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1.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 399-419, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV­2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death; however, SARS-CoV­2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Medicine , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311834

ABSTRACT

Background: New commercially available point-of-care (POC) immunodiagnostic tests are appearing, which may yield rapid results for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antibody detection tests compared to a validated laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to investigate infections amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) after unprotected close contact to COVID-19 patients. Methods: : Blood serum and whole blood of 130 participants were tested with NADAL® COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test and mö-screen 2019-NCOV Corona Virus Test against a validated ELISA test. Infection status was evaluated using real-time polymerase-chain-reaction. Results: : Acute COVID-19 infection was detected in 2.4% of exposed HCWs. Antibody tests showed an overall frequency of IgG and IgM in 5.3%, with 1.6% asymptomatic infections. The NADAL® test showed a sensitivity (IgM/ IgG) of 100% (100%/ 100%), a specificity (IgM/ IgG) of 98.8% (97.6%/ 100 %), a PPV of 76.9% (57.1%/ 100%), an NPV of 100% (100%/ 100%), and a diagnostic accuracy of 98.8% (97.7%/ 100%). The mö-screen test had a sensitivity (IgM/IgG) of 90.9% (80%/ 100%), a specificity (IgM/IgG) of 98.8% (97.6%/ 100%), a PPV of 76.9% (57.1%/ 100%), an NPV of 99.6% (99.2%/ 100%), and a diagnostic accuracy of 98.5% (96.9%/ 100%). Conclusions: : The frequency of COVID-19 infections in HCWs after unprotected close contact is higher than in the general population of a low-prevalence country. Both POC tests were useful for detecting IgG, but did not perform well for IgM, mainly due to false positive results.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379971

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the primary public health strategy to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Although solid tumor and hematologic patients are at higher risk of serious COVID-19-related complications, data on immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines in this patient cohort are particularly scarce. The present study, therefore, aimed at the standardized determination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody titers among non-vaccinated versus vaccinated solid tumor and hematologic patients who are under clinical observation or under treatment at the University Hospital Krems. Standardized anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody titers of a total of 441 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Our results show that antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein are significantly higher in solid tumor versus hematologic patients. While SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were equal among sexes, an age-dependent decrease was observed. Of note, our studies additionally show that complete vaccination represents a valuable predictor for high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in solid tumor and hematologic patients. In summary, to date, this is one of the largest studies to comprehensively evaluate the impact of various COVID-19 vaccines on anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody production in solid tumor and hematologic patients. Our findings aim to support future vaccination strategies in these highly vulnerable patients, including vaccination booster programs and alternative protective approaches.

4.
GMS Hyg Infect Control ; 15: Doc28, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937401

ABSTRACT

Background: New commercially available point-of-care (POC) immunodiagnostic tests are appearing, which may yield rapid results for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antibody detection tests compared to a validated laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to investigate infections amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) after unprotected close contact to COVID-19 patients. Methods: Blood serum and whole blood of 130 participants were tested with NADAL® COVID-19 IgG/IgM rapid test and mö-screen 2019-NCOV coronavirus test against a validated ELISA test. Infection status was evaluated using real-time polymerase-chain-reaction. Results: Acute COVID-19 infection was detected in 2.4% of exposed HCWs. Antibody tests showed an overall frequency of IgG and IgM in 5.3%, with 1.6% asymptomatic infections. The NADAL® test showed a sensitivity (IgM/IgG) of 100% (100%/100%), a specificity (IgM/IgG) of 98.8% (97.6%/100 %), a PPV of 76.9% (57.1%/100%), an NPV of 100% (100%/100%), and a diagnostic accuracy of 98.8% (97.7%/100%). The mö-screen test had a sensitivity (IgM/IgG) of 90.9% (80%/100%), a specificity (IgM/IgG) of 98.8% (97.6%/100%), a PPV of 76.9% (57.1%/100%), an NPV of 99.6% (99.2%/100%), and a diagnostic accuracy of 98.5% (96.9%/100%). Conclusions: The frequency of COVID-19 infections in HCWs after unprotected close contact is higher than in the general population of a low-prevalence country. Both POC tests were useful for detecting IgG, but did not perform well for IgM, mainly due to false positive results.

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