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Am J Cardiovasc Dis ; 12(4): 153-169, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045926


In December 2019, an unprecedented outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) began to spread internationally, now impacting more than 293,750,692 patients with 5,454,131 deaths globally as of January 5, 2022. COVID-19 is highly pathogenic and contagious which has caused a large-scale epidemic impacting more deaths than the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2002-2003 or the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemic in 2012-2013. Although COVID-19 symptoms are mild in most people, in those with pre-existing comorbidities there is an increased risk of progression to severe disease and death. In an attempt to mitigate this pandemic, urgent public health measures including quarantining exposed individuals and social distancing have been implemented in most states, while some states have even started the process of re-opening after considering both the economic and public health consequences of social distancing measures. While prevention is crucial, both novel agents and medications already in use with other indications are being investigated in clinical trials for patients with COVID-19. The collaboration between healthcare providers, health systems, patients, private sectors, and local and national governments is needed to protect both healthcare providers and patients to ultimately overcome this pandemic. The purpose of this review is to summarize the peer-reviewed and preprint literature on the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, and available therapies as well as to propose a preventive strategy to overcome the present global pandemic.

Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(6): 69, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219006


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify and address the challenges associated with the care of ACS patients during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable global impact with over 2.0 million deaths worldwide so far. There has been considerable evidence suggesting that COVID-19 increases the risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We propose characterizing ACS patients into 3 distinct categories to better assist in appropriate triage and management: critically ill patients, non-critically ill ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, and non-critically ill non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)/unstable angina (UA) patients. We thoroughly review treatments strategies, management considerations, and current consensus statements for the care of COVID-19 patients with ACS. As we continue to gain more experience with management of COVID-19 in ACS patients and as health-care workers and patients continue to get vaccinated, we must continue to adapt our strategies to treat this high-risk group of patients.

Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Cardiovasc Dis ; 10(4): 479-489, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937997


In December 2019, an unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia cases associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) first occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The disease, later named Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO), was caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and on January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the outbreak of COVID-19 to be a public health emergency. COVID-19 is now a global pandemic impacting more than 43,438,043 patients with 1,158,596 deaths globally as of August 26th, 2020. COVID-19 is highly contagious and has caused more deaths than SARS in 2002-2003 or the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012-2013 combined and represents an unprecedented human affliction not seen since the influenza pandemic of 1918. COVID-19 has been associated with several cardiac complications, including hypercoagulability, acute myocardial injury and myocarditis, arrhythmias, and acute coronary syndromes. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at the highest risk for myocardial injury and mortality among infected patients. The mechanism by which COVID-infected patients develop cardiac complications remains unclear, though it may be mediated by increased ACE-2 gene expression. Despite initial concerns, there is no evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy increases risk for myocardial injury among those infected with COVID-19. In the current report, we summarize the peer-reviewed and preprint literature on cardiovascular risks and complications associated with COVID-19, as well as provide insights into its pathogenesis and management.