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2.
Frontiers in molecular biosciences ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564129

ABSTRACT

Environmental exposures represent a significant health hazard, which cumulatively may be responsible for up to 2/3 of all chronic non-communicable disease and associated mortality (Global Burden of Disease Study and The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health), which has given rise to a new concept of the exposome: the sum of environmental factors in every individual’s experience. Noise is part of the exposome and is increasingly being investigated as a health risk factor impacting neurological, cardiometabolic, endocrine, and immune health. Beyond the well-characterized effects of high-intensity noise on cochlear damage, noise is relatively well-studied in the cardiovascular field, where evidence is emerging from both human and translational experiments that noise from traffic-related sources could represent a risk factor for hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In the present review, we comprehensively discuss the current state of knowledge in the field of noise research. We give a brief survey of the literature documenting experiments in noise exposure in both humans and animals with a focus on cardiovascular disease. We also discuss the mechanisms that have been uncovered in recent years that describe how exposure to noise affects physiological homeostasis, leading to aberrant redox signaling resulting in metabolic and immune consequences, both of which have considerable impact on cardiovascular health. Additionally, we discuss the molecular pathways of redox involvement in the stress responses to noise and how they manifest in disruptions of the circadian rhythm, inflammatory signaling, gut microbiome composition, epigenetic landscape and vessel function.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390609

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is posing a global public health burden. These consequences have been shown to increase the risk of mental distress, but the underlying protective and risk factors for mental distress and trends over different waves of the pandemic are largely unknown. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how mental distress is associated with individual protective behavior. Three quota samples, weighted to represent the population forming the German COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring study (24 March and 26 May 2020, and 9 March 2021 with >900 subjects each), were used to describe the course of mental distress and resilience, to identify risk and protective factors during the pandemic, and to investigate their associations with individual protective behaviors. Mental distress increased slightly during the pandemic. Usage of cognitive reappraisal strategies, maintenance of a daily structure, and usage of alternative social interactions decreased. Self-reported resilience, cognitive reappraisal strategies, and maintaining a daily structure were the most important protective factors in all three samples. Adherence to individual protective behaviors (e.g., physical distancing) was negatively associated with mental distress and positively associated with frequency of information intake, maintenance of a daily structure, and cognitive reappraisal. Maintaining a daily structure, training of cognitive reappraisal strategies, and information provision may be targets to prevent mental distress while assuring a high degree of individual protective behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Effects of the respective interventions have to be confirmed in further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Herz ; 46(2): 120-128, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043352

ABSTRACT

Air pollution in the environment and in households is responsible worldwide for almost 9 million preventable premature deaths per year and almost 800,000 such deaths within Europe. Air pollution therefore shortens life expectancy worldwide by almost 3 years. Smoking, a proven cardiovascular risk factor, shortens the mean life expectancy by 2.2 years. Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution from fine and coarse particulate matter is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Responsible for this are mainly cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, heart failure, stroke, hypertension and also diabetes, which are mainly caused or aggravated by fine particulate matter. After inhalation fine particulate matter can reach the brain directly and also reach the bloodstream via a transition process. There, the particles are absorbed by the blood vessels where they stimulate the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular wall. They therefore promote the formation of atherosclerotic changes and in this way increase the cardiovascular risks, especially an increase in chronic ischemic heart disease and stroke. Recent studies also reported that in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients a high degree of air pollution is correlated with severe disease courses with cardiovascular complications and pulmonary diseases. This necessitates preventive measures, such as lowering of the upper limits for air pollutants. Individual measures to mitigate the health consequences of fine particulate matter are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738129

ABSTRACT

Exposure to ambient air pollution is a well-established determinant of health and disease. The Lancet Commission on pollution and health concludes that air pollution is the leading environmental cause of global disease and premature death. Indeed, there is a growing body of evidence that links air pollution not only to adverse cardiorespiratory effects but also to increased risk of cerebrovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting recent evidence showing that exposure to multiple air pollutants, in particular to fine particles, may affect the central nervous system (CNS) and brain health, thereby contributing to increased risk of stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, cognitive dysfunction, neurodevelopmental disorders, depression and other related conditions. The underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests inflammation and oxidative stress to be crucial factors in the pathogenesis of air pollution-induced disorders, driven by the enhanced production of proinflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species in response to exposure to various air pollutants. From a public health perspective, mitigation measures are urgent to reduce the burden of disease and premature mortality from ambient air pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/metabolism , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Global Health , Humans , Inflammation , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects
7.
Eur Heart J ; 41(41): 4057-4070, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630381

ABSTRACT

Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of non-communicable disease globally and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung disease. Importantly, recent data by the World Health Organizations (WHO) indicate that in the last two decades global tobacco use has significantly dropped, which was largely driven by decreased numbers of female smokers. Despite such advances, the use of e-cigarettes and waterpipes (shisha, hookah, narghile) is an emerging trend, especially among younger generations. There is growing body of evidence that e-cigarettes are not a harm-free alternative to tobacco cigarettes and there is considerable debate as to whether e-cigarettes are saving smokers or generating new addicts. Here, we provide an updated overview of the impact of tobacco/waterpipe (shisha) smoking and e-cigarette vaping on endothelial function, a biomarker for early, subclinical, atherosclerosis from human and animal studies. Also their emerging adverse effects on the proteome, transcriptome, epigenome, microbiome, and the circadian clock are summarized. We briefly discuss heat-not-burn tobacco products and their cardiovascular health effects. We discuss the impact of the toxic constituents of these products on endothelial function and subsequent CVD and we also provide an update on current recommendations, regulation and advertising with focus on the USA and Europe. As outlined by the WHO, tobacco cigarette, waterpipe, and e-cigarette smoking/vaping may contribute to an increased burden of symptoms due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to severe health consequences.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Tobacco Products/adverse effects , Water Pipe Smoking/adverse effects , Humans
8.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(5): 389-391, 2020 May.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155364

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the article is to point out the important role of prevention and reduction of mental stress in the general population and in sensitive groups in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This article includes the analysis and evaluation of studies and recommendations from organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) that have examined the psychological consequences of epidemics/pandemics on people and their impact on the further course. RESULTS: Fear-related behaviors can adversely affect the course of epidemics. Past outbreaks of infectious diseases (Ebola and Zika virus) have shown that maladaptive behavior, related to increased psychological stress and anxiety, can interfere with the implementation of treatment strategies and actions and can contribute to a further spread. Hereby, strategies for dealing with infectious diseases, that include the suppression of fear, can trigger a vicious circle in which fear and suppression mutually reinforce each other. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic poses an immense challenge to governments, health systems and people, with an uncertain outcome, which is associated with a significant burden of mental health in the population. In line with WHO recommendations, national guidelines and preventive measures should include the psychological consequences, the acceptance and normalization of fears and the promotion of resilience in the population in dealing with COVID-19 in order to counteract a further spread.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Germany , Humans , Mental Health , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection
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