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1.
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1926544

ABSTRACT

Inhalational therapy, today, happens to be the mainstay of treatment in obstructive airway diseases (OADs), such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is also in the present, used in a variety of other pulmonary and even non-pulmonary disorders. Hand-held inhalation devices may often be difficult to use, particularly for children, elderly, debilitated or distressed patients. Nebulization therapy emerges as a good option in these cases besides being useful in the home care, emergency room and critical care settings. With so many advancements taking place in nebulizer technology;availability of a plethora of drug formulations for this purpose, and the widening scope of this therapy, even beyond the lungs;medical practitioners, respiratory therapists, and other health care personnel face the challenge of choosing appropriate inhalation devices and drug formulations, besides their rational application and use in different clinical situations. Adequate maintenance of nebulizer equipment including disinfection and storage are the other relevant issues requiring guidance. Injudicious and improper use of nebulizers and their poor maintenance can sometimes lead to serious health hazards, nosocomial infections, transmission of infection and other adverse outcomes. Thus, it is imperative to have a national guideline on nebulization practices to bridge the knowledge gaps amongst various health care personnel involved in nebulization practice. It will also serve as an educational and scientific resource for healthcare professionals, as well as promote future research by identifying neglected and ignored areas in this field. Such comprehensive guidelines on this subject have not been available in the country and the only available proper international guidelines were released in 1997, and have not been updated for a noticeably long period of over two decades, though many changes and advancements have taken place in this technology in the recent past. Much of nebulization practices in the present may not be evidence-based and even some of these, the way they are currently used, may be ineffective or even harmful. Recognizing the knowledge deficit and paucity of guidelines on the usage of nebulizers in acute, in-patient, out-patient and domiciliary settings in India, to address many other related issues, and to standardize nebulization practices, National College of Chest Physicians (India), constituted a National task force consisting of eminent experts in the field of Pulmonary Medicine, from different backgrounds and different parts of the country, to review the available evidence from medical literature on the scientific principles and clinical practices of nebulization therapy and to formulate evidence-based guidelines for it. This guideline is based on all possible literature that could be explored with the best available evidence and incorporating expert opinions. To support the guideline with high-quality evidence, a systematic search of the electronic databases was performed to identify the relevant studies/position papers/consensus reports/recommendations published. Rating of the level of the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation was done using the GRADE system. Six topics were identified, each given to one group of experts (advisors, chairpersons, convenor and members), and as such six groups (A-F) were formed and the consensus recommendations of each group was included as a section in the guidelines (Sections I to VI). The topics included were: A. Introduction, basic principles and technical aspects of nebulization, types of equipment, their choice, use, and maintenance B. Nebulization therapy in obstructive airway diseases C. Nebulization therapy in the intensive care unit D. Use of various drugs (other than bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids) by nebulized route and miscellaneous uses of nebulization therapy E. Domiciliary/Home/Maintenance nebulization therapy;public & health care workers education, and F. Nebulization therapy in COVID-19 pandemic and in patients of he contagious viral respiratory infections (included later considering the crisis created due to COVID-19 pandemic). Various issues in different sections have been discussed in the form of questions based on the existing knowledge, followed by point-wise evidence statements and recommendations have been provided.

2.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911845

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected different countries in a differential manner. The host susceptibility and host factors are important parameters for this variability. This study aimed to assess the effect of tuberculosis (TB) endemicity and Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) coverage on COVID-19. Available data regarding TB incidence, BCG coverage (as per the World Health Organization), and COVID-19 incidence of 168 countries as of 19th September 2021. Countries were divided into four cohorts based upon annual TB incidence and BCG coverage and COVID-19 incidence and case fatality rates were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Countries with low TB incidence and low BCG coverage had the highest COVID-19 incidence per lac population. However, no significant difference was seen in COVID-19 cases fatality rate. Higher TB incidence and BCG coverage were associated with lesser incidence of COVID-19. This result paves the way for research into pathogenesis and host immune response in COVID-19.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332783

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is the major manifestation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia as well as post-COVID-19 complications. The pathogenesis of PF is a complex molecular process that involves many types of cells, proteins, genes, and regulatory elements. The non-coding RNA is the main regulatory element in this process which mainly includes;miRNA, circRNA, and lncRNA. These regulatory elements control the expression of many important genes and various pathways that are involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Identification and molecular mechanisms by which these non-coding RNA molecules works are very important because they do not only help to understand the molecular basis of the disease but could also serve as a potential diagnostic/prognostic marker as well as therapeutic targets. In this review, we have provided the latest findings and discussed the role of these regulatory elements in various biological processes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis associated with IIPs and Covid-19.

4.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786473

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is the major manifestation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia as well as post-COVID-19 complications. The pathogenesis of PF is a complex molecular process that involves many types of cells, proteins, genes, and regulatory elements. The non-coding RNA is the main regulatory element in this process which mainly includes;miRNA, circRNA, and lncRNA. These regulatory elements control the expression of many important genes and various pathways that are involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Identification and molecular mechanisms by which these non-coding RNA molecules works are very important because they do not only help to understand the molecular basis of the disease but could also serve as a potential diagnostic/prognostic marker as well as therapeutic targets. In this review, we have provided the latest findings and discussed the role of these regulatory elements in various biological processes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis associated with IIPs and Covid-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317240

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Till date, no drug has shown definite benefit in non-severe COVID-19. Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug which has in-vitro efficacy in reducing coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) load in severe disease. Objectives: To determine if a single oral administration of Ivermectin to patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 is effective in converting SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR to negative result and in reducing viral load. Methods: : In this double-blind trial, patients were randomized to elixir formulation of Ivermectin in 24 mg, 12 mg or placebo in 1:1:1 ratio. The co-primary outcomes were conversion of RT-PCR to negative result and the decline of viral load at day 5 of enrolment and were assessed in patients with positive RT-PCR at enrolment (modified intention-to-treat population). Safety outcomes included total and serious adverse events and were assessed in all patients who received the trial drug (intention-to-treat population). Results: : Among 157 patients randomized, 125 patients were included in mITT analysis. Forty patients each were assigned to Ivermectin 24 mg and 12 mg, and 45 patients to placebo. The RT-PCR negativity at day 5 was higher in the two Ivermectin arms but failed to attain statistical significance (Ivermectin 24 mg, 47.5%;12 mg, 35.0%;and placebo, 31.1%;p= 0.30). The decline of viral load at day 5 was similar in the three arms. No serious adverse events were encountered. Conclusion: In patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, a single administration of Ivermectin elixir (either 24 mg or 12 mg) demonstrated a trend towards higher proportion of RT-PCR negativity at day 5 of enrolment. The protocol was registered in the Clinical Trial Registry – India (CTRI) vide ref No CTRI/2020/06/026001.

7.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674964

ABSTRACT

The effective treatment modalities for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are needed. As the primary cause of mortality is a hyperinflammatory state, the interleukin-6 antagonist tocilizumab has been used in multiple clinical studies. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of tocilizumab in reduction of mortality due to COVID-19. A systematic search of the Pubmed and Embase databases was performed to extract randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the use of tocilizumab therapy for COVID-19. An overall pooled mortality analysis was performed, and odds ratios were reported. Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. Nine RCTs, including 6489 patients, were selected for meta-analysis. Seven trials reported 28-day mortality, and one trial each reported 21-day and 30-day mortality. There were 846 deaths among 3358 participants in the steroid group while 943 deaths among 3131 patients randomized to the control group (random-effects odds ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.03, p=0.11). There was some heterogeneity among the trials as the I2 value was 15%, with a p-value of 0.31. There was a reduction in the need for ICU admission in the tocilizumab group. A higher risk of secondary infections was noted in the tocilizumab group (fixed-effects odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.95, p=0.02). This meta-analysis of RCTs demonstrated that the use of tocilizumab was not associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19 and had higher odds of secondary infections.

8.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19882, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551849

ABSTRACT

Background There is limited data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Methodology We analyzed data of admitted COVID-19 patients evaluated for LTBI to examine the impact of LTBI on severity, laboratory parameters, and COVID-19 outcome. Prospectively collected data were analyzed for 60 patients who were administered the Mantoux tuberculosis skin test (TST) using five tuberculin units of purified protein derivative. All patients were administered TST irrespective of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status. Comorbidities, clinical features, radiologic involvement, laboratory parameters, and clinical course were analyzed concerning LTBI. Results The mean age was 45.9 (±15.2) years, and 35 (58.3%) patients had non-severe disease. The vast majority (n = 56/60; 93.3%) had been vaccinated with single-dose BCG in infancy or early childhood, as per national immunization guidelines. LTBI was diagnosed in 15 (25%) patients. LTBI prevalence was lower in severe (n = 1/25; 4%) than non-severe (n = 14/35; 40%) COVID-19 (p = 0.01) patients. LTBI patients had lower percentage neutrophil count, higher lymphocyte percentage, higher monocyte count, lower neutrophil-lymphocyte (NL) ratio, lower alanine aminotransferase, lower C-reactive protein, and lesser radiologic involvement compared to those without LTBI (p < 0.05). Similarly, among the mild COVID-19 subgroup, those with LTBI had higher lymphocyte and monocyte counts and lesser radiologic involvement than those without LTBI (p < 0.05). Conclusions LTBI patients appear to have milder disease, higher lymphocyte and monocyte count, higher NL ratio, and lesser radiographic involvement. This observation needs to be studied in larger studies using interferon release assays.

9.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1280-1285, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526937

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is strong evidence for the use of corticosteroid in the management of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still uncertainty about the timing of corticosteroids. We undertook a modified Delphi study to develop expert consensus statements on the early identification of a subset of patients from non-severe COVID-19 who may benefit from using corticosteroids. METHODS: A modified Delphi was conducted with two anonymous surveys between April 30, 2021, and May 3, 2021. An expert panel of 35 experts was selected and invited to participate through e-mail. The consensus was defined as >70% votes in multiple-choice questions (MCQ) on Likert-scale type statements, while strong consensus as >90% votes in MCQ or >50% votes for "very important" on Likert-scale questions in the final round. RESULTS: Twenty experts completed two rounds of the survey. There was strong consensus for the increased work of breathing (95%), a positive six-minute walk test (90%), thorax computed tomography severity score of >14/25 (85%), new-onset organ dysfunction (using clinical or biochemical criteria) (80%), and C-reactive protein >5 times the upper limit of normal (70%) as the criteria for patients' selection. The experts recommended using oral or intravenous (IV) low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days and monitoring of oxygen saturation, body temperature, clinical scoring system, blood sugar, and inflammatory markers for any "red-flag" signs. CONCLUSION: The experts recommended against indiscriminate use of corticosteroids in mild to moderate COVID-19 without the signs of clinical worsening. Oral or IV low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days are recommended for patients with features of disease progression based on clinical, biochemical, or radiological criteria after 5 days from symptom onset under close monitoring. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: How to cite this article: Nasa P, Chaudhry D, Govil D, Daga MK, Jain R, Chhallani AA, et al. Expert Consensus Statements on the Use of Corticosteroids in Non-severe COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1280-1285.

10.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(12): 1743-1749, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370593

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug which has in-vitro efficacy in reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load. Hence, Ivermectin is under investigation as a repurposed agent for treating COVID-19. METHODS: In this pilot, double blind, randomized controlled trial, hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 were assigned to a single oral administration of an elixir formulation of Ivermectin at either 24 mg or 12 mg dose, or placebo in a 1:1:1 ratio. The co-primary outcomes were conversion of RT-PCR to negative result and the decline of viral load at day 5 of enrolment. Safety outcomes included total and serious adverse events. The primary outcomes were assessed in patients who had positive RT-PCR at enrolment (modified intention-to-treat population). Safety outcomes were assessed in all patients who received the intervention (intention-to-treat population). RESULTS: Among the 157 patients randomized, 125 were included in modified intention-to-treat analysis. 40 patients each were assigned to Ivermectin 24 mg and 12 mg, and 45 patients to placebo. The RT-PCR negativity at day 5 was higher in the two Ivermectin arms but failed to attain statistical significance (Ivermectin 24 mg, 47.5%; 12 mg arm, 35.0%; and placebo arm, 31.1%; p-value = 0.30). The decline of viral load at day 5 was similar in each arm. No serious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, a single oral administration of Ivermectin did not significantly increase either the negativity of RT-PCR or decline in viral load at day 5 of enrolment compared with placebo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ivermectin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
11.
Lung India ; 38(4): 387-388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304787
15.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(4): 448-450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196089

ABSTRACT

Bronchoscopy is an aerosol-generating procedure and involves a high risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to health care workers. There are very few indications for performing bronchoscopy in a patient with confirmed COVID-19. These include atelectasis, foreign body aspiration, and suspected superinfection in immunocompromised patients. Proper use of standard personal protective equipment is mandatory to reduce the risk of transmission to health care workers. In this article, we describe a case of acute lung collapse in a 16-year-old boy with cerebral palsy who was infected with COVID-19. This patient responded to therapeutic bronchoscopy and had complete resolution of lung collapse within 24 hours of the procedure.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Atelectasis/therapy , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Bronchoscopes , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Treatment Outcome
18.
Lung India ; 38(Supplement): S6-S10, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is reported to have high mortality in SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory distress syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether awake prone positioning (PP) can improve oxygenation and prevent intubation when employed early. METHODS: This prospective interventional study included proven coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with room air saturation 93% or less. The primary outcome was the rate of intubation between the two groups. The secondary outcomes included ROX index (SpO2/FiO2%/respiratory rate, breaths/min) at 30 min following the intervention, ROX index at 12 h, time to recovery of hypoxemia, and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 45 subjects were included (30 cases and 15 controls) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 53.1 (11.0) years. The age, comorbidities, and baseline ROX index were similar between the two groups. The median duration of PP achieved was 7.5 h on the 1st day. The need for MV was higher in the control group (5/15; 33.3%) versus prone group (2/30; 6.7%). At 30 min, there was a statistically significant improvement in the mean (SD) ROX index of cases compared with that of the controls (10.7 [3.8] vs. 6.7 [2.6], P < 0.001). No significant adverse effects related to intervention were noted. CONCLUSION: Awake PP is associated with significant improvement in oxygenation and may reduce the need for MV in subjects with COVID-19.

19.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(1)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050665

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 pandemic has brought about a sea change in health care practices across the globe. All specialities have changed their way of working during the pandemic. In this study, we evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on the practice of interventional pulmonology at our centre. All interventional pulmonology procedures done during the three months after implementation of lockdown were evaluated retrospectively for patient demographics, clinical diagnosis, indication for procedure and diagnostic accuracy. The changes in practices, additional human resources requirement, the additional cost per procedure and impact on resident training were also assessed. Procedures done during the month of January 2020 were used as controls for comparison. Twenty-two flexible bronchoscopies (75.8%), four semirigid thoracoscopies (13.7%) and three EBUS-TBNAs (10.3%) were carried out during three month lockdown period as compared to 174 during January 2020. Twenty-three of the procedures were for the diagnostic indication (79%), and six were therapeutic (20.6%). The diagnostic yield in suspected neoplasm was 100% while for suspected infections was 58.3%. The percentage of independent procedures being done by residents reduced from 45.4% to 0%. The workforce required per procedure increased from 0.75 to 4-8, and the additional cost per procedure came out to be 135 USD. To conclude, COVID 19 has impacted the interventional pulmonology services in various ways and brought about a need to reorganize the services, while also thinking of innovative ideas to reduce cost without compromising patient safety.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Infection Control , Lung Diseases , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Innovation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(1): 69-73, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of ambient temperature, humidity and wind speed on disease occurrence in Delhi, India. DATA AND METHODS: Data regarding daily corona cases, temperature, humidity, wind speed, doubling time and basic reproduction number (R0) was retrieved from online sources. Pearson's coefficient was used to assess the correlation between daily as well as weekly corona cases and various environmental factors. RESULTS: During the study period of 97 days, there was a steady rise in number of corona cases with median (interquartile range) cases per day being 224 (58 to 635). The doubling time demonstrated a strong positive correlation with temperature while R0 had strong negative correlation with temperature (correlation coefficients 0.814 and -0.78, respectively). No significant correlation with humidity or wind speed was observed. CONCLUSION: Increasing temperature decreases COVID-19 infectivity; however, actual role of environmental factors in expansion of pandemic needs further evaluation globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humidity , Temperature , Wind , COVID-19/transmission , Correlation of Data , Humans , India/epidemiology
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