence contact rates and time travelled. When comparing the two pandemic scenarios, the scenario that incorporated wider sidewalks showed a decrease in total travel time and contact rates.

7.
Transportation Research Board; 2021.
Non-conventional in English | Transportation Research Board | ID: grc-747351

ABSTRACT

This study develops an economic model for estimating the loss of sales of business establishments during COVID-19 pandemic in Halifax, Canada. This study considers four different scenarios: business-as-usual, lockdown, conservative and aggressive reopening scenarios. To build the scenarios, Google COVID-19 Mobility Report and Apple Mobility Trend Reports are used. This study utilizes data from an activity-based travel demand model as a source of activity participation by category. A Latent Class Model (LCM) is used to examine relationships between yearly sales and independent variables of interest including business attributes, mobility attributes and built-environment characteristics in the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM). This model can predict a probable loss of business establishments at the zonal level. The result shows significant effect on the economy by the pandemic situations. During lockdown, conservative and aggressive scenarios, on average economic loss of 87%, 71% and 60% from business-as-usual scenario is predicted by LCM for the municipality. Spatial distribution of sales within the traffic analysis zones (TAZs) reveals variation of economic impact through TAZs during all pandemic scenarios. Through the phased reopening stages economy started to recover as almost 50% of total TAZs face less than 20% reduction in sales in aggressive scenario. The developed model will be beneficial for the policymakers in determining reopening strategies for future pandemics.

8.
Transportation Research Board; 2021.
Non-conventional in English | Transportation Research Board | ID: grc-747340

ABSTRACT

This research attempts to understand the impacts of social distancing regulations on pedestrian environments from the perspective of traffic flow and business activity. This study uses a market demand pedestrian simulation model to understand how pedestrians move on the busy street of Spring garden Road, under various scenarios. The three scenarios tested in this study observe urban environments that eastern Canada has experience during the pandemic. The business-as-usual scenario will simulate traffic flow under no social distancing regulations. Pandemic scenario 1 & 2 will use adjusted parameters to encourage social distancing. The sidewalk width in the second pandemic scenario is extended to represent the actions of the municipality as per the mobility response plan for the city of Halifax. The results show that social distancing regulations in the pandemic scenarios significantly improved traffic flow in terms of the reduction in pedestrian contact violations. These violations are described as instances in which pedestrian violate the 2m social distancing rule. The simulation of the first pandemic scenario (no sidewalk enhancement) showed a significant reduction of 43% in the number of contact violations during the one-hour pedestrian simulation of the street. The second pandemic scenario showed a 68% decrease in violations. The conclusions derived from this research support the actions of the municipality as the simulation results indicate that an increase in sidewalk width can influence contact rates and time travelled. When comparing the two pandemic scenarios, the scenario that incorporated wider sidewalks showed a decrease in total travel time and contact rates.

9.
International Journal of Urban Sciences ; : 1-24, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1307430
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