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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(4): ofac089, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769337

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about vaccine efficacy and sustainability among people with HIV (PWH). We estimated humoral and cellular immune responses postvaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine among PWH in Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Methods: The vaccine humoral response was evaluated by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers of antispike receptor-binding domain antibodies (anti-RBD IgG). Cellular response was assessed by stimulating donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pooled complete S-peptide mix. Results: One hundred thirty-six PWH who completed 2 doses of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine were tested for anti-RBD IgG and compared with 61 vaccinated health care workers (HCWs). The antibody titers were similar between the groups (median, 118 BAU/mL for PWH and 101.4 BAU/mL for HCWs; P = .231), although the mean time from second vaccine was 4.5 months in PWH and 6.7 months in HCWs (P < .0001). Longer time from second vaccine dose was associated with decreased antibody level, as were CD4 counts <300 cells/µL compared with higher CD4 counts (25.1 BAU/mL vs 119.3 BAU/mL, respectively; P = .047). There was no difference in cellular immune response between vaccinated PWH, convalescent unvaccinated PWH, and vaccinated HCWs. Conclusions: The humoral immune response of PWH was comparable to that of HCWs after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. Cellular immune response did not differ between vaccinated PWH, convalescent PWH, and vaccinated HCWs. PWH with CD4 counts <300 cells/µL (n = 9) had lower antibody titers compared with patients with counts >300 cells/µL (n = 127).

2.
Transplant Proc ; 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most solid organ transplant recipients did not develop an appreciable serologic response after 2 doses of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. METHODS: We analyzed the humoral response after a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in 130 kidney transplant recipients, compared to 48 health care workers, and associated factors, including prevaccine cellular immune response, by evaluating intracellular cytokine production after stimulation of donor's peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: After 2 doses, most of the controls (47 out of 48, 98%) and only 40% of kidney recipients (52 of 130) kidney recipients were seropositive (P < .001). Most seronegative recipients developed a serologic response after the booster (47 out 78, 60%), thus bringing the total number of seropositive recipients to 99 out of 130 (76%). After the third dose, there was a significant increase in antibodies titers in both groups. Decreased humoral response was significantly associated with an older age, lower lymphocyte count, and a lower level of antibodies before booster administration. CD4+TNFα+ and CD4+INFγ+ were correlated with mean increase in antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: A third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in kidney recipients is safe and effectively results in increased IgG anti-S levels, including in individuals who were seronegative after 2 doses. Long-term studies of the length of the immune response and protection are required.

3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705777

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Adolescents with juvenile-onset autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) could be at-risk for disease flare secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection or to withholding anti-inflammatory therapy. While vaccination can protect against COVID-19, safety and immunogenicity data regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among adolescents with AIIRD are limited. This international, prospective, multicentre study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among adolescents and young adults with juvenile-onset AIIRD, 80% of whom are on chronic immunomodulatory therapy. METHODS: Vaccine side effects, disease activity, and short-term efficacy were evaluated after 3 months in 91 patients. Anti-spike S1/S2 IgG antibody levels were evaluated in 37 patients and 22 controls, 2-9 weeks after the second dose. RESULTS: Ninety-one patients and 40 healthy controls were included. Safety profile was good, with 96.7% (n = 88) of patients reporting mild or no side-effects, and no change in disease activity. However, 3 patients had transient acute symptoms: 2 following the first vaccination (renal failure and pulmonary haemorrhage) and 1 following the second dose (mild lupus flare vs viral infection). Seropositivity rate was 97.3% in the AIIRD group compared with 100% among controls. However, anti-S1/S2 antibody titres were significantly lower in the AIIRD group compared with controls (242 ± 136.4 vs 387.8 ± 57.3 BAU/ml, respectively; p< 0.0001). No cases of COVID-19 were documented during the 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Vaccination of juvenile-onset AIIRD patients demonstrated good short-term safety and efficacy, high seropositivity rate, but lower anti-S1/S2 antibody titres compared with healthy controls. These results should encourage vaccination of adolescents with juvenile-onset AIIRD, even while on immunomodulation.

4.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702033

ABSTRACT

Patients with delayed B-cell reconstitution/B-cell aplasia after cellular therapy show decreased immunogenicity to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. We prospectively evaluated both humoral and cellular immune response to a third vaccine dose in patients after allogeneic HCT (n = 10) or CD19-based chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) therapy (n = 6) with low absolute B cell numbers and who failed to mount a humeral response after 2 vaccine doses. Humoral response was documented in 40% and 17% after allogeneic HCT and CAR-T therapy, respectively. None of the patients with complete B-cell aplasia developed anti-vaccine antibodies. Cellular response was documented in all patients after allogeneic HCT and in 83% of the patients after CAR-T. T-cell subclasses levels were not predictive for response, while a longer duration from infusion of cells was associated with a better cellular response. We conclude that cellular response develops with repeated vaccine doses even in patients with B-cell aplasia or delayed B-cell reconstitution, and these patients should therefore be vaccinated. These results should be considered in future studies analyzing immunogenicity in this population. Larger and longer follow-up studies are required to confirm whether cellular immunogenicity translates into vaccine efficacy.

5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The recent surge in coronavirus disease 2019 cases led to the consideration of a booster vaccine in previously vaccinated immunosuppressed individuals. However, the immunogenic effect of a third-dose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine in immunosuppressed patients is still unknown. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study of 279 previously vaccinated immunosuppressed patients followed at a single tertiary hospital in Israel. Patients were administered a third dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) between July 14 and July 21, 2021. Levels of IgG antibodies against the spike receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 were measured 3 to 4 weeks after vaccination. RESULTS: Of the cohort of 279 patients, 124 (44.4%) had haematologic malignancies, 57 (20.4%) had rheumatologic diseases, and 98 (35.1%) were solid organ-transplant recipients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels increased in 74.9% of cases. Across the entire cohort, the median absolute antibody levels (expressed in AU/mL) increased from 7 (interquartile range (IQR), 0.1-69) to 243 (IQR, 2-4749) after the booster dose. The response significantly varied across subgroups: The transplant cohort showed the greatest increase in absolute antibody levels (from 52 (IQR, 7.25-184.5) to 1824 (IQR, 161-9686)), followed by the rheumatology (from 22 (IQR, 1-106) to 1291 (IQR, 6-6231)) and haemato-oncology (from 1 (IQR, 0.1-7) to 7.5 (IQR, 0.1-407.5)) cohorts. The χ2 test was 8.30 for difference in fold change (p = 0.016). Of the 193 patients who were seronegative at baseline, 76 became seropositive after vaccination, corresponding to a 39.4% (95% CI, 32.8%-46.4%) seroconversion rate. Transplant patients had the highest seroconversion rate (58.3% (95% CI, 44.3%-71.2%)), followed by rheumatology (44.1% (95% CI, 28.9%-60.5%)) and haemato-oncology (29.7% (95% CI, 22%-38.8%); χ2 = 11.87; p = 0.003) patients. DISCUSSION: A third dose of BNT162b2 is immunogenic in most immunosuppressed individuals, although antibody response may differ based on the type of disease and immunosuppression. The antibody level that correlates with protection is still unknown; thus, future studies are needed to evaluate clinical outcomes.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(1): 77-78, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665042
8.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(9): 788-794, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294012

ABSTRACT

Data are scarce regarding both the safety and immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients undergoing immune cell therapy; thus, we prospectively evaluated these two domains in patients receiving this vaccine after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT; n = 66) or after CD19-based chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CART) therapy (n = 14). Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated, with mild non-hematologic vaccine-reported adverse events in a minority of the patients. Twelve percent of the patients after the first dose and 10% of the patients after the second dose developed cytopenia, and there were three cases of graft-versus-host disease exacerbation after each dose. A single case of impending graft rejection was summarized as possibly related. Evaluation of immunogenicity showed that 57% of patients after CART infusion and 75% patients after allogeneic HCT had evidence of humoral and/or cellular response to the vaccine. The Cox regression model indicated that longer time from infusion of cells, female sex, and higher CD19+ cells were associated with a positive humoral response, whereas a higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio was correlated with a positive cellular response, as confirmed by the ELISpot test. We conclude that the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine has impressive immunogenicity in patients after allogeneic HCT or CART. Adverse events were mostly mild and transient, but some significant hematologic events were observed; hence, patients should be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(3): 739-749, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In mid-December 2020, Israel started a nationwide mass vaccination campaign against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the first few weeks, medical personnel, elderly citizens, and patients with chronic diseases were prioritized. As such, patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies were encouraged to receive the vaccine. Although the efficacy of RNA-based COVID-19 vaccines has been demonstrated in the general population, little is known about their efficacy and safety in patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response to COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients with IEI. METHODS: A total of 26 adult patients were enrolled, and plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from them 2 weeks following the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Humoral response was evaluated by testing anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor-binding domain and antinucleocapsid antibody titers and evaluating neutralizing ability by inhibition of receptor-binding domain-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding. Cellular immune response was evaluated by using ELISpot, estimating IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion in response to pooled SARS-CoV-2 S- or M-peptides. RESULTS: Our cohort included 18 patients with a predominantly antibody deficiency, 2 with combined immunodeficiency, 3 with immune dysregulation, and 3 with other genetically defined diagnoses. Twenty-two of them were receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Of the 26 patients, 18 developed specific antibody response, and 19 showed S-peptide-specific T-cell response. None of the patients reported significant adverse events. CONCLUSION: Vaccinating patients with IEI is safe, and most patients were able to develop vaccine-specific antibody response, S-protein-specific cellular response, or both.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009165, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079380

ABSTRACT

The interactions between antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 and immune cells contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and protective immunity. To understand the differences between antibody responses in mild versus severe cases of COVID-19, we analyzed the B cell responses in patients 1.5 months post SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severe, and not mild, infection correlated with high titers of IgG against Spike receptor binding domain (RBD) that were capable of ACE2:RBD inhibition. B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing revealed that VH3-53 was enriched during severe infection. Of the 22 antibodies cloned from two severe donors, six exhibited potent neutralization against authentic SARS-CoV-2, and inhibited syncytia formation. Using peptide libraries, competition ELISA and mutagenesis of RBD, we mapped the epitopes of the neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to three different sites on the Spike. Finally, we used combinations of nAbs targeting different immune-sites to efficiently block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Analysis of 49 healthy BCR repertoires revealed that the nAbs germline VHJH precursors comprise up to 2.7% of all VHJHs. We demonstrate that severe COVID-19 is associated with unique BCR signatures and multi-clonal neutralizing responses that are relatively frequent in the population. Moreover, our data support the use of combination antibody therapy to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloning, Molecular , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 614086, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058417

ABSTRACT

In the last few months the world has witnessed a global pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Obviously, this pandemic affected individuals differently, with a significant impact on populations considered to be at high-risk. One such population, was assumed to be patients with primary genetic defect involving components or pathways of the immune system. While human immunity against COVID-19 is not fully understood, it is, so far, well documented, that both adaptive and innate cells have a critical role in protection against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we aimed to summarize the clinical and laboratory data on primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients in Israel, who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, in order to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on such patients. Data was collected from mid-February to end-September. During this time Israel experienced two "waves" of COVID-19 diseases; the first, from mid-February to mid-May and the second from mid-June and still ongoing at the end of data collection. A total of 20 PID patients, aged 4 months to 60 years, were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, all but one, were detected during the second wave. Fourteen of the patients were on routine monthly IVIG replacement therapy at the time of virus detection. None of the patients displayed severe illness and none required hospitalization; moreover, 7/20 patients were completely asymptomatic. Possible explanations for the minimal clinical impact of COVID-19 pandemic observed in our PID patients include high level of awareness, extra-precautions, and even self-isolation. It is also possible that only specific immune pathways (e.g. type I interferon signaling), may increase the risk for a more severe course of disease and these are not affected in many of the PID patients. In some cases, lack of an immune response actually may be a protective measure against the development of COVID-19 sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/complications , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Infant , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , Young Adult
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