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1.
Bull Emerg Trauma ; 10(1): 9-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687831

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the levels of troponin I in COVID-19 patients and its role in the prediction of their in-hospital mortality as a cardiac biomarker. Methods: The current retrospective cohort study was performed on the clinical records of 649 COVID-19-related hospitalized cases with at leat one positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in Tehran, Iran from February 2020 to early June 2020. The on admission troponin I level divided into two groups of ≤0.03ng/mL (normal) and >0.03ng/mL (abnormal). The adjusted COX-regression model was used to determine the relationship between the studied variables and patient's in-hospital mortality. Results: In this study, the median age of subjects was 65 years (54.8% men) and 29.53% of them had abnormal troponin I levels. Besides, the in-hospital mortality rate among patients with abnormal troponin I levels was found to be 51.56%; whereas, patients with normal levels exhibited 18.82% mortality. Also, the multivariable analysis indicated that the risk of death among hospitalized COVID-19 patients displaying abnormal troponin I levels was 67% higher than those with normal troponin I levels (Hazard ratio=1.67, 95% confidence interval=1.08-2.56, p=0.019). Conclusion: It seems that troponin I is one of the important factors related to in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. Next, due to the high prevalence of cardiac complications in these patients, it is highly suggested to monitor and control cardiac biomarkers along with other clinical factors upon the patient's arrival at the hospital.

2.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100871, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scoring system as a tool for predicting the in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients in early stage of disease. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study, conducted on 893 COVID-19 patients in Tehran from February 18 to July 20, 2020. Potential factors were chosen via stepwise selection and multivariable logistic regression model. Cross-validation method was employed to assess the predictive performance of the model as well as the scoring system such as discrimination, calibration, and validity indices. RESULTS: The COVID-19 patients' median age was 63 yrs (54.98% male) and 233 (26.09%) patients expired during the study. The scoring system was developed based on 8 selected variables: age ≥55 yrs (OR = 5.67, 95% CI: 3.25-9.91), males (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.007-2.29), ICU need (OR = 16.32, 95% CI 10.13-26.28), pulse rate >90 (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.26-2.83), lymphocytes <17% (OR = 2.33, 95%CI: 1.54-3.50), RBC ≤4, 10 6/L (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.35-3.26), LDH >700 U/L (OR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.13-2.51) and troponin I level >0.03 ng/mL (OR = 1.75, 95%CI: 1.17-2.62). The AUC and the accuracy of scoring system after cross-validation were 79.4% and 79.89%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed that developed scoring system has a good performance and can use to help physicians for identifying high-risk patients in early stage of disease .

3.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 9(1): e65, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555483

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adults with underlying medical disorders are at increased risk for severe illness from the virus that causes COVID-19. This study aimed to compare the effect of underlying diseases on the mortality of male and female patients as a primary objective. We also evaluated the effect of drugs previously used by COVID-19 patients on their outcome. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was carried out on confirmed cases of COVID-19 who were admitted to a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. Data was gathered from patients' files. Log binomial model was used for investigating the association of underlying diseases and in-hospital mortality of these patients. RESULTS: A total of 991 patients (mean age 61.62±17.02; 54.9% male) were recruited. Hypertension (41.1%), diabetes mellitus (30.6%), and coronary artery disease (19.6%) were the most common underlying diseases. The multivariable model showed that hypertension (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.22-2.14, p = 0.001) in male patients over 55 years old and coronary artery disease (RR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.24-4.46, p = 0.009) in female patients under 65 years old were risk factors of mortality. In females over 65 years old, the history of taking Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) (RR = 0.272; 95% CI: 0.17-0.41, p = 0.001) was a significant protective factor for death. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with a history of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and coronary artery disease, especially those in specific age and sex groups, are high-risk patients for in-hospital mortality. Additionally, a previous history of taking ACEi and ARB medications in females over 65 tears old was a protective factor against in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients.

4.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
5.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 9(1): e45, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although current evidence points to the possible prognostic value of electrocardiographic (ECG) findings for in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients, most of these studies have been performed on a small sample size. In this study, our aim was to investigate the ECG changes as prognostic indicators of in-hospital mortality. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, the findings of the first and the second ECGs of COVID-19 patients were extracted and changes in the ECGs were examined. Any abnormal finding in the second ECG that wasn't present in the initial ECG at the time of admission was defined as an ECG change. ECGs were interpreted by a cardiologist and the prognostic value of abnormal ECG findings for in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was evaluated using multivariate analysis and the report of the relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Data of the ECGs recorded at the time of admission were extracted from the files of 893 patients; likewise, the second ECGs could be extracted from the records of 328 patients who had an initial ECG. The presence of sinus tachycardia (RR = 2.342; p <0.001), supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.688; p = 0.001), ventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.854; p = 0.011), interventricular conduction delays (RR = 1.608; p = 0.009), and abnormal R wave progression (RR = 1.766; p = 0.001) at the time of admission were independent prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. In the second ECG, sinus tachycardia (RR = 2.222; p <0.001), supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.632; p <0.001), abnormal R wave progression (RR = 2.151; p = 0.009), and abnormal T wave (RR = 1.590; p = 0.001) were also independent prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. Moreover, by comparing the first and the second ECGs, it was found that the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.973; p = 0.005) and ST segment elevation/depression (RR = 2.296; p <0.001) during hospitalization (ECG novel changes) are two independent prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Due to the fact that using electrocardiographic data is easy and accessible and it is easy to continuously monitor patients with this tool, ECGs can be useful in identifying high-risk COVID-19 patients for mortality.

6.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14434, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Considering the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin and the role of medical comorbidities such as hypertension and coronary artery disease on the prognosis of the COVID-19 patients, we aimed to assess the effect of atorvastatin add-on therapy on mortality caused by COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including patients who were hospitalised with confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19. Baseline characteristics and related clinical data of patients were recorded. Clinical outcomes consist of in-hospital mortality, need for invasive mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. COX regression analysis models were used to assess the association of independent factors to outcomes. RESULTS: Atorvastatin was administered for 421 of 991 patients. The mean age was 61.640 ± 17.003 years. Older age, higher prevalence of hypertension and coronary artery disease reported in patients who received atorvastatin. These patients have shorter hospital length of stay (P = .001). Based on COX proportional hazard model, in-hospital use of atorvastatin was associated with decrease in mortality (HR = 0.679, P = .005) and lower need for invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.602, P = .014). CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin add-on therapy in patient with severe COVID-19 was associated with lower in-hospital mortality and reduced the risk of need for invasive mechanical ventilation which supports to continue the prescription of the medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206845

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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