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Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1506(1): 74-97, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612914


Single cell biology has the potential to elucidate many critical biological processes and diseases, from development and regeneration to cancer. Single cell analyses are uncovering the molecular diversity of cells, revealing a clearer picture of the variation among and between different cell types. New techniques are beginning to unravel how differences in cell state-transcriptional, epigenetic, and other characteristics-can lead to different cell fates among genetically identical cells, which underlies complex processes such as embryonic development, drug resistance, response to injury, and cellular reprogramming. Single cell technologies also pose significant challenges relating to processing and analyzing vast amounts of data collected. To realize the potential of single cell technologies, new computational approaches are needed. On March 17-19, 2021, experts in single cell biology met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Single Cell Biology" to discuss advances both in single cell applications and technologies.

Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cellular Reprogramming/physiology , Congresses as Topic/trends , Embryonic Development/physiology , Research Report , Single-Cell Analysis/trends , Animals , Cell Lineage/physiology , Humans , Macrophages/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
CHEST ; 160(4):A1132-A1132, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1460830
Sci Transl Med ; 13(618): eabj2266, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443348


Most severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostic tests have relied on RNA extraction followed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays. Whereas automation improved logistics and different pooling strategies increased testing capacity, highly multiplexed next-generation sequencing (NGS) diagnostics remain a largely untapped resource. NGS tests have the potential to markedly increase throughput while providing crucial SARS-CoV-2 variant information. Current NGS-based detection and genotyping assays for SARS-CoV-2 are costly, mostly due to parallel sample processing through multiple steps. Here, we have established ApharSeq, in which samples are barcoded in the lysis buffer and pooled before reverse transcription. We validated this assay by applying ApharSeq to more than 500 clinical samples from the Clinical Virology Laboratory at Hadassah hospital in a robotic workflow. The assay was linear across five orders of magnitude, and the limit of detection was Ct 33 (~1000 copies/ml, 95% sensitivity) with >99.5% specificity. ApharSeq provided targeted high-confidence genotype information due to unique molecular identifiers incorporated into this method. Because of early pooling, we were able to estimate a 10- to 100-fold reduction in labor, automated liquid handling, and reagent requirements in high-throughput settings compared to current testing methods. The protocol can be tailored to assay other host or pathogen RNA targets simultaneously. These results suggest that ApharSeq can be a promising tool for current and future mass diagnostic challenges.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Specimen Handling
ATS Sch ; 1(4): 416-435, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191227


The American Thoracic Society Core Curriculum updates clinicians annually in adult and pediatric pulmonary disease, medical critical care, and sleep medicine in a 3- to 4-year recurring cycle of topics. The topics of the 2020 Pulmonary Core Curriculum include pulmonary vascular disease (submassive pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension) and pulmonary infections (community-acquired pneumonia, pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, and coronavirus disease [COVID-19]).